فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture - Volume:3 Issue:4, 2015
  • Volume:3 Issue:4, 2015
  • 90 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/12/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Qualitative assessment of municipal solid waste compost by indexing method
    Papiya Mandal, M. K. Chaturvedi, J. K. Bassin, A. N. Vaidya, R. K. Gupta Page 257
    Background
    A study was carried out to classify municipal solid waste (MSW) compost produced in Delhi، India for their marketability and use in different area with respect to physico-chemical properties، fertilizing and heavy metal polluting potentials.
    Results
    The pH of the compost was slightly alkaline (8. 4 ± 0. 02) and C: N ratio (9. 46 ± 0. 91) was low as compared to Fertilizer Control Order (FCO) Standard، Government of India، 1985. Sample analysis was carried out using standard methods. The concentrations of some selected heavy metals، e. g.، Zn، Cd and Ni were within the permissible limit of FCO standard. However، the concentrations of Cu، Pb and Cr exceeded (66. 7 %) the permissible limit of FCO standard. Further، the compost was characterized to know the fertilizing potential and its potential to contaminate the soil. Fertilizing index (FI) was calculated from the values of TOC، TN، TP، TK and C: N ratio and clean index (CI) was also calculated using heavy metal concentrations. FI value of compost was varied from 4. 47 to 4. 60، whereas CI value of compost was varied from 2. 33 to 2. 87، respectively.
    Conclusions
    The study results indicated that majority of MSW compost produced in Delhi failed to achieve quality control guidelines of FCO standard. The compost has fertilizing potential، however، certain risk to the environment. Hence، the prepared compost in Delhi was not suitable for its intended purpose. Post-treatment of compost is required to improve the quality of compost، which can be utilized for agricultural purposes.
    Keywords: Municipal solid waste, Compost, Fertilizing index, Clean index
  • The effects of cow manure vermicompost and municipal solid waste compost on peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) in Torbat-e-Jam and Rasht regions of Iran
    Hossein Ayyobi, Jamal-Ali Olfati, Gholam-Ali Peyvast Page 265
    The utilization of organic fertilizer is an effective method in organic culture of medicinal plants because of its beneficial effects on soil structure, reduction of environmental problem and improvement in plant growth. The experiments were conducted in a research field at the University of Guilan at the Rasht and Torbat-e-Jam Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran. The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of 7 Mt ha−1 of cow manure vermicompost, vermiwash prepared from 7 Mt ha−1 of vermicompost, leachate vermicompost + vermiwash, 50 Mt ha−1 municipal solid waste compost (MSWC), chemical fertilizer (50, 0, 300 NPK) and no fertilization as a control on peppermint yield and quality.ResultsOrganic fertilizers significantly affected all the measured characters except total phenols and antioxidant capacity compared to chemical fertilizers and the control. Plants treated with vermicompost, vermiwash or vermicompost leachate + vermiwash were the tallest and had the highest levels of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids. Plants treated with vermicompost had the highest essential oil yield (24.21 ml m−2). Plant growth in the Rasht region had the highest number of lateral branches (18), fresh (10.51 g) and dry weight (4.64 g) of plant, fresh (2,102.9 kg ha−1) and dry (928.67 kg ha−1) yield, leaf area index (0.17) and carotenoids (531.82 mg 100 g−1), while the highest oil per plant (0.24 ml plant−1) and oil yield (18.49 ml m−2), chlorophyll a (7.37 mg 100 g−1), b (4.07 mg 100 g−1) and total chlorophyll (11.44 mg 100 g−1), total phenol (7.48 mg gallic acid equivalent 100 g−1) and antioxidant capacity (71.89 (% of inhibition) were obtained from plants grown in the Torbat-e-Jam region.ConclusionOrganic fertilizers beneficially affect soil structure and nutrient availability. The use of sustainable organic materials can increase fertility without negative effects on human health and environment. We counsel farmers to use leachate vermicompost and vermiwash in organic cultivation of peppermint separately or mixed together.
    Keywords: Vermicompost, Medicinal plants, Organic culture, Essential oil
  • Coffee processing residues as a soil potassium amendment
    Samuel Menegatti Zoca, Chad J. Penn, Ciro Antonio Rosolem, Alexandre Ricardo Alves, Leontino Oliveira Neto, Maximila Miranda Martins Page 273
    Introduction
    Total coffee production in the world in 2013 was 8.7 million Mg of coffee beans. Coffee must be processed after harvest to separate beans from the husk, and the post-harvest process can generate different types of residues. Knowing that 50 % of the harvested coffee is husk, it is important to consider that these by-products can contribute to environmental problems if not disposed of properly. There is a need to find alternatives to the piling of coffee husk as a means of disposal at coffee farms. The objectives in this experiment were to characterize five types of coffee processing residues and assess their value as potassium (K) fertilizer by examining K release.
