فهرست مطالب

پژوهشهای جغرافیای انسانی - پیاپی 90 (زمستان 1393)
  • پیاپی 90 (زمستان 1393)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/12/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • حسین حاتمی نژاد، ایوب منوچهری میاندوآب*، حسین آهار، محمد علی سالکی صفحات 697-717
    امروزه با توجه به روند رو به رشد جمعیت و تراکم جمعیتی در مناطق شهری، به ویژه در شهرهای پرجمعیت و مستعد از نظر لرزه خیزی، لزوم نگرشی همه جانبه و فراگیر به حوادث طبیعی و فجایع ناشی از بروز آن ها، بیش از پیش جلوه کرده است. تمرکز بیش از اندازه جمعیت در محدوده های خاص شهری، نبود برنامه ریزی های پیشگیرانه و نبود آمادگی لازم برای مقابله با حوادثی نظیر زلزله، تهدیدی بسیار جدی و مهم برای شهروندان و تداوم حیات شهری به شمار می رود. در این پژوهش، شهر تبریز به عنوان مطالعه موردی انتخاب شده است. روش تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی است. هدف این پژوهش، ارزیابی و پهنه بندی لرزه ای تبریز، با توجه به معیارهای کیفی و ارائه مدل و الگوی مناسب برای ساخت وساز در تبریز است، بدین منظور، از 9 معیار فاصله از گسل، تراکم ساختمانی، تراکم جمعیتی، کیفیت سازه ها، شبکه ارتباطی، دسترسی به مراکز امدادی و ضروری، دسترسی به فضاهای باز و سبز، اندازه قطعات و فاصله از مراکز خطرزا استفاده شده است. در این پژوهش، ابتدا داده های آماری لازم جمع آوری شدند، سپس لایه های لازم برای پهنه بندی لرزه ای آماده شد و وزن دهی به لایه ها، براساس استانداردهای پهنه بندی انجام گرفت. تحلیل نهایی با استفاده از تلفیق روش های AHP و Fuzzy TOPSIS در محیط GIS (روش پیشنهادی) صورت گرفته است. در نهایت، میزان خطرپذیری کل مناطق شهر تبریز به دست آمده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که مناطق شمالی شهر، بیشترین پهنه های خطرپذیری و مناطق جنوبی، کمترین میزان آن را دارد. همچنین نتایج نشان می دهد که مدل ارائه شده برای پهنه بندی خطرپذیری قابل استفاده است.
    کلیدواژگان: پهنه بندی، تبریز، زلزله، مدل های تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره، منطق فازی
  • حامد مظاهریان، رضا زیاری* صفحات 719-730
    هدف از ارائه این مقاله، بررسی، طراحی و ایجاد کمپ تفریحی- گردشگری در سیلوانا در غرب ارومیه است. روش پژوهش، توصیفی- تحلیلی است و گردآوری اطلاعات از طریق منابع و بررسی های میدانی انجام شده است. کمپ ها استراحتگاه هایی هستند که در مسیرها یا در مناطق دیدنی و خوش آب وهوا و به عنوان یک سایت تفریحی- گردشگری و ارائه خدمات به مسافران احداث می شوند و کاربری ها و فضاهای متعددی دارند. استان آذربایجان غربی، به ویژه ارومیه و ناحیه کردنشین سیلوانا به لحاظ طبیعی، منطقه ای ویژه و منحصربه فرد است. در نزدیکی شهر سیلوانا، فضایی وسیع و مشرف به رودخانه و در کنار سد سیلوانا، اراضی بسیار وسیعی وجود دارد که در روزهای تعطیل، هزاران گردشگر و مسافر را برای گردشگری و اقامت موقت و گذران اوقات فراغت به سوی خود جذب می کند. مکان یابی کمپینگ براساس ویژگی های طبیعی، تاریخی، مذهبی، ورزشی و... صورت می گیرد. در اطراف سد رودشهر چای، هیچ گونه استراحتگاه، فضای تفریحی و امکانات و خدمات وجود ندارد؛ بنابراین، وجود یک کمپ تفریحی- گردشگری و ورزشی بسیار ضروری است. در این مقاله، پس از بررسی مبانی نظری، تحلیل اقلیم و بررسی سایت، برنامه ریزی فیزیکی و طراحی کمپ انجام شده است. محدوده، جزء اقلیم های سرد و کوهستانی است و برای تفریح های زمستانه و تابستانه بسیار مناسب است. سایت کمپ، به سمت دریاچه، سد و به طور کلی به توپوگرافی زیبا دید دارد و به ارومیه و غرب کشور نیز دسترسی دارد. در برنامه ریزی فیزیکی این سایت، پارکینگ، رستوران، فضاهای تجاری، فضاهای فرهنگی، ورزشی و تفریحی مانند نمازخانه، شهر بازی، پیست اسب سواری، پینت بال، زمین گلف، زمین تنیس، زمین بسکتبال،استخر سرپوشیده،استخر سرباز، فضای سبز، زمین بازی کودکان، موزه حیات وحش، کمپ و واحد های مسکونی، واحد درمانی، نگهبانی، فضای پذیرش و اطلاعات، آتش نشانی، ایستگاه تاکسی، ساختمان اداری و سالن بولینگ، زمین فوتبال، جایگاه اسکی، جایگاه ماهیگیری، محدوده های استقرار چادر و آلاچیق، حمام و سرویس های بهداشتی، سالن اجتماعات، داروخانه و... در نظر گرفته شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی فیزیکی، تحلیل سایت، سیلوانا، طراحی کمپ، کمپینگ
  • بهادر زارعی*، حسین شاه دوستی، علی زینی وند صفحات 731-755
    خلیج فارس از رنسانس به این سو، از آبراهی با موقعیت ارتباطی و جایگاهی منطقه ای به موقعیتی استراتژیک، اقتصادی، سیاسی، ژئوپلیتیک و ژئوانرژی در مناسبات و تعامل های بین المللی بدل شد. به نظر می رسد منطقه خلیج فارس، این نقش منحصر به فرد و بی بدیل را تا نیمه نخست قرن بیست و یکم دارد. از ابتدای قرن بیستم تا پایان دهه هفتاد که مصادف با تولد کشور های کوچک حوزه جنوبی خلیج فارس است، به کمک انگلستان، تلاش هایی برای همگرایی میان این کشورها صورت گرفت، اما هیچ یک از این همکاری ها به همگرایی کاملی منجر نشد و اختلاف ها و چالش های بعدی را نیز به وجود آورد. حضور آمریکا و بازگشت انگلیس و فرانسه به منطقه، رقابت تسلیحاتی، دیدگاه های امنیتی متفاوت و بعضا متضاد، نبود اعتماد جمعی، وجود اختلاف های ارضی و مرزی، نبود دیدگاه ها و هنجار های مشترک و وجود اختلاف های قومی و فرهنگی در منطقه، زمینه ساز واگرایی و از سازه های مهم ناهمانندی و ناهمگرایی منطقه خلیج فارس است. قرن بیست و یکم را با توجه به مزایا و تجارب حاصل از این همگرایی ها، باید قرن همگرایی مجدد منطقه ای دولت ها در جهان نامید. منطقه خلیج فارس نیز مجموعه ای از امتیازها و مولفه های همسازه همگرایی منطقه ای را دارد که در صورت توافق در مورد آن ها می توان به همکاری و مشارکت جمعی و سپس به همگرایی منطقه ای دست یافت. عواملی نظیر قلمرو جغرافیایی مشترک و موقعیت همسایگی، دین و ارزش های فرهنگی مشترک، منابع نفت و گاز مشترک و سیاست گذاری هماهنگ در خصوص آن، مزایا و مصائب ژئوپلیتیک همسان و ضرورت برنامه ریزی درباره آن و موضوع های مشترکی نظیر مسائل زیست محیطی، گردشگری و مواد مخدر، بر این همگرایی موثرند. به نظر می رسد توجه و تمرکز بر موضوع ها و مسائل مشترک واقعی و عینی محیط اجتماعی، اقتصادی، امنیتی و سیاسی این کشورها می تواند زمینه تفاهم، توافق، همکاری مشترک و در نهایت همگرایی منطقه ای را ایجاد کند.
