فهرست مطالب

Nephro-Urology Monthly - Volume:7 Issue:2, 2015
  • Volume:7 Issue:2, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/01/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Hamid Reza Omrani*, Mehrali Rahimi, Kanan Nikseresht Page 1
    Background
    Selenium deficiency is a common problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This micronutrient has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Selenium is also found in high concentrations in the thyroid gland.
    Objectives
    To determine the effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid function tests and acute phase reactants in hemodialysis patients.Patients and
    Methods
    In this double-blinded randomized clinical in 3 months, 64 hemodialysis patients with selenium deficiency were divided into experimental (received selenium supplementation; 32 cases) or control group (received placebo; 32 cases). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ferritin, quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T3 resin uptake (T3RU), and free T4 were measured before and after the intervention and compared between experimental and control groups.
    Results
    At baseline, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups regarding CRP, ESR and ferritin serum levels. Likewise, after intervention, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups for CRP (14.77 ± 17.93 vs. 18.29 ± 21.56 mg/L), ESR (32.90 ± 32.62 vs. 33.91 ± 31.15 mm/h) and ferritin (528.6 ± 423.07 vs. 519.52 ± 345.59 ng/mL). At baseline, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups regarding TFTs. Likewise, after intervention, no significant difference was found between experimental and control groups for TSH (3.7 ± 2.22 vs. 2.84 ± 1.88 µU/mL), free T4 (7.19 ± 1.98 vs. 7.02 ± 1.87 µg/dL) and T3RU (30.04 ± 2.28% vs. 29.2 ± 1.98%).
    Conclusions
    Oral selenium supplementation for three months did not have any significant effect on thyroid function tests or acute phase reactants.
    Keywords: Renal Failure, Selenium, Thyroid Function Tests, Blood Sedimentation, Ferritins, C, Reactive Protein
  • Mohammadreza Nowroozi, Mohsen Ayati, Hassan Jamshidian, Amir Arbab, Hamidreza Ghorbani *, Erfan Amini, Et Al Page 2
    Background
    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a tumor marker has extensively changed the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa). With the advent of PSA, the majority of patients are diagnosed with nonpalpable early stage PCa. However, PSA lacks specificity and many patients undergo unnecessary biopsies due to an elevated serum PSA level.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of transition zone PSA density (TZPSAD) in detection of PCa.Patients and
    Methods
    This study was performed on 1712 men underwent trans-rectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy in our institution between March 2008 and March 2013. A total of 1120 men with PSA < 20 ng/mL and normal digital rectal exam were selected for evaluation. Transition zone PSA density was calculated in all patients and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the accuracy of TZPSAD for the diagnosis of PCa.
    Results
    Among 1120 men who were eligible for enrolment, prostate cancer was detected in 265 patients. Mean serum PSA levels were 9.7 ± 4.3 ng/mL and 8.5 ± 3.7 ng/mL in patients with and without PCa, respectively (P < 0.001). Mean value for TZPSAD was 1.18 ± 1.19 ng/mL/mL in patients with PCa, whereas it was 0.55 ± 0.84 ng/mL in men without cancer (P < 0.001). Optimal cut-off value for TZPSAD was 0.32 ng/mL. At this cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity values for TZPSAD were 85% and 45%, respectively. Applying the TZPSAD for PCa screening decreased 50% of unnecessary biopsies.
    Conclusions
    Using TZPSAD as an adjunct to PSA may improve the specificity of PSA in the diagnosis of PCa and decrease the number of unnecessary prostatic biopsies in Iranian men with serum PSA level < 20 ng/mL.
    Keywords: Prostatic Neoplasms, Prostate, Specific Antigen, ROC Curve, Sensitivity, Specificity
  • Farzaneh Chavoshi, Behzad Einollahi, Khosro Sadeghniat Haghighi, Maryam Saraei, Neda Izadianmehr* Page 3
    Background
    Despite being frequently described, Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) in patients, who are on hemodialysis, is a common disease which, has not been well documented in Iran.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of RLS and its sleep disorders in Iranian patients on hemodialysis.Patients and
    Methods
    In this multicenter cross sectional study, 397 consecutive patients on hemodialysis were evaluated by face-to-face interviews. RLS was diagnosed using the International RLS Study Group (IRLSS) criteria. In addition, three validated sleep disorder questionnaires (Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth sleepiness scale and Pittsburgh sleep quality index) were completed by the patients.
    Results
    One hundred-twenty-six patients with RLS (31.7%; mean age 57.6 ± 15.4 years) participated in the current study. RLS mostly occurs in females (P < 0.001). RLS cases showed poorer quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5, P = 0.001), higher scores of Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P < 0.001) and insomnia severity index (P = 0.001). Except thyroid gland dysfunction (P < 0.03, OR ≈ 2.50) and anti-hypertensive medications (P < 0.01, OR ≈ 1.7), there were no significant differences between age, duration of dialysis, etiology of renal insufficiency, intake of nicotine, alcohol or caffeine, and other associated comorbidities between the patients with and without RLS.