    Results
    Chemical characteristics of coffee residues varied with processing method, such as wet and dry processes. Application of residues to soil columns followed by 40 weeks of simulated leaching increased total K content in the soil for all treatments based on application rate, except for enriched and three-year composted coffee husk (3ycomp). Coffee processing residues had higher concentrations of K leached compared with the control with no K application, but only 3ycomp was higher than other coffee processing residues. Total K released from coffee residues increased linearly with application rate, but the decomposition of the coffee residues was low, which suggest that K release from coffee processing residues is not related to decomposition.
    Conclusion
    Post-harvest coffee processes impacted concentrations of K, nitrogen, carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, phenol, pH, and electrical conductivity among the coffee processing residues. The K release was high (over 90 %), but it did not depend on the type of coffee processing residue, and thus, the residues can be a substitute for a mineral source of K applied to soils. The use of coffee processing residues as source of K did not prevent K losses by leaching. Some coffee residues resulted in greater K leaching than mineral KCl applied at the same rate.
  • Effects of microbial inoculation on composting of household organic waste using passive aeration bin
    Somjai Karnchanawong, Siriwan Nissaikla Page 285
    Background
    The effects of microbial inoculation with two commercial inoculants and mature compost on the composting of household organic wastes were investigated using five 200-L passive aeration compost bins. Food scraps and dry leaves (1.6 kg total) with a ratio of 1:0.14 (wet weight) were added to each bin once a day, for 60 days, and then further composted for an additional 94 days. The temperature in each bin was recorded daily. Weekly to biweekly, a composite sample of the compost from each bin was analyzed.
    Results
    The C/N ratios of composts in the un-seeded and seeded bins stabilized at 81 days and 67–74 days, respectively. The highest volatile solid mass reduction was achieved in the bin seeded with 5 % mature compost.
    Conclusions
    The study revealed that it might not be necessary to add commercial inoculants to facilitate composting of household organic waste. Mature compost can be used as a seed starter to improve composting.
    Keywords: Household organic waste, Passive aeration bin, Inoculation, Mature compost, Commercial inoculants
  • Pelletization of composted swine manure solid fraction with different organic co-formulates: effect of pellet physical properties on rotating spreader distribution patterns
    Elio Romano, Massimo Brambilla, Carlo Bisaglia, Niccol, Ograve, Pampuro, Ester Foppa Pedretti, Eugenio Cavallo Page 293
    Introduction
    In Europe, because of the high production levels of livestock farming in general and pig farming in particular, animal waste management has become increasingly important to comply with the required lowering of livestock farming environmental pressure. Usually manures undergo solid/liquid separation, which generates one clarified liquid fraction and one nutrient-rich solid fraction suitable for in farm composting (both raw and in mixture with other bulking agents). This can be used to produce soil amendments, whose management can be further improved by pelletization that, against technological and environmental advantages, has the disadvantage of requiring a quite high energy input.
    Results
    Four different pelleted organic fertilizer formulations made of swine manure solid fraction (SMSF) composted both by itself and with sawdust (SMSF-SD), wood chips (SMSF-WC) and wheat straw were tested to highlight differences in physico-chemical and land distribution features. They were compared with two pelleted organic fertilizers ordinarily available at retailers. Results show that, as far as physical and chemical features are concerned, the greatest difference from the reference products used in this study is found in pellet size distribution after spreading since the disintegrating action of the rotating vanes does not affect the tested formulation with the same intensity as the commercial products. Distribution tests showed that SMSF-SD was the formulation with better longitudinal and transverse distribution, while SMSF was the one showing good transverse but poor longitudinal distribution.
    Conclusions
    In farm pelletizing of SMSF composted with different organic waste materials as co-formulates can turn into organic fertilizer formulations comparable with pelleted organic fertilizers ordinarily available at retailers. SMSF-WC was the formulation with the best resistance to fragmentation induced by spreader vanes. SMSF-SD was the formulation showing better longitudinal and transverse distribution, while SMSF showed good transverse but poor longitudinal distribution. These promising results enhance the importance of co-composting as a way to increase livestock farming sustainability and produce better manure compost for wider agricultural uses.
    Keywords: Manure management, Sustainability, Biomass densification, Nutrient transport
  • Efficacy of organomineral fertilizer and un-amended compost on the growth and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thumb) in Ilorin Southern Guinea Savanna zone of Nigeria
    James Adebayo Ojo, Adebayo Abayomi Olowoake, Abiodun Obembe Page 305
    Background
    Over the years, the use of organic materials in farming has reduced due to the increase in the use of chemical fertilizers which are rich in readily available plant nutrients. Intensive use of inorganic fertilizers may have depressing effect on yield of watermelon. Field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Kwara State University Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria, to study the effects of different rates of Organomineral fertilizer Grade A, un-amended compost Grade B and NPK mineral fertilizer on the growth and yield of Citrullus lanatus.
    Results
    There were significant differences (P < 0.05) among the treatments in relation to vine length, number of leaves, average weight of fruits and yield. NPK at 200 kg/ha had the highest vine length of 294.67 cm followed by organomineral fertilizer Grade A applied at 2.5 t/ha which had the value of 268.0 cm. Un-amended compost Grade B at 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 t/ha had vine length values of 257.7, 259.0 and 259.7, respectively. All the fertilizer treatments significantly (P < 0.05) had higher number of leaves than control. The highest fruit yield of watermelon (36.7 t/ha) was obtained from organomineral fertilizer Grade A at 2.5 t/ha and NPK.
    Conclusion
    From this study, the use of organomineral fertilizer in the cultivation of watermelon could be used as alternative to mineral fertilizer, although cost effective but difficult to procure and cannot substantially redress the physical fragility of the soil. It is recommended that organomineral fertilizer Grade A at 2.5 t/ha be adopted for watermelon cultivation in the study area.
    Keywords: Organomineral, Compost, Watermelon, Yield
  • Enhanced antioxidant properties as a function of selenium uptake by edible mushrooms cultivated on selenium-accumulated waste post-harvest wheat and paddy residues
    Poonam Bhatia, Ranjana Prakash, N. Tejo Prakash Page 311
    Background
    Majority of the post-harvest agri-residues from agricultural activity in Punjab, India, is burnt in the field resulting in the loss of soil fertility and release of large amounts of air pollutants. In an effort to reutilize the selenium-accumulated waste wheat and paddy straw from seleniferous region of Punjab, two varieties of edible mushrooms, Pleurotus sajor-kaju and Volvariella volvacea, were cultivated on Se-rich wheat and paddy straw, respectively.
    Results
    Se concentration in Se-enriched P. sajor-kaju and V. volvacea (43.5 ± 2.1 and 35.0 ± 1.1 μg/g) was significantly higher than control (5.2 ± 1.0 and 5.57 ± 0.07 μg/g), respectively. The antioxidant activity as depicted by total phenol content, total oxidant activity, DPPH scavenging, metal chelation and lipid peroxidation inhibiting activity of extracts from Se-fortified mushrooms were significantly higher (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) than control mushrooms.
    Conclusion
    The increased antioxidant activity is attributed to be induced by the accumulation of selenium by these species of mushrooms, indicating the antioxidant nature of selenium in biological systems. Further, the present study also demonstrates the use of Se accumulated agricultural residues as substrates for producing Se-rich mushrooms as potential sources for Se supplementation/nutraceutical applications.
    Keywords: Selenium, Uptake, Straw, Pleurotus, Volvariella, Antioxidant activity
  • Effect of oyster mushroom wastes on performance, immune responses and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens
    Shila Hasanian Fard, Majid Toghyani, Sayed Ali Tabeidian Page 317
    Background
    Mushroom wastes are widely left from mushroom production industries and have been supposed to possess prebiotic, antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Due to difficulties with using antibiotic growth promoters in poultry diet, mushroom wastes seem to be a proper substitute for them. Therefore, present experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of oyster mushroom wastes on performance, immune responses and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. To conduct the trial, total of 210-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments and 5 replicates of 14 mixed birds. Subsequently, performance, immunity and intestinal morphology parameters were evaluated throughout the experiment.
    Results
    1 % mushroom wastes inclusion not significantly increased body weight (BW), weight gain (WG) and feed intake (FI) of chickens (P > 0.05), while using 2 % of these wastes deteriorated BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). At 28 days of age, villus height and crypt depth of jejunum were significantly increased using both levels of mushroom wastes, however, these indices impaired in ileum with the same mushroom levels (P < 0.05). With the exception of antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus which was compromised using 2 %, other antibody-related parameters were not affected by supplementing 1 % mushroom wastes (P > 0.05). The ratio of heterophil to lymphocyte also decreased by the waste inclusion (P < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    Mushroom wastes in 1 % inclusion are able to improve some parameters of performance and immunity of broiler chicks. Nonetheless, supplementation in 2 % might compromise the mentioned indices.
    Keywords: Broiler chickens, Mushroom wastes, Performance, Immunity, Intestinal morphology
  • Aggregation stability and organic carbon fraction in a soil amended with some plant residues, nanozeolite, and natural zeolite
    Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan Page 323
  • Studies on the reduction of organic load from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by bacterial strains
    Jeremiah David Bala, Japareng Lalung Page 335