    کلیدواژگان: ایران و کشور های منطقه، کنشگران منطقه ای و فرامنطقه ای، خلیج فارس، واگرایی، همگرایی
  • کیومرث یزدان پناه درو* صفحات 757-770
    جهانی شدن، فرایندی تاریخی است که با نخستین مهاجرت های انسان در آفریقا آغاز شد و به دیگر نقاط جهان گسترش یافت. مهاجران، بازرگانان و دیگران، همواره در طول تاریخ، عقاید و کالاهای خود را به دیگر نقاط جهان منتقل کرده اند. این امر، ابتدا در مسافت های کوتاه و بعد در مسافت های بلندتر انجام شد. در واقع، جهانی شدن فرایندی است که از زمان آفرینش انسان وجود داشته و در دهه های اخیر، رشد چشمگیری داشته است. در حوزه های مختلف زندگی می توان آثاری از آمیختن، اقتباس و انطباق تاثیرهای خارجی را مشاهده کرد. برخی از صاحب نظران، سال 1492 را زمان آغاز فرایند جهانی شدن اعلام کرده اند، اما بیشتر محققان و نظریه پردازان، این فرایند را دارای چنین قدمتی نمی دانند. به هرحال باید گفت جهانی شدن فرایندی است که از زمان آفرینش انسان وجود داشته، اما در سال های اخیر، رشد چشمگیری داشته است. درباره جهانی شدن، تا امروز مطالب و نظریه های متعددی ارائه شده است. این تنوع نظری و گفتمانی در این زمینه، ناشی از ماهیت و اهداف متفاوت آن است، اما مهم ترین چالش در مفهوم نظری این واژه، تعارض در بیان دو واژه جهانی شدن و جهانی سازی است. تعارض و تفاوت نگاه به این دو واژه، ناشی از تفاوت نگاه به فرایندی است که در سه دهه اخیر، ابتدا در بعد سیاسی و امنیتی و سپس از بعد اقتصادی، با تغییر مفهوم مرزها و تغییر کارکرد فضا و مکان، بر تمام رفتار انسان تاثیر گذاشت. در این مقاله تلاش شده است تا به نقش و جایگاه مکان و ویژگی های مکانی، متناسب با ارزش ها و هنجارهای آن پرداخته و ابعاد و تاثیرهای آن در حوزه های مختلف، بررسی شود؛ زیرا پدید آمدن عناوینی همچون «شهروند جهانی» که محصول مستقیم فرایند جهانی شدن است، به تغییر یا تردید در پایه های ارزشی و هنجاری جوامع و ظهور پدیده های جدید در این عرصه منجر شده است. این روند، نقش و اهمیت مکان های جغرافیایی را نیز در سطوح مختلف (چه از نظر مفهومی، چه از نظر مبانی و چه در حوزه مصادیق کارکردی) تغییر داده است و جالب اینکه بسیاری از جوامع، در حال ایجاد سازگاری بین خود و این روندها هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: جهانی شدن، شهروند جهانی، فرایندهای جهانی شدن، مزیت مکانی، نظریه جهانی شدن
  • علیرضا دربان آستانه*، مرتضی قنبری، محدثه صحرایی خانقاه صفحات 771-789
    این پژوهش با هدف سنجش و تحلیل رضایت مدیران محلی از عملکرد سازمان های محلی فعال در نواحی روستایی شهرستان شیروان و چرداول (استان ایلام) انجام شده است. حوزه پژوهش، تمامی روستاهای بالای 20 خانوار شهرستان است که در زمان پژوهش، شورای اسلامی داشته اند و جامعه آماری تحقیق نیز تمامی اعضای شورای اسلامی این روستاهاست. به دلیل ضرورت آگاهی از میزان رضایت روستاییان تمامی روستاها، مطالعه به صورت تمام شماری انجام شد و در مجموع، 445 پرسشنامه بسته از 168 روستای بالای 20 خانوار گردآوری شد. در این پژوهش، برای سنجش رضایت روستاییان از مدل شکاف کیفیت خدمات، برای تحلیل نتایج و ارزیابی نظر مدیران محلی از آزمون کای اسکوئر تک نمونه ای و برای مقایسه و سطح بندی رضایتمندی، از تحلیل خوشه ایاستفاده شد. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد روستاییان، در مجموع از عملکرد سازمان های محلی، رضایت اندکی دارند. در این میان، روستاییان دهستان زردلان با امتیاز 3/5 (در بازه یک تا پنج) کمترین و روستاییان دهستان کارزان با امتیاز 3/53 بیشترین رضایت را از خدمات عمومی اعلام کردند. خدمات رسانه جمعی (رادیو و تلویزیون)، آنتن دهی موبایل، بیمه روستاییان و خدمات آموزش ابتدایی، بیشترین امتیاز رضایتمندی جامعه آماری را کسب کردند و در نهایت، نتایج تحلیل همبستگی نشان داد ارتباط مثبت و معناداری بین شاخص عمومی برخورداری، و ارتباط معکوس و معناداری بین شاخص میانگین فاصله دسترسی با شاخص رضایت عمومی وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل خوشه ای، رضایتمندی، سازمان محلی، شهرستان شیروان و چرداول، کیفیت خدمات
  • محمد مهدی عزیزی، الهه شعبان جولا* صفحات 791-808
    احساس امنیت، یکی از نیازهای روحی انسان و از مهم ترین ویژگی های کیفیت فضاست. در جوامع شهری امروز، عوامل گوناگون محیطی سبب بروز انواع بزهکاری ها و بی قانونی ها و ناامنی در شهر شده اند. این در حالی است که بافت های شهری و محله های قدیمی ایران، از بعد امنیت و آرامش، شهره شهرها بوده اند. این مسئله، اگرچه متاثر از ساختار اجتماعی و فرهنگی نیز بوده است، نباید از طراحی هوشمندانه کالبد این گونه محله ها غافل شد. این موضوع، هدف اصلی این پژوهش است. غالب این محله ها، بر مبنای اصول، ساخته شده اند و زمینه مناسبی برای تحقیق فراهم می کند. مقاله حاضر در دسته بندی پژوهش های کیفی قرار گرفته و ضمن بهره گیری از تحلیل فضایی، به وسیله نرم افزار GIS، بر مبنای روش مطالعه موردی (Case Study) انجام شده است. بدین ترتیب که با مروری بر معیارهای امنیت شهری، جامع ترین نظریه، یعنی نظریه «پیشگیری از جرم، از طریق طراحی محیطی یا CPTED»، ملاک عمل قرار گرفته و مدل به دست آمده در یکی از محله های قدیمی قزوین پیاده شده است. نتایج ارزیابی با استفاده از روش های ماتریس گولر و چک لیست معیارها نشان می دهد از بین سه معیار مشخص شده، محله ملک آباد در معیارهای نظارت طبیعی و تقویت قلمروها، وضعیت مطلوبی دارد و در معیار کنترل دسترسی ها در وضعیت زیر متوسط قرار گرفته است. نقاط قوت محله نیز مشخص شده و در انتها یافته های علمی و عملیاتی تحقیق ارائه شده است. در نهایت می توان گفت ارزیابی کالبد محله ملک آباد به عنوان نمونه ای از محله های قدیمی شهر تاریخی قزوین نشان می دهد این محله توانسته است در پاسخ دهی به نیاز به احساس امنیت ساکنان آن در حد مطلوب ایفای نقش کند.
    کلیدواژگان: احساس امنیت، پیشگیری از جرم از طریق طراحی محیطی، چک لیست معیارها، طراحی ضدجرم، ماتریس گولر
  • محمد سلاورزی زاده، جمال محمدی، عبدالله کبودی* صفحات 809-823
    سرزمین، منبعی محدود و آسیب پذیر است، اما اگر از سودمندی های آن به درستی استفاده شود، این منبع، ابدی و قابل تجدید خواهد بود. برای بهره برداری از سرزمین، با صرفه اقتصادی و مستمر باید روند بهره برداری را در چارچوبی برنامه ریزی شده به نام طرح مدیریت اجرا کرد. چنین تفکری، مقدمه ای برای آمایش سرزمین یا برنامه ریزی برای استفاده از اراضی شده است. ایجاد و به کار گیری سامانه های اطلاعات جغرافیای (GIS)، در بسیاری از زمینه ها از جمله آمایش سرزمین، محیط زیست و توسعه شهری، به بروز تغییرها و جهش های عظیمی منجر شد. این پژوهش، تلاش می کند بخشی از نیازهای اطلاعاتی در مورد امکان توسعه شهری و تخمین قابلیت اکولوژیکی و اقتصادی- اجتماعی شهرستان های علی آباد، گنبد و گرگان در استان گلستان را تامین کند و مناطق مستعد توسعه شهری را بیابد. در این تحقیق، برای جمع آوری داده های مورد نیاز در سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS)، نقشه تناسب اراضی برای کاربری توسعه شهری از روش ارزیابی چندمعیاره (MCE) و فازی سازی (Fuzzy) استفاده شد و عوامل مورد بررسی با توجه به روش وزن دهی سلسله مراتبی (AHP)، در محیط نرم افزار IDRISI Kilimanjaro و ArcGIS آماده شد. نتایج نشان می دهد که 3،845،306،130 متر مربع از مساحت منطقه با توان بالا، 36،553،066 متر مربع با توان متوسط و 5،067،405،586 متر مربع نیز با توان ضعیف است.
