فهرست مطالب

Public Health - Volume:44 Issue: 1, 2015
  • Volume:44 Issue: 1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/11/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 24
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  • Habteyes Hailu Tola, Azar Tol, Davoud Shojaeizadeh, Gholamreza Gar¬Maroudi Pages 1-11
    This systematic review intended to combine factors associated with tuberculosis treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up among TB patients with/without HIV in developing countries. Comprehensive remote electronic databases (MEDLINE, (PMC, Pub Med Central), Google scholar and Web of science) search was conducted using the following keywords: Tuberculosis, treatment, compliance, adherence, default, behavioural factors and socioeconomic factors. All types of studies intended to assess TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up in developing countries among adult TB patient from 2008 to data extraction date were included. Twenty-six original and one-reviewed articles, which meet inclusion criteria, were reviewed. TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up were continued across developing countries. The main factors associated with TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up were socioeconomic factors: lack of transportation cost, lack of social support, and patients-health care worker poor communication. Behavioural factors were Feeling better after few weeks of treatments, tobacco and alcohol use, knowledge deficit about duration of treatment and consequences of non-adherence and lost to follow up. TB treatment non-adherence and lost to follow up were continued across developing countries throughout the publication years of reviewed articles. Numerous, socioeconomic and behavioural factors were influencing TB treatment adherence and lost to follow up. Therefore, well understanding and minimizing of the effect of these associated factors is very important to enhance treatment adherence and follow up completion in developing countries.
    Keywords: Tuberculosis treatment, Non, adherence, Lost to follow up, TB patients
  • Mansureh Yazdkhasti *, Abolghasem Pourreza, Arezoo Pirak, Fatemeh Abdi Pages 12-21
    Unintended pregnancy is among the most troubling public health problems and a major reproductive health issue worldwide imposing appreciable socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Governments generally plan to control growth of births (especially wanted births as well as orphans and illegitimate births) imposing extra burden on public funding of the governments which inevitably affects economic efficiency and leads to economic slowdown, too. The present narrative review focuses on socioeconomic impacts of unintended pregnancy from the health system per-spective. Follow of Computerized searches of Academic,53 scientific journals were found in various databases includ-ing PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Iranian databases, IPPE, UNFPA (1985- 2013). Original articles, review articles, pub-lished books about the purpose of the paper were used. During this search, 20 studies were found which met the in-clusion criteria. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical challenges facing the public health system that im-poses substantial financial and social costs on society. On the other hand, affecting fertility indicators, it causes re-duced quality of life and workforce efficiency. Therefore lowering the incidence of intended pregnancies correlates with elevating economic growth, socio-economic development and promoting public health. Regarding recent policy changes in Iran on family planning programs and adopting a new approach in increasing population may place the country at a higher risk of increasing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Hence, all governmental plans and initiatives of public policy must be regulated intelligently and logically aiming to make saving in public spending and reduce healthcare cost inflation.
    Keywords: Unintended pregnancy, Economic burden, Cost, Health indicators, Reproductive health
  • Tahereh Seghatoleslam*, Hussain Habil, Ahmad Hatim, Rusdi Rashid, Abolfazl Ardakan, Farid Esmaeili Motlaq Pages 22-27
    Religion is one of the protective factors that facilities positive outcomes by preventing individuals from engaging in addictive substance. A recent study has confirmed that religion inhibits drug addiction. The concept of psycho-spiritual therapy was to introduce drug addiction. Therefore, of the various methods of psychotherapy, the usage of Taqwa (piety) emerged as an applicable method of Islamic spiritual therapy. This study was conducted in Malaysia as a Muslim country and focuses on Islamic recommendations and its relation to spiritual therapy.
    Keywords: Religion, Spiritual therapy standard, Islamic perspective, Taqwa (piety), Behavior change, Addiction
  • Qing Wang* Pages 28-35
    Background
    The aim of the study was to estimate the short-run and long-run effects of unemployment rate on health outcomes of Chinese population, which is under studied before.