    Conclusions
    In the current study, prevalence of RLS was near the weighted-mean prevalence of other studies (mean 30%, range 8%t-52%). This is not just racial variability and may attribute to narrow or wide definition of the disease, plus variations of the prevalence recording time, and sometimes not using the standard criteria or standard interview.
    Keywords: Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep Disorders, Hemodialysis, End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)
  • Yoshihiro Tange*, Shingo Takesawa, Shigenori Yoshitake Page 4
    Background
    Protein-bound toxins such as indoxyl sulfate (IS) are not efficiently removed by conventional hemodialysis (HD).
    Objectives
    To improve the removal of IS, we performed an in vitro study to evaluate the effects of high dissolved hydrogen on the dissociation of IS from albumin using simulated HD.
    Materials And Methods
    Wasted dialysate from peritoneal dialysis was concentrated a hundred times using extracorporeal ultrafiltration method. Dialysate with high dissolved hydrogen was made by mixing concentrated dialysis solution and electrolyzed-reduced water. The amounts of free fractions of IS were determined by high performance liquid chromatography.
    Results
    IS was significantly dissociated from albumin using dialysate with high dissolved hydrogen compared with conventional dialysate (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    Effective removal of IS is expected using a dialysate with high dissolved hydrogen.
    Keywords: Dialysis Solutions, Hydrogen, Indoxyl Sulfate, Albumins
  • Khalid Mahmood, Ahsan Ahmad *, Kaushal Kumar, Mahendra Singh, Sangeeta Pankaj, Kalpana Singh Page 5
    Background
    Chyluria i.e. passage of chyle in urine, giving it milky appearance, is common in many parts of India but rare in west. Very few case of chyluria in pregnant female has been reported in literature. Persistence of this condition may have deleterious effects on health of child and mother. In the present study 43 cases of chyluria during pregnancy and their management seen over a period more than 10 years have been presented.
    Objectives
    The study aims to present our experience of managing 43 cases with chyluria during pregnancy over a period of ten years from July 2003 to June 2014.Patients and
    Methods
    Forty three pregnant patients with chyluria, who presented between July 2003 to June 2014 to the department of Urology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna were included. Patients underwent conservative management and/or sclerotherapy after evaluation. Follow-up of all patients was done by observation of urine color, routine examination of urine and test for post prandial chyle in urine up to 3 months after delivery.
    Results
    Conservative management by dietary restriction of fat and physical rest was successful in six patients. Thirteen patients improved after first course of sclerotherapy with 10% povidone iodine and 25% dextrose and 19 patients improve after second session. In non-responders, three patients who were near term underwent caesarian section while two patients opted for medical termination of pregnancy at their own will. After sclerotherapy, minor complications like clot retention, fever, hematuria, and abdominal pain were observed in small number of patients and managed symptomatically.
    Conclusions
    Sclerotherapy for symptomatic relief of chyluria during pregnancy showed high response rate (86.2%) in short term follow-up. Sclerotherapy with 10% povidone iodine and 25% dextrose combination have been proved safe and effective during pregnancy. Medical termination of pregnancy and cesarean section (those near term) may be the options in resistant cases not responding to sclerotherapy.
    Keywords: Chyluria, Pregnancy, Sclerotherapy
  • Parsa Yousefichaijan, Mojtaba Sharafkhah*, Shams Vazirian, Abolhasan Seyedzadeh, Mohammad Rafeie, Bahman Salehi, Et Al Page 6
    Background
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children.Patients and
    Methods
    This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18.
    Results
    The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects.
    Conclusions
    Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients.
    Keywords: Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Child, Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory
  • Yahya Osman Malik *, Syed Mohsin Raza, Sophia Arunselvan Page 7
    Introduction
    The clinical syndrome of uremia is a bedside diagnosis which mimics a wide spectrum of other clinical disorders, most commonly thyroid disease. End-stage renal disease (ESRD), as a disorder, frequently alters thyroid hormone metabolism, and this is not significantly normalized by dialysis. Although the thyroid and parathyroid glands are considered independent organs, their anatomical juxtaposition in the neck, as well as sharing a common embryological origin, might play a role in some of the possible association between thyroid and parathyroid disease. It has been demonstrated in experimental animals that changes in the thyroid gland might lead to pathological changes in the parathyroids and vice versa.
    Case Presentation
    An incidence of as high as 25% of hypothyroidism has been reported in patients with ESRD on dialysis. We report a patient with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis (MHDx) who has had a combination of profound tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPTH) and severe hypothyroidism.
    Conclusions
    Literature search revealed an increased prevalence of hypothyroidism with secondary HPTH from renal failure. Although there is increased prevalence of hypothyroid state in secondary HPTH from renal failure, the association appears much weaker in primary HPTH and again no conclusive pathological relation has been identified between the two endocrine glands. A closer look and perhaps long-term prospective studies are required in the future to determine this association.
    Keywords: Parathyroid Hormone, Hypothyroidism, Hyperparathyroidism, End, Stage Renal Disease, Hemodialysis