    کلیدواژگان: پهنه بندی، توسعه شهری، سامانه اطلاعات جغرافیایی (GIS)، علی آباد، گرگان، گنبد، منطق فازی (Fuzzy)
  • میرنجف موسوی*، ناصر سلطانی، علی باقری کشکولی صفحات 825-841
    گردشگران مذهبی، گردشگران فرهنگی هستند که برای زیارت اماکن، آثار و یادمان های مذهبی، انجام اعمال مذهبی، آموزش های دینی و گذراندن اوقات فراغت در مکان ها و مراکز مذهبی جهان سفر می کنند. این پژوهش به نقش مذهب در توسعه گردشگری مذهبی می پردازد. نوع تحقیق، کاربردی و روش بررسی آن توصیفی- تحلیلی است. جامعه آماری، کلیه گردشگران داخلی و خارجی به زیارتگاه چک چک است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات، از روش های آمار استنباطی مانند ضریب رگرسیون، تحلیل واریانس و تحلیل مسیر و برای ارائه راهکارها از مدل تحلیلی سوات استفاده شده است. بر اساس نتایج تحلیل مسیر، متغیر های وجود اماکن زیارتی زرتشتیان با میزان 0/822 و پایبندی به آیین های مذهبی با میزان 0/752 بیشترین تاثیرها را در توسعه گردشگری مذهبی در شهرستان اردکان داشته اند. همچنین نتایج مدل رگرسیون خطی ساده، برابر با 0/652 است؛ یعنی به ازای افزایش تعداد گردشگران، ساختار فضایی توسعه این شهرستان نیز افزایش می یابد. به عبارت دیگر، افزایش تعداد گردشگران، موجب بالا رفتن توسعه و افزایش میزان شاخص های اقتصادی آن در شهرستان اردکان می شود. همچنین ضریب همبستگی چندگانه (R) محاسبه رابطه اعتقادات مذهبی و توسعه اماکن زیارتی و مقدسه را با میزان 0/812 تایید می کند که نشان می دهد 61/2 درصد از تغییرات توسعه اماکن زیارتی و مقدسه، ناشی از اعتقادات مذهبی است. به عبارت دیگر، در مناطقی که اماکن دینی و مذهبی دارند، سطح توسعه گردشگری مذهبی بسیار بالاتر است. در نهایت، راهبردهایی چون تلاش در جهت احداث تاسیسات و تجهیزات رفاهی در اماکن زیارتی، استفاده از جشن مهرگان به عنوان فرصتی برای ارسال پیام صلح و دوستی ایرانیان به جهان، تبلیغات گسترده برای جذب گردشگران و استفاده از درآمدهای مکان های زیارتی برای بهسازی و حفاظت از آن ها، سبب توسعه گردشگری مذهبی در شهرستان اردکان و استان یزد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی راهبردی، زیارتگاه چک چک، شهرستان اردکان، گردشگری مذهبی
  • ابوالفضل مشکینی، صفر قائد رحمتی، رضا شعبان زاده نمینی* صفحات 843-856
    علی رغم توسعه نظام های اجتماعی- اقتصادی و شهرنشینی، انسان ها به طور فزاینده از اثرات زیان بار بلایای طبیعی رنج می برند. زلزله یکی از مهم ترین مخاطرات طبیعی است که به دلیل خرابی ساختمان ها و زیرساخت های شهری، خسارات فراوانی را به اموال و دارایی ها، در نواحی شهری و اطراف آن وارد می آورد. از این رو نواحی آسیب پذیر شهرها، از جمله مناطقی هستند که می توان با شناخت، پهنه بندی و سیاست گذاری درست، آثار منفی بلایا را در آن ها کاهش داد. این پژوهش در دو بخش توصیفی– تحلیلی صورت گرفته است. در بخش توصیفی، با استفاده از مطالعات کتابخانه ای - اسنادی، معیارهای متناسب با هدف تحقیق، انتخاب و سپس داده های توصیفی جمع آوری شدند. شاخص ها در سه بخش کالبدی، اجتماعی و محیطی قرار می گیرند و برای هریک از شاخص ها معیارهایی در نظر گرفته شده است. پس از بررسی، در مجموع، یازده معیار انتخاب گردید. در بخش تحلیلی، مدل هایی که در پژوهش حاضر برای تعیین آسیب پذیری منطقه در برابر زلزله استفاده شده، مدل ANP و عملگر Fuzzy هستند. پس از به دست آوردن وزن هریک از معیارهای تعیین شده از طریق مدل ANP، از تکنیک Fuzzy برای تلفیق لایه های مورد نظر، استفاده شده است. نتایج، حاکی از آن است که بافت شهری منطقه 2 شهرداری تهران به میزان متوسط و بالایی آسیب پذیر است و این میزان در مناطق شرقی و جنوبی، با توجه به نتایج حاصل از تکنیک فازی بیشتر است.
    کلیدواژگان: آسیب پذیری، بافت، تحلیل، زلزله، شهر
  • مظفر صرافی*، ناصر نجاتی علاف صفحات 857-874
    هدف از این نوشتار، بررسی رویکرد «نومنطقه گرایی» و تبیین امکان کاربرد آن در نظام مدیریت فضایی ایران است. از این رو، ابتدا مشکلات نظام مدیریت فضایی ایران در سه زمینه مرتبط با ظرفیت های مناسب در بین مدیران، کارشناسان و شهروندان، نظام مدیریتی کشور (مدیریت و برنامه ریزی فضایی و بخشی) و مدیریت یکپارچه فضایی تحلیل شده و جایگاه هریک از طرح ها و برنامه ها و نهادهای تصمیم ساز و تصمیم گیر در سطح منطقه ای بررسی شده است. سپس با توجه به نتایج بررسی، محدوده های فضایی که در سطح منطقه ای تحت پوشش طرح ها و برنامه های موجود قرار نمی گیرند، شناسایی شده و نارسایی های قانونی مرتبط با آن تحلیل شده است. در ادامه، رویکرد نومنطقه گرایی تشریح شده و با مطالعه ابعاد و همچنین زمینه های قانونی آن، امکان کاربست نومنطقه گرایی در نظام مدیریت فضایی ایران بررسی شده است. یافته ها بیانگر آن است که این رویکرد برای حل بسیاری از نارسایی های کنونی توسعه منطقه ای، و نیز مواردی همچون تعادل بخشی، بهره برداری بهینه و هم افزایی منابع، راهگشاست. همچنین نشان داده شده است که بنا بر ماهیت رویکرد نو منطقه گرایی، می توان از آن برای استفاده و تقویت مزیت های رقابتی مناطق کشور بهره برد. به کارگیری رویکرد نومنطقه گرایی در نظام مدیریت فضایی ایران، مستلزم آن است که از یک سو محدوده ای جدید در سطح منطقه ای برای آن تعریف شود و از سوی دیگر، الزامات قانونی مدیریت یکپارچه فضایی در این محدوده، در نظام تقسیمات کشوری پاسخ داده شود. این رویکرد را می توان برای رسیدن به اهداف گوناگون اجتماعی، فرهنگی، اقتصادی، سیاسی و زیست محیطی و در سطوح مختلف از مقیاس درون کشوری تا فراملی و با مشارکت همه بازیگران (از قبیل دولتی و غیردولتی) از طریق نهادها به صورت توام، پایین به بالا و بالا به پایین، در نظر گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: تقسیمات کشوری در ایران، توسعه منطقه ای، حکمروایی شایسته، نظام مدیریت فضایی ایران، نومنطقه گرایی
  • عبدالرضا رکن الدین افتخاری، اکبر میرجلالی* صفحات 875-887
    مسکن به عنوان یکی از پدیده های واقعی، از نخستین مسائلی است که بشر همواره با آن دست به گریبان بوده و همواره برای دگرگونی و یافتن پاسخی مناسب، معقول و اندیشیده برای آن تلاش کرده است؛ بنابراین، مسکن یک نیاز است، اما نه هر مسکنی. آنچه ایده آل آدمی است، دسترسی به مسکنی با کیفیت مناسب است. حدود نیمی از جمعیت جهان فقیرند و تقریبا 600 تا 800 میلیون نفر در خانه های غیر استاندارد زندگی می کنند؛ زیرا محل سکونت آن ها بدون امنیت و زیرساخت های لازم و تسهیلات آب و برق و فاضلاب است و نیز در معرض مخاطره های متعدد قرار دارد. در سال های پایانی قرن 20، راهکارهای عمده ای با هدف رفع این مشکل مطرح شد که یکی از این راهکارها، اقدام سازمان ها یا بنیادهای خیریه (NGO) در جهان است که نمونه بارز آن در ایران، کمیته امداد امام خمینی (ره) است. هدف این پژوهش، واکاوی نقش نهاد خیریه ای کمیته امداد در بهبود وضعیت فیزیکی خانه های روستاهای ایران است که با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه ای و پیمایشی، با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی و با استفاده از نرم افزار spss انجام شده است. به همین منظور، در این مقاله سعی شده است تا اقدام های این نهاد و تاثیر آن در بهبود کیفیت فیزیکی مسکن مددجویان روستایی در بخش کندوان شهرستان میانه، بررسی، تحلیل و ارزیابی شود. به همین سبب، متغیرهای وضعیت فیزیکی مسکن مددجویان، با استفاده از آزمون ویلکاکسون در دوره قبل و بعد از حمایت کمیته امداد، در 37 روستای بخش کندوان، در قالب سه دهستان و 160 خانوار بررسی شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که امدادرسانی های کمیته امداد در تمامی متغیرهای وضعیت فیزیکی مسکن، به تغییرهای معنادار در نزد مددجویان زیر پوشش منجر شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه روستایی، کمیته امداد امام خمینی، نهادهای خیریه ای، وضعیت فیزیکی خانه های روستایی
  • مسعود مهدوی حاجیلویی، بهار بیشمی* صفحات 889-903
    وجود جاذبه های گردشگری، یکی از مهم ترین دلایل مسافرت مردم به مقصدی خاص است. جاذبه ها به عنوان عامل کشش، با توجه به ویژگی های خاص و جذابیت هایی که دارند، می توانند گردشگران را از نقاط و سرزمین های دور جذب کنند. در این میان روستا ها جاذبه های گردشگری فراوان دارند و همواره گردشگران زیادی را به سوی خود جذب می کنند؛ بنابراین، توسعه پایدار گردشگری روستایی و مدیریت خردمندانه آن نیازمند برنامه ریزی است. در این میان، ایران با وجود جاذبه های فراوان فرهنگی، تاریخی و طبیعی هنوز نتوانسته است جایگاه خود را به عنوان یک کشور پذیرنده گردشگر در بازار جهانی صنعت گردشگری بیابد، از این رو سهم ناچیزی از درآمدهای این صنعت، نصیب کشور شده است. این مسئله، در زمینه گردشگری داخلی و به ویژه گردشگری روستایی نیز صدق می کند. سوال کلیدی تحقیق آن است که راهبرد های مناسب برای توسعه گردشگری زمستانی در مناطق روستایی حاشیه پیست اسکی شمشک چیست؟ به این منظور، مقاله حاضر با استفاده از روش پیمایشی و مطالعه های میدانی در سطح کارشناسان و خبرگان با مدل SWOT به ارائه راهبرد کانونی برای توسعه گردشگری زمستانی در مناطق روستایی پرداخته است. قلمرو زمانی تحقیق، زمستان 1389 و آذر تا بهمن 1390 است. روایی پرسشنامه با استفاده از پانل متخصصان گردشگری و اساتید دانشگاهی تایید شد و برای سنجش پایایی، از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد که ضریب به دست آمده 72 درصد است. نتایج، نشان دهنده این است که راهبردهای توسعه گردشگری زمستانی در روستا های منطقه حاشیه پیست اسکی شمشک در وضع موجود، جهت گیری به سوی راهبرد رقابتی است که در قالب 8 راهبرد فرعی، قابل پیگیری و عملیاتی سازی است، اما برای دستیابی به جایگاه مطلوب، در توسعه گردشگری زمستانی، با محوریت مشارکت روستا های حاشیه پیست اسکی شمشک نیاز به اتخاذ راهبرد جهشی تهاجمی است.
