فهرست مطالب

پژوهش در تاریخ - سال چهارم شماره 14 (بهار 1393)
  • سال چهارم شماره 14 (بهار 1393)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/11/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Roghaya Alipour Behzady, Abulhasan Fayaz Anosh Page 1

    Amir Alishir Navaie (d: 906 A.H) is the most famous court personality in the Sultan Hosein Bayqara period. His relation with Sultan and his militant nobility gave him special advantages in court. But his presence in the administrative system - which managed by viziers like: Majd-o-din Mohammad Khawfi, Nezam-ol-molk Khawfi and Afzal-o-din Mohammad Khawfi - caused political struggle among administrators.Amir Alishir Navaie and Tajik administrators accused each other of crimes such as: to misappropriate of public money, to participate in family conspiracies and to weaken administrative system by the side of princes. The essay is based on historical sources with analytic - descriptive method and try to explain the role of Amir alishir Navaie in the struggles.

    Keywords: Amir Alishir Navaie, Nezam, ol, molk Khawfi, Majdodin Mohammad Khawfi, the Sultan Hosein Bayqara, political struggles
  • Dr Mohamad Hasan Elahizadeh, Habib Hayyary Page 25

    37 years period of second Pahlavi, regarding to power using one's influence divided in two period. First period was from 1941 till 1953 that there wasn’t concentrated political power and set of kingdom structure had the least role in doing sovereignty and the second period was from 1953 till 1979 that government could changed to the only political power source. according to new position, second Pahlavi political structure power is also formed. This structure which was concentrated and personal and rely on the army and informational forces supreme court parties, and oil income try to ascertain his sovereignty on society with 2 supervising-control and overcoming methods. And by this way he govern society in his control but the end of such policy cause society cynicism and indifferent to regime. The purpose of this study is to show the effect of political power structure of second Pahlavi in distrust and avoiding from government and at least show Islamic revolution appearing.

    Keywords: power structure, supervising, control, overcoming, Islamic revolution appearing
  • Dr Mostafa Pirmoradiyan, Kobra Shahry, Zinab Hamzehpour Page 51

    Imam Ali (peace be upon him) attained imamate after twenty-five years distance from Islamic politics and a return to pagan and perversive traditions from Quran’s principles. Imam had to perform a new cultural program to reform Islamic society. This program consisted of social, political, cultural and economic systematization. One of the characteristic of social systematization was regularization of relationship with “People of the Book”; this was because of the presence of various religious minorities that were significant in Imam Ali’s caliphate. These minorities were consisted in the Jew, the Christian, the Zoroastrian and the Sabean. Therefore, balance and regularization of civil, social, economic and cultural relationship with “People of the Book” was impossible. His Holiness believed in social rights for everyone, especially social freedom for minorities, this means that he recommended his governors to observe rights of “People of the Book”, and abstain from oppression. So it seems Imam Ali acted moderately towards “People of the Book”. Therefore, this research is to study the operational and theoretical nature of Imam Ali towards “People of the Book”, and also his interaction with religious minorities. The study will discuss different rights of minorities and will explain the model of cultural eminence in the view of interaction with “People of the Book”.

    Keywords: Imam Ali, People of the Book, right
  • Moslem Mirzavand Page 72

    Ardeshir the first, the founder of Sasani kingdom, having overthrowing the Molouk altavayef kingdom-Ashkani kingdom- set out to raise a powerful army. An army that in a few years later was capable of achieving remarkable successes in confronting Iranian’s kingdom enemies with the help of assaulting and defending weaponries. His substitutes also in both assaulting and defending wars were able to defeat the enemies based on different war situations with the help of various weapons. For instance in confrontations with the Romans who had assaulted the Iranians borders and had retreated to their castles to defend their achievements, the Iranians had mostly usually surmounted the Romans making use of catapults and portcullis-knockers to go through their hindrances. Also, Iranians had achieved significant successes over the Turkish army and the eastern desert-dwellers people. These successes originated from different factors such as enough military forces, various excerpts from former Iranians governments and other nations’ weaponry system, creativity in producing weapons, suitable workshops for producing weapons, powerful army maneuver, powerful domestic weaponry system and powerful horseback riding forces. The author of the present study seeks to introduce the weaponry system of the Sasani kingdom and their use of this armament in the battlefields. It has been attempted to apply accurate sources of the Sasanians’ period in order to gather terse and precise information.

    Keywords: armament, Sasanian, Shapour the second, weapon, castle, The Romans
  • Jalil Ghassabi Gazkouh, Mohammadreza Beheshti Page 96

    First world war(1914 - 1918 A.D / 1332 - 1336 A. H) although began in Europe, its development gradually involved other places of world such as Asia and especially Iran. In spite of, Iran government had proclaimed its impartiality compeletely, but it was reversed by other governments that were in war. In connection, Russia government In 1334 Moharram / 1294 Aban, because of German persons trying in Iran and also more tendency that Iranian people had to allies, deflowered Qazvin and for threating sent its persons to Tehran. For this reason, many groups of liberals such as merchants, scholars, journalist, nobles, members of parliament collective emigrated first to Qom and then Kashan, Esfahan and finally in Kermanshah they formed national temporary government for partiality from allies. This search wants to discuss at first, Iran impartiality subject and from this way investigates beginning and the end of national temporary government.

    Keywords: first world war, Iran, internal conditions, impartiality in war, national temporary government
  • Muharram Gholizadeh, Samad Rashidzadeh Page 112

    the Great's Peter efforts to create internal unity among ethnic Russians and draw Prospects for future expansion, as a turning point in Russian history. After Peter's death, the rulers of the Kremlin in order to achieve Warm waters and the resources and markets of other countries. Were in conflict with governments of Iran. Finally, after the death of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar large areas of Northwest Territories and eastern Iran was occupied by Russia.Human Geography (composed of different ethnic and religious Language and ethnic diversity) in the Caucasus persuation the Russian occupation Traditional political and administrative system in the region to create an wide change. forThe administrative reform, especially political reforms Intensified after 1854 CE, without a proper understanding of ethnic and religious mosaic Caucasus and territories apply. Muslim and Christian undergoes wishes to Audrey - politically will be. From this, it consistently opposed reform in the region, Muslims were particularly sought.

    Keywords: South Caucasus, the Russian Tsar, occupation, administrative reform, nineteenth century