    Methods
    The Chinese aggregate data was analyzed (provincial data from 1990-2011). The fixed effect model and infinite distributed lag model (IDL) were applied to analyze the data. It aimed to estimate the short-run and long-run association between unemployment rate and health status of population in China. The mortality was applied as an indicator for health outcomes of entire population.
    Results
    In the short run, when the unemployment rate was decreased by 1%, mortality will be reduced by approximately 4 % (P<0.01). In the long-run, mortality will be increased by 6.8% with increased unemployment rate of 1% (P <0.05).
    Conclusion
    The result in China demonstrated that the unemployment rate was positively associated with mortality. The result also showed that the increased unemployment rate has been harmful to health outcomes of population. It will be significant to reduce the unemployment rate for improving potential public health benefits in developing countries like China.
    Keywords: Unemployment rate, Mortality, China, Health outcomes
  • Lu Ma, Yanna Zhu, Jincheng Mai, Jin Jing, Zhaomin Liu, Yu Jin, Li Guo, Yajun Chen* Pages 36-42
    Background
    No studies have been reported on children obesity prevalence of Guangzhou, one of the most urban-ized areas in China. This study tracks the secular trends of obesity prevalence of children.
    Methods
    The data were derived from the surveys on students’ constitution and health carried out by government. Randomly, 3832 students in 2007, 13141 in 2008, 14052 in 2009, 13750 in 2010, and 15225 in 2011, aged 7-12 years, from urban primary school were examined. Anthropometric parameters were measured in all students.
    Results
    The mean of body mass index increased significantly from 16.6 in 2008 to 16.8 in 2011 in the total group of children, and the total prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 9.4 and 6.2 to 10.5 and 7.5 from 2007 to 2011, respectively. The minimum value of the mean body mass index and the overweight and obesity prevalence in the total age group all appeared in 2008. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in males was significantly higher than that in females in each year among the 5 years.
    Conclusion
    Although the prevalence of children obesity in Guangzhou in 2011 is still lower than the average values of Chinese large coastal cities, a significant increase was found in their prevalence from 2007 to 2011 and the total obesity prevalence of children is even higher than that of adolescent. Furthermore, we found that the minimum value of overweight and obesity prevalence of the total group and almost all gender-specific age groups appeared in 2008.
    Keywords: Body mass index, Children, Overweight, Obesity, Secular trend
  • HÜlya Arslantas*, Filiz Adana, Filiz Abacigi, L. Ergin., Derya Kayar, GܬLÇin Acar Pages 43-50
    Background
    This study examined the factors that affect loneliness of older people and their relationship with quality of life.
    Methods
    Data in this cross-sectional study were collected through survey form, UCLA Loneliness Scale and Quality of Life (QOL) Short Form (SF-36) Scale. The total number of elderly people over the age of 65 yr from whom the study population was chosen was 4,170.The study population was determined as 190 with G-power program by taking impact size 0.362, α=0.05, power (1-β) =0.80 at a confidence level of 95% and a substitute group composing of 10 individuals was added. In total, 83.2% (n=174) of the target population was reached via Multi-Stage Sampling Methods.
    Results
    UCLA Loneliness median score of the participants was 33 (25thp= 27, 75thp= 40). It was found that the existence of chronic diseases and physical handicaps, regular use of medication, lack of hobbies and living with spouse increased loneliness (P<0.05). A negative relationship was identified between all sub-scales in the QOL scale and loneliness.
    Conclusion
    Loneliness negatively affects QOL in old age and that the existence of chronic health problems and lack of hobbies are strong predictors for loneliness. Elderly people living alone must be evaluated as a high-risk group and thus policy makers and health personnel should be aware of the factors that can affect loneliness. In order to increase life quality of the aged population and psychological well-being of the elderly, social support systems must be taken into account and the elderly should be encouraged to participate in social activities.
    Keywords: Old age, Loneliness, Quality of life
  • Shuqing Zhao, Zhongjie Li, Sheng Zhou, Canjun Zheng*, Huilai Ma Pages 51-59
    Background
    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains an important public health problem in China. It is essential to elucidate the current epidemiological characteristics of VL for designing control policy.