    کلیدواژگان: استان تهران، پیست اسکی شمشک، توسعه روستایی، گردشگری، گردشگری زمستانی
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  • Pages 697-717
    Introduction
    Possibilities of seismicity due to geological position، tectonic condition، numerous faults in cities accompany with human factors like urban population، increase of weak urban shelters، disproportionate urban planning to earthquake disaster، have increased the seismic vulnerability of cities، as far as %90 of cities of Iran have been fragile. According to researches of National Context Plan of Iran by department of housing and urban development، Iran has been divided to very high risk، fairly medium-risk، fairly low-risk and low-risk regions، and %50 of urban population of Iran live in fairly high and high and very high-risk regions. In other words، zoning map of relative earthquake risk in Iran indicate that the majority of urban areas are in fairly high-risk range and approximately all of the country are in upper-middle-risk range and only few area of country are in low-risk region. Among the various levels of physical planning، the most efficient level to reduce earthquake vulnerability of cities، urban planning is the intermediate level. Assessment of damages or injuries directly or indirectly y are related to the adverse situation، planning and urban design. Bad condition of the physical elements and improper usages of land، inefficient city networks، urban compact، high density، the establishment of infrastructure، shortage and poor distribution of urban open spaces And the like play a vital role in increasing the amount of earthquake damage to their cities. Therefore what makes the phenomenon of earthquake disaster in cities in many cases، urban status is inappropriate. According to importance of assessment of vulnerability of cities to earthquake in Geography and Urban Planning، in this research for developing estimation of vulnerability of cities to earthquake and determination effect of each criterion in vulnerability of cities، fuzzy logic method integrating with analytical hierarchy process were used in GIS by utilizing spatial and descriptive data of elements. Physical dimensions can be regarded as the most tangible and important role in urban planning and earthquake mitigation. Body shape and the city، which includes various elements of their organization through planning and urban design takes place. This section can be through physical divisions of the city and neighborhood classification system، the communication network and hierarchy of urban centers، filled and empty levels، sectors and localities، urban signs، the block segmentation and classification of different patterns of urban، urban open spaces، population and building densities، distribution and growth of the app and the direction the city is implemented.
    Methodology
    This research is analytic- exploratory research and according to nature of data and lack of control of effective data this research is non-experimental. Method of collecting data at first stage is Library and documentation and studying various texts about earthquake and consequent damages. The region of this study is Tabriz. According to importance of assessment of vulnerability of cities to earthquake in Geography and Urban Planning، in this research for developing estimation of vulnerability of cities to earthquake and determination effect of each criterion in vulnerability of cities، fuzzy logic method integrating with analytical hierarchy process were used in GIS by utilizing spatial and descriptive data of elements. Needed criteria were chosen by using former studies and expertise comments. At next stage weight of criteria gained by analytical hierarchy process. After that the weight of criteria transmitted to fuzzy by triangular numbers. After that، negative and positive ideal obtained by using TOPSIS model. At the end، ultimate map were prepared in GIS.
    Findings
    There are two subject in assessment of hazard of disasters: the method of urban planning in relation with prevention of disasters which surrounds structure and context of city because this plan is capable to determine vulnerable areas، and the other one، estimating demand of countermeasures to damages resulted by earthquake which will assumed for next earthquake. Estimating of damage، develops preparation and countermeasure after earthquake. The first one is «assessment of vulnerability of region» and former is «estimation of damage». Assessment of vulnerability of region requires data of region in small scale (geographical data). New urban development plans، regulation of infrastructures، environmental improvement and other confronting plans to disasters، can be used in relation to this topic. Totally principles of urban planning are: For disaster risk assessment، It is necessary to prepare hazard zonation maps and geographic data about the geology، land use، population، buildings، equipment and other urban areas، urban activities. This information is updated by the GIS and has been used.
    Conclusion
    The results show according to the criteria of selection، the northern city of Tabriz has the highest risk. These areas do not have well conditions in terms of physical conditions، economic، social and cultural. And the populations of these areas are informal settlements of the city of Tabriz. As a result، attention to these areas is necessary and must take priority enabling of the regions. Due to the earthquake is inevitable in Tabriz by reviewing the past years، Probability of an earthquake is possible at any time in Tabriz، the area is about 2 percent of the area includes the city of Tabriz، As a result of، easier to plan and manage this area. North and east of the city of Tabriz with high risk are the next priority. These areas are included as an area of approximately 9 percent of the city of Tabriz. Considering that a large part of the fabric of the old city of Tabriz is located in this area، planning for empowerment in this area should also be priorities. Central and southern areas of the city of Tabriz have less risk than other areas. In whole، the city of Tabriz، the risk is high. Should be more attention to all issues that will increase the safety against earthquakes، especially the rules of construction. Compliance with regulations in 2800 Ministry of Roads and Urbanization Will lead to sustainable buildings against earthquakes.
    Keywords: Zonation, earthquake, Tabriz, Fuzzy logic, multi, criteria decision making model
  • Pages 719-730
    Introduction
    The landscape of Iran is diverse and because of ecological diversity it attracts many tourists. Iran has a good capacity to provide entertainment for tourists. In west Azarbaïdjan, especially one of the natural, beautiful and unique place, Silvana, natural places, Chai River and hills gives a unique view to this area. as a result of highland ecology and cold weather tourists from different places such as city, out of city and country during different seasons have been attracted to this area. Due to the location and its natural places you can travel over snow on skis and go fishing. During winter and fall you can benefit from beautiful nature, features of a region, sport and entertainment. If you consider development in this area, tourism Spaces, resort, tents, some types of camps such as public - recreation, hiking, conferences, sports, science, special accommodation and activities……. Research
    Method
    This paper is based on instructional-progressive and its methodology is investigative- descriptive. The research range is about Silvana region it’s located on 40 kilometers out of Orumiye. We have investigated some of the factors such as different types of camps, recreational camps, tourism camps and designing recreational camps. Data collection centered on the use of literature collected, documents, different sites, statistics and some organizations which located in orumiye. 50 experts from Orumiye city have been cooperated in this research. After providing and organizing information of ecology, environmental, social, economic, physical, infrastructural, Tourism topics and different types of camps, planning and designing of recreational-tourist camps around the Silvana dam have been identified.
    Results And Discussion
    By the theoretical studies around the Silvana and using Questionnaire of 50 experts of west Azerbaijan randomly Silvana ‘s site has been analyzed. This town has great rate in plane and valley, temperature, location, good access to transport by boat or ride a bicycle easily and suitable place for living. This town has a Medium rate in Motel, Villa, playing ground and it has a poor rate in Hotel. The site has a direct access to the water and land. You can have access to the water by boat from east to the west. This site constructed by the structure of main road network and consists of main loop which joined to the town entrance. this loop located on south – east part of the town and a boulevard on south- north in the center of the town used for giving services, in addition to the linked road, east-west boulevard located in the the site for easy access to the visitors.
    Conclusion
    This article has addressed the ecology, physical planning, Site and designing. This area has highland ecology and has good potential in winter and summer recreation, beautiful topography, easy access to the Orumiye and to the west part of the country. In physical planning Parking, restaurant, supermarket, and commercial spaces, cultural spaces, chapel, amusement park, horse riding track, paintball, and golf courses, Tennis court, basketball court, indoor pool, outdoor pool, green area, children's playground, museum and zoo camps and residential units, treatment units, security, reception and information area, fire station, taxi station, office building and bowling, soccer field, the place for skiing, fishing location, range of Pergola tents, shower and toilet, hall, pharmacy are predicted.
    Keywords: camping, site analysis, physical planning, camp design, Silvana
  • Pages 757-770
    Introduction
    Most studies of TNCs from emerging economies do not have on explicit theoretical underpinning. There are even fewer studies which put a particular theory into practice. Several theoretical frame work, however, have been proposed. Globalization basis of the globalization process is the philosophy of capitalism that is the utilitarianism of Bentham, and other writers.The idea is that maximization of self – interests is the virtue and the rationalism. Individuals, while selfishly maximizing their own interests, maximize the combined as the invisible hands of the market by Adam smith.
    Methodology
    Another Adverse effect of separation of production from consumption engendered by the process of globalization is the protection of consumers from the effects of production. The most straight forward example of this phenomenon is the demand from the developing world. The depletion of Local resource bases has often provided a check to economic excesses, but, in today`s world, over – consumption can deplete resources on a global rather than Just a local scale. If a resource is depleted globally, it is lost to human kind forever.A second example is the international trade in pollution. If richer countries can export pollution to poorer countries, then a natural check on local pollution Levels is Lost and problems of Pollution threaten to become global rather then Just Local in scale.
    Results And Discussion
    Those constraints can be significant when it coms to services to individual customers: Training services, personal banking and personal telecommunication or retailing are Possible examples. However, there are two major trends that can reduce Language constraints. Also Governments impose regulatory constraints that often work against globalization, either because they limit the free flow of personnel regulation, on working permits, cash exchange control. Tax. goods custom duties. quotas, data censorship. The internet and EDI control or because they impose Localization constraints (Local content policies, Local ownership and joint venture policies.
    Conclusion
    The world of the 21st century will mark a global transition to an urbanized human race. From fever than third of the world's people Living in cities in 1950,we expect that this Proportion will double by 2050. As we have Learned over the past half century, urbanization offers both risk and promise. With more than five billion people Likely to be Living in these cities within the next 50 years. Failure to address urban infrastructure and assure adequate standards of Living will create human culture media ideal for the selection, mutation, and transmission of deadly and resistant microbes.Global systems able to produce and distribute food are essential for healthy people.
    Keywords: Globalization, Theoretical Globalization, local scale, Process of Globalization, Global rather
  • Pages 771-789
    Introduction
    The services offered by the public organizations might be defined as intangible and totality of systems, activities and benefits which assists to resolve the nonphysical problems. The villager's expectations on services gradually increased from the local organizations by reason of developing technologies and improvement of communications. In today's democratic governments to meet people and satisfy them to the community is important for People's participation in local governance and consequently it is important to organizational success. In rural areas, the range of services offered by local public organizations. Quantitative assessments of service quality can also identify gaps between citizens’ perceptions of public organization services and that of managers. Finally, service quality assessments can be used as a strategic tool for marketing public services. Hence the purpose of this study was to measure and analyze the rural satisfaction of local organizations in shirvan va Chardavol County.Theoretical bases: There are several approaches to measure satisfaction on which It pointed to the SERVQUAL and gap model. From that initial research, Parasuraman et al. developed a service quality instrument called SERVQUAL that consisted of 22 pairs of statements which measure customer expectations and perceptions of service delivered on a seven- or nine-point Likert scale. For each pair of statements, the gap difference between the two scores is calculated. The idea is that the service is good if perceptions meet or exceed expectations and problematic if perceptions fall below expectations.Research Statistical Unit, is all rural households over 20 villages in county. Research Statistical population is all members of the village council and the study was done by counting all. The overall 510 questionnaires were collected from 168 villages. The data were collected using a closed questionnaire. The survey was administered in 2012 with the help of three field assistants.The model of Service Quality Gaps was used to assess satisfaction and One sample Chi-square used to analysis and assessment of comments. Also Cluster analysis was used to compare and cluster the villager's satisfaction and one way ANOVA tests and Duncan's post hoc test was used to compare the satisfaction of villagers in different counties. Pearson correlation was performed to identify which service quality dimensions were correlated strongly with citizen satisfaction. Data from 445 valid questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS version 16.
    Discussion
    The study has also attempted to identify the most important service quality dimensions that determine citizen satisfaction with public services. The results showed that the villagers have little satisfaction in all of the local organizations. Average satisfaction index on a Likert scale was equal to 2.54 and also Average distance index to services was equal to 15.5 km. ZARDALAN sub district villagers are less and KARZAN sub district most satisfied with the public services. Cluster analyses showed that four group of services have Better performance. Firth group of services were include primary school, health center and rural telephone. Second group were radio, TV channels (two, one and three TV channels), rural electricity and mobile service. The third group was rural health insurance and the fourth group was Rural Water and road. Correlation analysis revealed a Positive correlation exists between index of rural Enjoyment and the public consensus. Also there is a negative correlation between index of distance access and the public consensus.
    Conclusion
    General results of the study indicate low satisfaction with the quality of local organizations in the city of Shirvan and Chrdavl villagers and this result showed the importance of local organizations to provide comprehensive services. Especially the spatial distribution of rural satisfaction, showed that Dissatisfaction in underserved sub district (Zrdlan) is broader and more perceptible.Suggestions: One of the research results is that the index of rural Enjoyment is important in explanation of the villagers Satisfactory. Although at first glance this result seems reasonable and acceptable, but expected that successful projects can make it difficult to provide Hierarchical Regionalization. Because the main goal of such schemes, the economic and efficient use of infrastructure services and provide higher level services to all villages to a point, not logical nor scientific.So it seems despit some deficiencies in the services area, rural views to the functioning of such institutions must change as well.
    Keywords: rural satisfaction, local organizations, service quality, shirvan va Chardavol County
  • Pages 791-808
    Introduction
    Urban neighborhoods have changed over time. The body formed appropriate to the circumstances and needs of each period. People at any time use some available tools to achieve the needs and aspirations they have. As a result, the body of each neighborhood is a reflection of ideas, methods and tools developers have at their period.Feeling safe is one of the important human needs and one of the most characteristic qualities of the space. On the other hand, in today's complex urban communities, environmental factors cause different types of crime, lawlessness and chaos, and thus, the lack of security in cities and urban areas. Meanwhile, the urban texture of the old neighborhoods in Iran was known for their security and safety of its residents. Although this issue has also been influenced by social and cultural factors, the intelligent designing and planning of such neighborhoods should not be ignored. The main objective of this research is to identify the spatial characteristics of the old neighborhoods of cities which helped to improve the safety of their inhabitants. Because it is based on Islamic principles (such as maintaining privacy) and provides a fertile field for research and gain experience. This article is classified in the category of qualitative research and the method of research is based on a case study. Research has been performed by use of spatial analysis software, GIS.
    Methodology
    Urban security in different periods, have always been subject to numerous theorists. The result of these discussions and votes, before taking shape as schools and documented opinions, were expressed by theorists and experts individually. In this study, the formation of opinion and a summary of the most important scholars in the field of security and crime in urban areas is discussed. With an overview of world literature and urban security standards, the most comprehensive theory of the "theory of crime prevention through environmental design, or CPTED" have been applied and theoretical framework of research is obtained, which has been implemented in one of the oldest and original neighborhoods in the city of Qazvin. Malek Abad is one of the old neighborhoods of Qazvin, which has shaped fully in organic texture according to the city's core development and in spite of recent construction and renovation, it still retains its old identity and composition. Overall, the neighborhood can be mentioned as a mix of residential homes, public places and some local land use but its private, semi- private and public domains, as well as its access control, according to its antiquity, provides an appropriate field of research. Evaluation is done by using methods of Goeller Scorecard and Checklist of criteria.According
    Results And Discussion
    to the research framework, there have been 3 criteria: ‘territorial reinforcement’, ‘access control’ and ‘natural surveillance’. The data needed for each one, gathered in two ways, questionnaires and collected field. First criteria (territorial reinforcement) were defined by two sub criteria "sense of ownership" and "definition of public and private spheres", in which some Indicators like ‘referring to a unique name for the neighborhood’, ‘unique mental boundaries of the neighborhood in the residents mind’, ‘housing time of residents’, ‘recognition the neighbors of together’ and ‘matrix of response – location’ are evaluated in the case study. The second criteria (access control) is divided into 8 sub criteria which include: Visual permeability, separate pedestrians and cars, the passing traffic, texture penetration and ability to provide parking lots, useless streets and spaces without protection, marked and visible entries, lighting, having ways potentially to escape. The last criteria (natural surveillance) is comprised of two sub criteria: ‘size and congestion of space’ and ‘form of space’. All mentioned criteria and sub-criteria, developed in order to assess the neighborhood body's response to the sense of security of residents and to be able to compare the results obtained, finally all of them vote in the 5 scale range of Likert (In which score of 5 is the most desirable rating).Assessment results show that among the three specified criteria, Malek Abad neighborhood is in a good condition in criteria of ‘natural surveillance’ by gaining the score of 4. It means that visual control of the neighborhood is doing well and on the other hand, the theory of the observer's eyes on the street is fully achieved there. The case in criteria of ‘territorial reinforcement’ obtained score of 3.77 which is a little above the average. It shows that (Often non-normative) construction affected on the neighborhood structure to some extent and disassembled the order of organic and hierarchical ways of it. Although the territorial separation in the residents mind is very powerful, it requires some improvements and suitable spatial building to make boundaries of public, semi-public and private spaces clearer and more recognizable. The most significant problem in the studied neighborhood was in the criteria of access control. It evaluated under average by score of 2.95. According to third criteria, there were several problems in different places, such as: Violating the privacy in the main streets, no sidewalks in most places, especially in the southern area, directing traffic passing through the neighborhood streets, low permeability in some passages especially deadlocks for emergency, the inability to provide adequate parking lot, existence of useless spaces and abandoned and desolate land and finally, the lack of suitable definition of neighborhood’s entry.
    Conclusion
    Finally we can say evaluating Malek Abad neighborhood as an example of the old neighborhood of the historic city of Qazvin, shows it has succeeded in responding to the needs of its residents to feel safe reasonably and acceptable. However, renewal and setbacks and some other changes have been implemented mostly in main pathways of neighborhood, have led to additional vulnerabilities of old texture in the access control. Items that cause the strengths in such neighborhood are also shown and finally, the scientific and operational research findings are presented.
    Keywords: Sense of Security, Design against crime, Crime prevention through environmental design, Goeller Scorecard, Checklist of criteria
  • Pages 809-823
    Introduction
    According to the researchers theory, land is a limited and vulnerable resource which can be perpetual or retrievable, in case, utilize from its profits in stately (Makhdoum, 1387: 20). Fortunately, from the late of previous Christian century on, human has realized to have an incessant and frugal exploitation from an area in order to implement programs and projects manageably (Makhdoum, 1387: 20). Such issue is considered as an introduction on land using map or manage to use of lands the scholars narrate that land users is the most valuable, cheapest and effective solution concern reduction of environments destruction and prompt the social peace and economical efficiency, and it the developments methods have been stable, not to signify the economical peace and criterion (Makhdoum, 1387: 21). Rapid development and evolution of computers technology consist of hardware and software compartments in the recent decades, provided tremendous technical facilities in relation to processing the geometrical and graphic data of land, moreover, it has been organized through applying information (Makhdoum and colleague 1384: 80-eastman and colleague 1998: 180). Our perimeter environment is Saturated with multi criteria and humans are compelled to make decision in such fields, so they designate appropriate techniques for determine consciously (Ghodsipour, 1384: 50)Need to the development of a strategy and programming in various cases is one of the major reasons to be appealed into multi criteria analysis in land using map (Binat and Nige 2001: 45). So as the domination of multi criteria decisions over environmental management has been considerable this makes the development of specific devices for their controlling within GIS environment.Present study is provide apart of data on Urbana's development and predict the ecological potency of Aliabad, gonbad and gorgan in golestan province because of placing the capable districts of Urbana's development by applying multi criteria methods within geographical information system.
    Materials And Methods
    This article is going to achieve the capable districts of Urbana's development, as if, it ask to help from GIS. As long as making the decisions is various, thus using MCE method concern scrutinizes ecological resources with multi variables. The preferred formula for (MCE) is as follow: S= ∑i=1 to n wi xi * Ӆ ci s= Suitability for the intended zone wi= Weight of each layerxi= fuzzy layers Ӆ= Accent mark ci=Boolean layers Discussion of
    Findings
    To understand the general targets, firstly, increasing fundamental information of turban's development accommodate to the results of assumptions and various experiences of scholar. After passing through scientific shortages and collect sufficient data, provide a database accompany to substantial amendments.There are two kinds of data layers in (MCE) method as Boolean and fuzzy layers. Boolean layers have 0 and 1 values which imply the definite limitation; however, fuzzy ones have multiple number scalar numbers in condition. By looking upon weight of factors and parameters for any use the layer, will be fuzzy layers which determined 0 to 255. Its desirability increases as far as being closed to 255 numbers. Specific parameter for any user would be saved as data fuzzy layers and using for the combination of layers. Any layer has a Boolean and or (o and 1). (mahini and kamyab 1388: 270)The weights of factors show according to the bilateral comparisons of analytical hierarchical process in the IDRISI software. One of the most prevalent methods in using data combination is weighted linear combination (WLC). In WLC, the standard factors multiply in the appropriate weight, and then they accumulate together. As the weights have been accounted any cell, afterward created picture should be multiplied in the Boolean limitation in order to exclude the additional zones from accounting. Final image of favorable combinational calculation from 0 to 255 boundaries have no limitation to be developed. In this state, the layer wills be combined through WLC. Final map of Urbana's development land using is by having value from 0 to 255, which this layer is apt to be reclassified.
    Conclusions
    According to the verbal ecological model of Urbana's development land using, for this reason, most interesting districts are located in the (0 to13) percent slopes with height of 400 to 1200 meter, southern directions and least amount of water and windy erosion in location, closest gaps to the 100 meter of buffer from the user of urban and village and also lakes, more deeper wells of district the distances which far from the faults of location, keeping on the suitable distance from protected areas, acceptable rainfall cover 500 millimeter, half-evolution soil to full evolution with medium granulation, absence of original stones as marn and shist, and also accumulation of the vegetation lesser than 30 percent have been expressed. According to these definitions, after combination of maps and investigation of districts values based on being and absence of increasing and decreasing agents, lands suitability for Urbana's development produced in three potencies: 1)high 2)middle 3)week. The results indicate that 38455306130 meter from area has high potential, 36553066 square meter has middle potential and 5067405586 square meter also is week. According to the researchers theory, land is a limited and vulnerable resource which can be perpetual or retrievable, in case, utilize from its profits in stately (Makhdoum, 1387: 20). Fortunately, from the late of previous Christian century on, human has realized to have an incessant and frugal exploitation from an area in order to implement programs and projects manageably (Makhdoum, 1387: 20). Such issue is considered as an introduction on land using map or manage to use of lands the scholars narrate that land users is the most valuable, cheapest and effective solution concern reduction of environments destruction and prompt the social peace and economical efficiency, and it the developments methods have been stable, not to signify the economical peace and criterion (Makhdoum, 1387: 21).
    Keywords: zoning, Fuzzy logic, Urbana's development, Gorgan, gonbad, Aliabad
  • Pages 825-841
    Introduction
    Religious tourists Are Cultural tourists who travel to pilgrimage sites, relics, religious monuments, Religious practices, Teaching and spending their leisure time in places and religious centers in world. However, for many of Pilgrims It is important Traveling shrine as well as itself shrine. This is because who pilgrimage not only foreign trip but also an inner journey and spiritual journey. Religious and spiritual attractions of tourism in Iran are very precious. One of the attractions of religious is shrines and holy places every year large number of tourists who are attracted to them. The Zoroastrians have several shrines in Yazd But the most famous shrines is Chak Chak. Every year there are thousands of people of our country and around the world. This paper examines role of religion in the development of religious tourism with emphasis on shrines of Zoroastrians Chak Chak. Thus, Two hypotheses are discussed: 1) There are a significant correlation between an increase in number of tourists in the Chak Chak Shrine and development in Ardakan city. 2) There are a significant correlation between religious beliefs of Zoroastrians and And development of the their religious places.
    Methodology
    According to Evaluated factors, Type research is Application and Methods it descriptive-analytical. Statistical population, are domestic and foreign tourists in Chak Chak Shrine. For data analysis, has been used of Methods Inferential statistical Such as regression, analysis of variance, Path analysis and also for provided solutions of strategic planning (SWOT).
    Results And Discussion
    Iran and the world Zoroastrians goes to Chak Chak Shrine from 13 to 17 June each year. After the end of religious rituals is visited various sites (religious and historical places) in Yazd province and city Ardakan, and this causes the region economic development. To determine the main causes of development of the religious tourism are entered independent variables into the regression model. Based results of Path analysis, were the highest effects on development religious tourism in ardakan city, Variables Existence Pilgrimage Places Zoroastrians with rate 0/822 and adherence to religious rituals with rate 0/752. Also Results Simple Linear Regression Model is Equal to 0/652. Means for every increasing in number of tourists, increases spatial structure Development this city. In other words, increasing number of tourists will be led to increased development and also rises in Indicators economic development in ardakan city. As well as multiple correlation coefficient (R) Confirmed Calculate relationship between religious beliefs and Development of pilgrimage and Sacred Places With rate 0/812 that Showing 61/2 percent of changes Development of pilgrimage and Sacred Places are Caused by religious beliefs. Conclusion and Suggestions: Today, tourism is the most extensive of service industry and one of the greatest economic resources in world. Iran has a long history of having a very proper position among other countries. Religious attractions are including tourist destinations, With the proper planning and management of can be identified investment opportunities and can be obtained in a reasonable position in the world in terms of attracting tourists. Chak Chak shrine is a income source and the Factor of economic development for the city Ardekan and Yazd, and has led to the development of religious tourism. We can see the role of religion in the development of tourism. Government neglect, lack of private sector investment and the lack of appropriate facilities and infrastructures are main obstacles to the development of religious tourism in the region. In other words, in areas that has Places of religious are much higher levels of development religious tourism. Finally, strategies such as Efforts to establish welfare facilities and equipment in places pilgrimage, use of Mehregan Celebration as an opportunity to send a message of peace and friendship Iranian to world, Extensive advertising order to attract tourists And use of proceeds order to improve and protect places of pilgrimage Can lead to the development of religious tourism in ardakan city of Yazd province. - Attempt to construction of welfare facilities and facilities for tourists in the Chak chak shrine. - Making culture for appropriate behavior by foreign tourists. - Use the proceeds to improve and protect the for tourism development. - Creating green spaces or other attractions in near the place of pilgrimage. - Pave the roads and paths connecting to the shrine. - Widespread propaganda to tourist attraction by introducing the prominent works of historic in the surrounding of shrine. - Provide security for tourists, especially at night. - Use of Renewable Energy for Power Supply. - Use of this space to convey a message of peace and reconciliation of Iranians all over the world.
    Keywords: religious tourism, economic development, strategic planning, Chak Chak Shrine, ardakan city
  • Pages 843-856
    Despite of the social - economic development systems and urbanization, people are increasingly suffering from the effects of natural disasters. Earthquak is one of the major natural disasters that cause damage to building and urban infrastructure. So, Vulnerable areas of the cities are areas that we can with identify, zoning and policy making, reducing the negative effects brought about by the disaster. The present study was included in two parts: descriptive and analytical. The descriptive section of the library and documentation in accordance with the criteria selected and Three indicators of physical, social and environmental are considered and criteria for each of the parameters are considered. descriptive data were collected and the analytical models used. In this study to determine the seismic vulnerability of the region to be used in the model ANP and Fuzzy. After obtaining the weight of each criteria set by the model ANP, Fuzzy techniques for the integration layer is used. The results indicate that, urban Fabric vulnerability at District 2 is high and this rate in southern and east regions according to the results of fuzzy techniques is much higher.
    Introduction
    In our times with the development of social-economic systems, and urbanization, earthquake is one of the major natural hazards Cause damage to buildings and urban infrastructure. During the twentieth century, growth population cause for the construction of settlements in high risk areas. A large number of the population will settle in big. Many of the major cities have been at or near the active faults. Thus, the‌ vulnerability of cities, especially in urban contexts in developing countries is a serious examination of the earthquake. Hence, the study of earthquakes in urban areas is also important, not only for developing countries but also in developed. Among these, Tehran as a metropolis in recent decades has a growing and increasingly irregular and non-homogeneous led to tissues is of non-standard. Despite the increase in construction in some areas of the districts2 of Tehran, Due to the high price of land has developmed rapidly and had a high density. The District 2, have a population of over 321,496 thousand. Much of the area due to the rapid construction in the past two decades. On the other hand the existence of faults in the vicinity and within this range, the region's vulnerability to natural disasters is increasing. Hence it is necessary to identify the fabric vulnerable to serious remedy to reduce vulnerability to earthquakes take place in urban contexts. Thus, the need to attention this region as one of the most vulnerable areas of Tehran.
    Methodology
    This study include of two parts of, descriptive and analytical that the section of descriptive with using the library and archival research objective selection criteria in accordance with the descriptive data has been collected. The analytic model in this study to determine the seismic vulnerability of the region to be used in the model ANP and Fuzzy. One of the common methods of multi-criteria decision making process of network analysis ANP. Model, analytic network process ANP complex relationships between and among elements of the decision through the replacement of hierarchical network architecture into consideration. In this study, the the effectiveness criteria identify and were defined and for The rating criteria for each study, the questionnaire was designed to get the opinions of experts (30 experts) were recorded Tables that The criteria for determining the value and importance of the approach ANP to calculate the weights of the criteria. After obtaining the weight of each criteria set by the model ANP, technique, Fuzzy and to combine layers of spatial analysis and GIS, is used and Finally, vulnerable areas in the study area has been provided.
    Discussion
    Identify and prioritize effective criteria of the vulnerability of urban planning and appropriate corrective actions in these tissues is particular importance to during the incident. Therefore, in this study, the indicators in the areas of environmental, physical and social chosen the following set of criteria considered, and for The rating criteria for each study, the questionnaire was designed And to get expert opinions, the tables have been recorded and used to determine the value and importance of the criteria by ANP method to calculate the weights of the criteria we have discussed. In this study Eleven criteria have been considered. After entering the inputs to the software SuperDecision the final weight is obtained by set criteria. In this study, in order to attain the purpose of and to characterize the vulnerability of urban used of Spatial Integration of GIS techniques GIS and fuzzy operators. criteria through ANP has weighted and For each criterion, the layers are prepared and then The criteria in GIS environment using appropriate fuzzy operators (gamma), fuzzy membership to have received. Through the appropriate digital layer on the investment criteria established by each layer, and the digital layer of vulnerable zones in the study area are shown.
    Conclusion
    The values in the standardization of map layers and the weight of each layer is considered zero to one. Whatever the number is closer to one indicative of a greater utility and desirability of any size is closer to zero, it will be reduced. As you can seen in the map, Amount of pixels that are closer to dark spaces have value of zero and reduced from space utility And urban fabric have high vulnerability, Conversely, pixels that have been gray and white colors Values are more And the vulnerability index have more desirable. With a little reflection on the current situation can be found in the map, the majority of the district 2 have moderate vulnerability that In the meantime, the eastern half, both South and North-West district 2 of Tehran Municipality due to high density residential population has a high vulnerability. The central part of the urban area due to the lack of open spaces and bright colors of certain users are more desirable.
    Keywords: Analysis, vulnerability, urban, fabric, earthquake
  • Pages 857-874
    Introduction
    The spatial development management in Iran is not well integrated and thus, manifested in the chaotic and somehow win-lose competitions within the regions. This result in inefficient use of resources and regional disparities. Overcoming this hurdle needs new solutions which are encountering with challenges relating to the contextual capacities in public sector and civil society as well as lack of legal institutional arrangement for the spatial integration at regional scale. It should be taken into consideration that nowadays, Iran’s national resources (i.e., oil revenues as the most important national source) are dwindling and consequently, the regional resources ought to be relied more than past. The system of spatial development management in Iran is not opt for fulfilling this new role. In this regard, finding new approaches to improve the spatial development management in Iran, will contribute to better regional resource mobilization which is discussed in this article.
    Methodology
    The aim of this article is to study the new regionalism approach and to investigate its applicability in the spatial management system of Iran. Therefore, firstly the shortcomings of spatial management system of Iran in three interrelated contexts of appropriate capacities among managers, experts and citizens towards the integrated spatial management are analyzed. Then, each of the existent plans and programs and the related regional decision making institutions in Iran is studied. Considering this, next, the spatial loopholes at the regional level which are not covered by the said plans and programs are recognized and the statuary deficiencies are identified. Next, the new regionalism approach is explained and the possibility of its application to cover the shortcomings in the spatial management system of Iran is deliberated. The research method is based on analyzing secondary data and formal related documents about Iran’s spatial management system. In addition, the academic sources with regard to spatial regional development have been reviewed to provide the theoretical framework for the problems. Findings and
    Discussion
    New Regionalism is an approach which recognizes certain regions capable of cooperation and integration among their intra-regional institutions in pursue of political, socio-economic, cultural, and environmental synergies. New regionalism attempts to reduce the political dispersion (if not confrontation) of regional stakeholders. Considering the status quo, these attempts may include a spectrum of preliminary to radical actions. As a matter of fact, new regionalism should be implemented step by step to ease the resistance to change as well as to give it time for tailoring the most appropriate institutional arrangement. Voluntary cooperation among municipalities and specialized institutions for pooling resources to provide regional services and/or collective industrial projects is a good start. These will set the stage for further integrations over time. In Iran like other developing countries, for implementing and sustaining the process of new regionalism formation, of critical importance is good regional governance based upon democratic decision making, rule of law, transparency, accountability, inclusiveness, efficiency and equity. Accordingly, collaboration of regional rivals becomes possible through the trust-building arising from good governance. Besides, the lack of capacities in public sector and civil society mentioned as hurdles will be ameliorated. All in all, The findings of this study indicate that the new regionalism approach is useful for completing many deficiencies of the present regional development in Iran including regional disparities and inefficiencies in resource utilization. The rival political divisions at regional scale are hampering coordinated development and this approach has the capability to reduce the rivalries and establishing collaborative milieu. It has been construed that the needed actions should be taken step by step, starting with those simple ones which can be done with the existing laws to create the capacity for the next reformist steps. Also, it is shown that due to the nature of new regionalism, it can be used in order to utilize and strengthening the comparative advantages of Iran’s regions at both national and supra-national scales. The application of new regionalism approach in the spatial management system of Iran necessitates on one hand, the recognition of a buoyant and flexible new regional level of governance and on the other hand, the provision of the statuary status at this level in the administrative divisions of the country. New regionalism can be applied for a variety of socio-economic, political and environmental objectives at different scales of national and supra-national levels with the inclusive participation of all key players and concurrent top-down and bottom-up processes. The institutional arrangement for such an approach is missing now.
    Conclusion
    Bearing in mind the nature of new regionalism which emphasizes the integration - not the assimilation - within the existing dispersion of spatial institutions, it can be utilized at different global and national scales to prevail the particularism. In addition, new regionalism has the potential to upgrade social capital and sectoral synergy among the regional stakeholders. In this regard, the Iranian spatial development management has capabilities yet to be realized. Having said this, the need for greater decentralization (i.e., toward devolution) of the bureaucratic system is an imperative later.In conclusion, the new regionalism approach can initiate cooperation among spatially divided regional entities in socio-economic, political and environmental issues. The approach leads to utilizing the competitive advantages at both national and international levels which in turn, is conducive to spatial development of regions. The contextual requisite for this is good governance. In fact, good governance is needed to ensure the transparent, accountable, responsive, lawful, efficient, democratic and equitable decisions at the public sphere of regions. Decentralization plays a major role in this regard and regions should be given more authority over their own resources. However, this is a gradual institutional process concomitant to the capacity building among all the regional agents of development. Therefore, a step by step process has been introduced while the necessary statuary pre-requisites are prepared.
    Keywords: New Regionalism, Spatial Management System of Iran, Administrative Divisions in Iran, good governance, Regional Development
  • Pages 875-887
    Introduction
    Housing as one of the real phenomena of the human issues that have always been struggling with it. And always trying to change and to respond, it is reasonable for. House is therefore a necessary but not any housing, what is the ideal man, is access to good quality housing. Furthermore, housing in rural areas, in addition to answering the need for security and privacy of home and family, circle of village-based production system and mutually linked with it. The quality of housing in all housing has traditionally been considered. In this context, housing, as well as their socio-economic status is considered. So we can say that housing is one of the factors affecting the quality of life. Quality of life is a multidimensional and complex concept. Some see it as welfare, social welfare, happiness, satisfaction, and some of these have been interpreted as described Yet sadly, About half of the world’s population is poor and approximately 600 to 800 million people living in non-standard housing. Because Place they lacked the necessary security and infrastructure and facilities, and wastewater utilities and are also exposed to numerous hazards. In order to resolve this gap in the late twentieth century the major solutions to this problem was raised that one of the strategies that organizations or charities (NGO) in the world. In the example of Iran, is Imam Khomeini Relief Committee (RA).This research investigated the role of charitable relief in the physical improvement of rural housing is Iran.
    Methodology
    This descriptive and analytical research using library resources and methods and areusing Spss software. Data collected through observation, interview and questionnaire design (field sampling and interviewing patients) conducted validity and reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient equal to / is 0.8654, which is acceptable And the questionnaire used in our study used qualitative and ordinal scale is Based on the population of 37 villages in three districts respectively KANDOVAN Mianeh city center, north of warm, tea and includes 160 households covered by the beam. This sample is randomly selected. SPSS software for data analysis and non-parametric Wilcoxon test was used. The Kandovan of 1244 square kilometers, which constitutes 22% of the total area of the city Mianeh.This section north of Sarab city of Ardabil and East to the South and West of the city center is limited And at 47 to 48 degrees east longitude and geographic latitude 37 to 38 degrees to the left of center is located. Aban 1385 census population of 24,820 persons living in villages consisting of 5,875 families. Of these 920 households, including 46 urban and 874 rural households with a total population of 107 urban and 2,049 rural and 2,156 people are covered by the Relief Committee.
    Results And Discussion
    This research was in order to try investigating the actions of the institution and its impact on physical quality improvement of rural housing in the Kandovan District, Mianeh, review, analysis and evaluation. So variable physical condition of housing clients, villages and 160 households in37villages of Tuesday Kandovan form and analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Analysis and hypothesis testing, and physical condition of the housing component of non-parametric Wilcoxon test were used. The results show that all the components and items related to their housing-related activities Relief Committee, The average number of positive ratings and a significant level of state ntervention to cover the cost of coverage are good. Level significantly lower than the mean level. Wilcoxon test showed that the mean differences were significant. This means that because of the better coverage than before the process is Low but significant levels out, indicating the fact that it is true that the committee on physical improvements in rural housing clients Kandovan effective but not enough to be a concern in this case is forthcoming.
    Conclusion
    Quality of construction materials used in the manufacture of steel and concrete housing units has increased in recent decades. Residential treatment facilities and services such as electricity, water, gas and telephone are also increased during this period. This change reflects the improvement in the quality and quantity of housing in rural areas during the last decades. Housing was a major consideration in the Development Plan.The application of NGOs and charitable organizations would strengthen the degree of care and attention has been urban and rural housing.The results show that the Relief Committee for all variables in the physical condition of housing leads to significant changes in their clients is covered. Physical improvements to residential clients in the cover before it are up. So that after coverage of the number of units built in 1387 to accommodate the number of patients was 97 which the number of years before the establishment of the committee The Kandovan was not beyond from Number 14. In recent years, about 72 of housing for clients by the committee, the Housing bonyad is underway. Repair and reconstruction of housing units in 31 patients in 1387 and by funds such as loans and mortgages Qrzalhsnh or repairs have been done by the committee. In addition to the above, committee work, and grant a power meter extension and construction of new housing, gas and water.And somewhat older houses patients since 1377, has taken over. The number of branches has increased from 151 in 1377 to 1387. Share in 1387, is 75. Size from 40 m to 60 m range and base units. Usually unaccompanied patients 40 meters and 60 meters for the rest. Report has been obtained from the Statistical Yearbook committee and compare it with the results of statistical data analysis can be concluded that the physical condition of housing significantly different than that of patients covered. And patients were satisfied with the physical quality of housing built in committee, so we can reject the hypothesis H0 in favor of H1 and Committee actions to improve the physical condition of housing is covered by the client. But these measures are not enough.
    Keywords: charitable institutions, the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee, physical quality of rural housing, rural development
  • Pages 889-903
    Introduction
    Tourism is changing in to a main basis of social welfare, economic and social development of the communities and governments. Tourism has been one of the greatest economic sections of the world, with 988 international inputs and 1 billion dollars income in 2011. It is a multi-purpose industry with a considerable share in providing the countries with the added value during the last decades, and an important source of income for development countries. