فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/12/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • Hossein Rezvan, Mohammad Moafi Pages 1-7
    Leishmaniasis is one of the major health problems and categorized as a class I disease (emerging and uncontrolled) by World Health Organization (WHO), causing highly significant morbidity and mortality. Indeed, more than 350 million individuals are at risk of Leishmania infection, and about 1.6 million new cases occur causing more than 50 thousands death annually. Because of the severe toxicity and drug resistance, present chemotherapy regimen against diverse forms of Leishmania infections is not totally worthwhile. However, sound immunity due to natural infection, implies that vigor cellular immunity against Leishmania parasites, via their live, attenuated or killed forms, can be developed in dogs and humans. Moreover, genetically conserved antigens (in most of Leishmania species), and components of sand fly saliva confer potential immunogenic molecules for Leishmania vaccination. Vaccines successes in animal studies and some clinical trials clearly justify more researches and investments illuminating opportunities in suitable vaccine designation.
    Keywords: Adjuvant, Leishmaniasis, Vaccines
  • Hassan Malekinejad, Nazli Alizadeh-Tabrizi, Araz Ostadi, Johanna Fink-Gremmels Pages 9-15
    The pathogenesis of equine grass sickness (EGS) has not fully understood. A better understanding of the exact pathogenesis of diseases can help to make an accurate diagnosis. Previous studies reported some pathological damage of neuronal cells in EGS patients. In this study, primarily cytotoxicity of serum from three clinically EGS-diagnosed horses on PC12 Tet-off (PTO) cells was assessed. Subsequently, the apoptotic tests including cytochrome C release, caspase-3/7 activity measurement and DNA fragmentation assay were conducted to clarify the apoptotic effect of serum from EGS patients. Addition of serum from EGS patients at concentrations higher than 25% on PTO cells resulted in a significant cytotoxicity in Alamar blue reduction assay compared with serum from healthy horses. All three apoptotic endpoints showed that the serum from EGS patients does have capability to induce apoptosis. A remarkable up regulation of cytochrome C release accompanied with concentration- and time-dependent augmentation in caspase-3/7 activity and ultimately DNA fragmentation were observed. Our data suggest that serum from EGS patients might have potentially neurotoxic compounds, which exerts cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on neuronal cells. Moreover, the EGS serum-induced apoptosis attributes to augmentation of cytochrome C release and caspase-3/7 activity.
    Keywords: Caspase, 3, 7, Cytochrome C, DNA fragmentation, P53 cells, PC12 Tet, off
  • Mohammad Mahdi Molaei, Ali Mostafavi, Reza Kheirandish, Omid Azari, Mohsen Shaddel Pages 17-22
    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids.
    Keywords: Clove essence, Disbudding, Goat kid
  • Hamid Reza Moradi, Naeem Erfani Majd, Saleh Esmaeilzadeh, Sayed Reza Fatemi Tabatabaei Pages 23-29
    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg-1 testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg-1 nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg-1 testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg-1 almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly.
    Keywords: Histometry, Hyperplasia, Prostate, Rat, Urtica dioica
  • Majid Aminzare, Javad Aliakbarlu, Hossein Tajik Pages 31-39
    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p < 0.05) than CZEO incorporated samples, while fat, ash and protein content were not affected by adding essential oil. At days 0 and 40, Lightness (L*) and whiteness index (WI) were significantly decreased and total color difference (ΔE) significantly increased (p < 0.05) by adding CZEO. With the exception of first day of storage, redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively during the rest of storage (p < 0.05). The pH values were not differing between the control samples and samples containing CZEO (p > 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p < 0.05). Samples containing highest amount of CZEO had higher sensory score compared to control sample. Our results pointed out that CZEO could be used as natural additive for increasing the chemical stability of Lyoner-type sausages.
    Keywords: Chemical characteristics, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Essential oil, Lyoner sausage
  • Saman Lashkari, Akbar Taghizadeh Pages 41-48
    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate of whole was the highest for the LE (p < 0.05). For all citrus by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p < 0.16). Dry matter (DM) digestibility contents of LE and LI were the highest (p < 0.02). The NDF digestibility was the highest (p < 0.05) in LI and GP, while the lowest (p < 0.03) values of ADF digestibility were observed in LI and LE. According to the results of the present study, carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have high potential for degradability. It could also be concluded that carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products have remarkable difference in digestion kinetics and digestive behavior.
    Keywords: Carbohydrate fractions, Citrus by, products, Digestion kinetics, Gas production
  • Rahmat Allah Fatahian Dehkordi, Hamid Moradi Pages 49-54
    In pancreatic survey, quantitative and morphological characteristics could be fundamental variables for the evaluation of some structures. The aim of this study was the application of stereological methods for estimation of quantitative parameters and morphological evaluation of the pancreas in chickens. Ten adult male and ten adult female native chickens were used in this study. Routine tissue processing was carried out for all samples. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Gomori''s aldehyde-fuchsin. Stereological examinations were performed according to systemic uniform random sampling as well as Cavalieri and point counting method. The morphological results showed that in both sexes, pancreas of chickens was composed of four main pancreatic lobes and contained two distinct islet types. Alpha islets consisted of alpha and a few delta cells and beta islets contained beta and seldom delta cells. Stereological results showed that in both sexes, there were significantly distinctive regional differences in the volume of islet and the numerical density of cells among some lobes with highest values in third and splenic lobes, respectively (p < 0.05). The nuclear volume was lowest in ventral lobe either males (80.60 ± 33.50) or females (84.20 ± 44.10). Beside, in the islets diameter of splenic lobe, there were significant differences in males as compared with females (p < 0.05). In splenic lobe, a significant difference was observed in the nuclear diameter in males than to females (p < 0.05). The results indicated that although there were not morphological changes between sexes in pancreatic lobes, however, some stereological parameters could be affected by sex.
    Keywords: Native hen, Pancreas, Pancreatic islets, Sex, Stereology
  • Leila Zarei, Rasoul Shahrooz, Rajabali Sadrkhanlou, Hassan Malekinejad, Abbas Ahmadi, Zahra Bakhtiari Pages 55-61
    Current study was aimed to evaluating protective effects of cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) in mice treated with methotrexate (MTX). For this purpose, 48 young mature male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received only normal saline (0.1 mLper day, intraperitoneally), and the second group was administered MTX (20 mg kg-1 perweek, intraperitoneally). The third, fourth and fifth groups received MTX daily oral doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 CMFE as well as MTX. The sixth group was only given CMFE with a dose of 1000 mg kg-1 perday, orally, for 35 days. Then, the animals were anesthetically euthanized and the sperms were separated from epididymis. DNA damage level, the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as in vitro fertility was evaluated. The number of sperms with damaged DNA and MDA level in MTX-treated group showed a significant increase compared to control group (p < 0.05). In groups receiving CMFE along with MTX, DNA damage level and MDA amount suggested a decrease in comparison with MTX group (p < 0.05). Also, in vitro fertilization and embryonic development in MTX-treated group was significantly lower than the control group, and the level of embryonic arresting was higher (p < 0.05). In groups which received CMFE along with MTX, in vitro fertility and embryonic development was higher than MTX group (p < 0.05) and the arrested embryos showed a decrease. This study suggested that cornus mas is able to ameliorate the side effects of MTX.
    Keywords: Cornus mas, In vitro fertilization, Methotrexate, Mice, Sperm quality
  • Ghazale Golestan, Amir Parviz Salati, Saeed Keyvanshokooh, Mohammad Zakeri, Hossein Moradian Pages 63-67
    Aloe vera has been used worldwide in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of its constituents. This study was done to evaluate the effects of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total number of 480 O. mykiss (mean weight 9.50 ± 0.85 g) were randomized into four experimental groups including one control and three experimental groups that aloe vera was incorporated in their diet at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg-1. Trial was done for eight weeks. Then biometry and blood sampling were done. Plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and growth index were estimated at the end of study. The results showed that aloe vera extract did not affect growth indices. Malondialdehyde was increased in the experimental group compared to the control group but ferric reducing ability of plasma showed a decrease in experimental groups (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Our findings showed that dietary aloe vera have adverse effects on antioxidant defense system in O. mykiss.
    Keywords: Aloe vera, Lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde, Oncorhynchus mykiss
  • Fatemeh Sabet Sarvestani, Farhad Rahmanifar, Amin Tamadon Pages 69-73
    Food intake of rats increases during pregnancy. This requires changes in the structure of the small intestine to absorb additional food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological changes in the layers of small intestine in rats during pregnancy. Duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (day 7, 14 and 21 of pregnancy) were collected. Villous height and width and thickness of lamina propria, tunica muscularis entirely and separately (circular and longitudinal layers) were measured on transverse sections. During pregnancy increasing villi length and muscular layer thickness was observed in duodenum. Furthermore, along with the progress of gestation greatest histomorphometric change in small intestine was observed in the jejunum. The reduction in the ileum histomorphologic indices was observed during pregnancy. In conclusion, increase in histomorphologic indices of duodenum and jejunum supplies more capacity of duodenum to digest food intake during pregnancy and decrease in these indices in ileum controls the absorption of excess produced amino acids and glucose by hyperphagia.
    Keywords: Histomorphometry, Pregnancy, Rat, Small intestine
  • Milad Adel, Fatemeh Ghasempour, Hamid Reza Azizi, Mohammad Hadi Shateri, Ahmad Reza Safian Pages 75-78
    Parasitic diseases are harmful and limiting factors in breeding and rearing ornamental fish industry. In this study, 400 apparently healthy ornamental fishes from five species (each species 80 specimens) including: Goldfish (Carassius auratus), guppy (Poecilia reticulate), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), discus (Symphsodon discus) and sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) was obtained from a local ornamental fish farm in the north of Iran during 2011 to 2012. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the parasitic infections of aquarium fish in Iran. For this purpose, fish were first examined for ectoparasites using wet mount under a light microscope. Then, the alimentary ducts of fish were observed under light and stereo microscope. In survey of different infection rates for different parasitic infections in examining fish: Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Trichodina reticulata, Capillaria sp. and Lernaea cyprinacea were collected from five species. All five fish species had Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae) in their skins and gills, the highest prevalence was observed in C. auratus and the lowest was in P. scalare and S. discus. Also, Capillaria sp. was reported as a first record from the abdominal cavity of P. scalare in Iran. Our findings revealed that the protozoal infections are very common among aquarium fishes. Although, no gross pathology was observed among infected fishes, but it is likely that in case of any changes in the environment, then parasitic infections could be harmful.
    Keywords: Iran, Ornamental Fish, Parasites
  • Ladan Mansouri-Najand, Zeinab Rezaii Pages 79-82
    Milk is often described as a complete food because it contains protein, sugar, fat, vitamins, and minerals. This study was performed to investigate risk factors affecting chemical and bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. According to the following conducted experiments, the milk was divided into two standard and non-standard groups. Then, effect of risk factors on making the samples non-standard was studied. Risk factors such as type of milk delivery unit, distance of cattle farm from plant, size of herd, education level of stockbreeders, capacity of milk transport tank, capacity of cooler device, and number of workers employed in cattle farms were evaluated in this study. Microbial and chemical evaluations were performed. Beta-lactam antibiotic residues and somatic cell count were specified. At the same time, the stockbreeders who referred to the plant were given some questionnaires and the mentioned primary questions were asked. After collecting the data, logistic regression model was used. According to the obtained results and comparison with Iran’s national standard, 26 out of 109 samples were determined to be at standard level and 83 ones had at least one out-of-standard factor. The results obtained from the model demonstrated significant effect of education of stockbreeders and capacity of cooler devices on the milk quality. Education of stockbreeders could greatly affect management of a cattle farm unit.
    Keywords: Bulk tank milk, Milk quality, Risk factor
  • Marzie Babazadeh, Hassan Sharifiyazdi, Mohammad Moazeni, Sedigheh Gorjipour, Mahdi Heidari Pages 83-87
    In this study, molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sample obtained from water buffalo originating from southwest of Iran was performed using comparative sequence analysis of cox1 mitochondrial gene. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces removed from hydatid cyst from the liver of a 2-year-old male buffalo slaughtered in Khuzestan province. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses were conducted based on cox1 mitochondrial gene. We found the presence of a new microvariant of G3 genotype for E. granulosus in Iran which isgenetically differentiated from reference G3 sequence (M84663).The difference was a transition mutation of adenine to guanine in position 214 (A214G) resulting in a substitution of the threonine (ACT) by alanine (GCT). These findings extend the knowledge of heterogeneity and distribution of G3 genotype for E. granulosus in world.
    Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, G3 genotype, Iran, Mitochondrial gene, Water buffalo
  • Seyed Ahmad Madani, Mohammad Reza Haddad-Marandi, Fatemeh Arabkhazaeli Pages 89-93
    A dead canary from a mixed species zoological garden was presented for diagnostic necropsy. Cachexia with prominent atrophy of pectoral muscles, yellowish brown discoloration of the liver and kidney, dark brown to black intestinal contents and moderate proventricular dilatation with some degree of catarrhal gastritis were the significant macroscopic findings. Parenchymatous organs like the liver, the spleen, the lung and the kidneys were extremely affected by massive diffuse necrosis and heavy infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, histopathologically. Many giant bacilli resembling Macrorrhabdus ornithogaster were seen microscopically in the wet smear of the isthmus mucosa. Ghost-like unstained bacilli were revealed in the Giemsa stained contact smears of the liver and spleen. No typical mycobacterial granulomatous lesion was found in different tissues, but in Ziehl-Neelsen stained thin layer histologic sections from the liver, spleen, lung and kidney, numerous acid fast organisms were diffusely distributed. The case was diagnosed an atypical avian tuberculosis with concurrent macrorhabdosis. Mycobacterium sp.are capable of giving rise to a progressive disease in humans, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Cases of avian tuberculosis might be overlooked for lack of pathognomonic lesions suggestive of mycobacteriosis.
    Keywords: Atypical tuberculosis, Canary, Macrorhabdosis, Megabacteriosis, Mycobacteriosis
  • Morad Rahimi, Zahra Minoosh Siavosh Haghighi Pages 95-98
    Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) has been reported in many countries in the world. The IBH or similar cases characterized by hepatitis and presence of intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes have not been reported in broiler chickens in Iran. This is the first report on outbreak of adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis in Iran. On October 2012, an onset of high acute mortality in a flock of 2 day-old broiler chickens was reported to the Veterinary Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The birds showed lethargy, huddling, ruffled feathers, and inappetence. At necropsy the livers were the primary organ affected which were enlarged, pale yellow with necrotic foci and multiple petechial hemorrhages. Tissue samples of liver, kidneys and heart were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. They were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological studies. Significant microscopic lesions were seen in the livers. Large eosinophilic intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were seen in hepatocytes. Based on the acute high mortality, age of the broilers, gross lesions and histopathological findings (especially intra-nuclear inclusion bodies), the condition was diagnosed as adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis.
    Keywords: Adenovirus, Broiler, Hepatitis, Inclusion body, Iran