    Methods
    The data were obtained from China Disease Prevention and Control Information System from 2004 to 2012. Characteristics by major variables, such as age, gender, season and geography were analyzed using SPSS13.0.
    Results
    The incidence of VL in China remained at a lower level in recent years. The outbreak appeared in xinjiang kashgar region in 2008. A total of 3337 VL cases were reported in China from 2004 to 2012, 97.03% of cases were concentrated in Xinjiang, Gansu and Sichuan provinces. The cases under 5 year-old accounted for 59.21%. concentrated in 3 ~ 5 months each year and annual December to January of next year The ratio of males to females was 1.67:1(2088:1249). The lag time between symptom onset and diagnosis of VL appeared a marked decrease after 2008, and were shorter in endemic provinces of Xinjiang, Gansu and Sichuan than non-endemic provinces. The case fatality rate was 2.99% (10/3337) during the study period.
    Conclusion
    The reported cases of VL were concentrated in Xinjiang, Gansu, Sichuan provinces in China, 2004-2012. The onset was given priority to children. The lag time between symptom onset and diagnosis of VL were difference among years and provinces. Therefore, prevention and control measures should be focused on improving awareness and capacities of diagnosis and treatment, targeting high-risk people in high-risk areas.
    Keywords: Epidemiology, Visceral Leishmaniasis, China
  • Tchae, Won Jeong, Min, Ju Jung, Jun, Woo Lee, Tae, Young Kim* Pages 60-67
    Background
    In the case of the elderly who highly depend on family, serious health problems can be caused due to the reduction of family meals. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the fundamental data for management of cardiovascular disease, one of the major causes of death in elderly Koreans, by investigating the effects of family meal frequency on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly males and females.
    Methods
    The raw data of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) were utilized. Data of 1,236 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood, blood pressure, nutrients and total energy intake. For collected data, using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0, the mean and standard deviation, and the path coefficient between groups through a multi-group analysis by structural equation model were checked
    Results
    As family meal frequency increased, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in Korean elderly males were likely to decrease, which led to conflicting results with those of Korean elderly females.
    Conclusion
    Frequent family meal makes a positive effect on reducing several risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly.
    Keywords: Family meal frequency, Cardiovascular disease, Korean elderly
  • Zhichao Li*, Yao Chen, Liming Suo Pages 68-78
    Background
    In recent years, natural disasters and the accompanying health risks have become more frequent, and rehabilitation work has become an important part of government performance. On one hand, social networks play an important role in participants’ therapeutic community participation and physical & mental recovery. On the other hand, therapeutic communities with widespread participation can also contribute to community recovery after disaster.
    Methods
    This paper described a field study in an earthquake-stricken area of Ya’an. A set of 3-stage follow-up data was obtained concerning with the villagers’ participation in therapeutic community, social network status, demographic background, and other factors. The Hierarchical linear Model (HLM) method was used to investigate the determinants of social network on therapeutic community participation.
    Results
    First, social networks have significantly impacts on the annual changes of therapeutic community participation. Second, there were obvious differences in education between groups mobilized by the self-organization and local government. However, they all exerted the mobilization force through the acquaintance networks. Third, local cadre networks of villagers could negatively influence the activities of self-organized therapeutic community, while with positively influence in government-organized therapeutic activities.
    Conclusion
    This paper suggests that relevant government departments need to focus more on the reconstruction and cultivation of villagers’ social network and social capital in the process of post-disaster recovery. These findings contribute to better understandings of how social networks influence therapeutic community participation, and what role local government can play in post-disaster recovery and public health improvement after natural disasters.
    Keywords: Social network, Therapeutic community participation, Local government, Self, organization
  • Mojtaba Parsa, Kiarash Aramesh, Saharnaz Nedjat, Mohammad Jafar Kandi, Bagher Larijani* Pages 79-88
    Background
    Informal payments to health care providers have been reported in many African, Asian and European countries. This study aimed to investigate different aspects of these payments that are also known as under-the-table payments in Iran.
    Methods
    This is an in-depth interview-based qualitative study conducted on 12 purposively chosen clinical specialists. The interviewees answered 9 questions including the ones about, definitions of informal payments, the specialties and hospitals mostly involved with the problem, how they are paid, factors involved, motivation of patients for the payments, impact of the payments on the health care system and physician-patient relationship and the ways to face up with the problem. The findings of the study were analyzed using qualitative content analysis method.
    Results
    Six topics were extracted from the interviews including definitions, commonness, varieties, motivations, outcomes and preventive measures. It was revealed that under-the-table payments are the money taken (either in private or public portions) from patients in addition to what formally is determined. This problem is mostly seen in surgical services and the most important reason for it is unrealistic tariffs.
    Conclusion
    Regarding the soaring commonness of informal payments rooted in underpayments of health expenditures in some specialties, which deeply affect the poor, the government has to boost the capitation and to invest on health sectors through supporting the health insurance companies and actualizing the health care costs in accord with the real price of the health care delivered.
    Keywords: Informal payments, Health care, Iran, Qualitative research
  • Hadi Mirahmadi, Shirzad Fallahi, Vahid Fallah Omrani, Bahram Kazemi, Ali Haghighi, Seyyed Javad Seyyed Tabaei* Pages 89-99
    Background
    Detection of Plasmodium vivax specific antibodies with serological tests could be a valuable tool for epidemiological researches. Whereas P. vivax cannot be simply obtained in vitro, serological tests using total or semi-purified antigens are infrequently used. Given this restriction, the present study investigated whether recombinant P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP-1 42 kDa) could be useful in detection of antibodies from the serums of a P. vivax infected person using serological tests.
    Methods
    Parasite DNA was extracted from blood sample of an Iranian P. vivax-infected patient. The region of PvMSP-142 kDa was ‎amplified by PCR then cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and sequenced. ‎The insert was sub cloned into pGEX 6P1 expression vector. Afterwards, it was transformed into E. coli BL21 and cultured massively. Sub cloning of gene was confirmed by PCR and enzyme digestion and sequencing finally. Production of recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Western blot was performed by human sera to appraisal binding ability to the IgG antibodies of P. vivax infected patients‎. Recombinant protein was purified and estimated by Bradford assay.
    Results
    The specialty values of the Western blot determined with 10 sera from naturally infected individuals, 10 sera from healthy individuals and 7 sera from individuals with other infectious diseases.
    Conclusion
    For the Iranian population, using a Western blot assay for MSP-142 recombinant protein can be used as the foundation for promotion of serological assay for the detection of P. vivax malaria such as ELISA.
    Keywords: Plasmodium vivax, Recombinant PvMSP, 1 42 kDa, Expression vector, Iran
  • Azam Baheiraei, Shirin Shahbazi Sighaldeh*, Abbas Ebadi, Roya Keli¬Shadi, Reza Majdzadeh Pages 100-110
    Background
    Hookah smoking is growing in popularity especially among women but little is known about the determinants influencing on hookah smoking initiation. In order to address this emerging health risk, a qualitative study was conducted to explore the factors that contribute in the first hookah smoking trial by women.
    Methods
    This qualitative study was conducted during 2012 to 2013 in Tehran, Iran. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, ethnicity, age groups and residence. Data was collected through in-depth individual interviews and was analyzed through content analysis.
    Results
    Four main themes were identified from the qualitative data including: Positive attitude toward hookah smoking; Social and family facilitators; Psychosocial needs and gaps and Sensory characteristic of hookah.
    Conclusion
    From this study, a variety of factors which contribute to the initiation of hookah smoking among women have been identified. Since one of the major causes of increased hookah smoking may be its ordinary use, all factors causing the ordinary use should be eliminated, and efforts should be made in opposition to hookah smoking promotions.
    Keywords: Waterpipe, Hookah, Ghelyan, Qualitative research, Tobacco, Smoking, Woman
  • Samira Sadat Pourhosseini, Ali Ardalan, Mohammad Hossien Mehrolhas¬Sani* Pages 111-118
    Background
    Health care management in disasters is one of the main parts of disaster management. Health in disasters is affected by performance of various sectors, and has an interactive impact on various aspects of disaster management. The aim of this study was to identify the most important themes affecting the healthcare management in disaster.
    Method
    In this qualitative study with a content analysis approach, in-depth interviews in two steps with 30 disaster experts and managers were conducted to collect the data.
    Results
    Eleven themes affecting healthcare management in disasters were identified. These themes were related to human resources management, resources management, victim's management transfer, environmental hygiene monitoring, nutrition management, mental health control, inter-agency coordination, training, technology management, information and communication management, and budget management.
    Conclusion
    Providing effective health care service in disasters requires a comprehensive look at the various aspects of disaster management. Effective factors on the success of healthcare in disaster are not limited to the scope of healthcare. There should be a close relationship and interaction between different sectors of disaster management.
    Keywords: Natural disaster, Response, Healthcare
  • Azam Baheiraei, Fatemeh Bakouei*, Eesa Mohammadi, Ali Montazeri, Mostafa Hosseni Pages 119-129
    Background
    Prioritizing women’s health helps achievement of the 4th and 5th goals of Millennium Development Program. This study aimed to investigate association between social determinants of health and women's health of reproductive age.
    Methods
    This population-based cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling procedure was conducted on 770, 15 to 49-year-old women residing in any one of the 22 municipality zones across Tehran, Iran. Eligible women were interviewed at home with SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and socio-demographic questionnaires. Social determinants of health contains; ethnicity, education, job, income, and crowding index. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression using SPSS-16.The threshold of P.V was considered 0.05.
    Results
    Overall, 770 women with mean age 33.9±9.3 years were interviewed. Majority of them were married (72.27%), housewives (62.2%), of Persian ethnicity (64.3%), and educated to high school level (43.8%). Age with dimensions of health except role emotional, mental health, and social functioning had significant association with B from -0.65 to -0.16.educational level with dimensions of health except role emotional andsocial functioning had significant association with B from 3.61 to 6.43 (P<0.05). Income with dimensions of health except role physical had significant association with B from -9.97 to -4.42.
    Conclusion
    Reflection of unfavorable economic conditions and low education level on negative women’ health experiences are alarming. Interaction between social determinants of health and health status must be considered in policymaking, and there is a need for policies that would enhance health of women in the low education and income brackets.
    Keywords: Women's health status, Social determinants of health, Reproductive age
  • Hanif Tabesh*, Hossein Ahmadi Tafti, Sara Ameri Pages 130-133
    Echinococcus infection typically affects liver and lungs while rarely occur through heart. Cardiac hydatidosis can be fatal or lead to major complications if it is not treated. The majority of patients with cardiac hydatid cysts complain from cardiac problems as their first presentation. However, this article reports an unusual case suffers from an interventricular hydatid cyst presented by abdominal pain on 2013. After the patient transferred to Tehran Heart Center, surgical cyst excision with removing germinal layer and concurrent albendazole therapy was prescribed for the management of this Iranian 15 year old female.
    Keywords: Echinococcosis, Heart, Abdominal pain
  • Xue Zhou, Lishi Zhang* Pages 134-135
  • Aisha Jalil*, Rubeena Zakar, Muhammad Zakria Zakar Pages 136-137
  • Lacramioara Oprica*, Cristina Bucsa, Maria Magdalena Zamfirache Pages 138-139
  • Lacramioara Oprica*, Mihaela Ivan, Marius Nicusor Grigore, Maria Magdalena Zamfirache Pages 142-144
  • Abdallah Ia Yagub *, Khondlo Mtshali Pages 145-146
  • Ligia Vaida*, Bianca Ioana Todor, Dario Bertossi, Claudia Corega Pages 147-149
  • Seyedeh Noushin Miratashi Yazdi, Saharnaz Nedjat*, Mohammad Arbabi, Reza Majdzadeh Pages 150-152
  • Fariba Ghorbani *, Esmaeil Nazem, Alireza Imani, Mahdieh Faghihi, Man¬Soor Keshavarz Pages 153-154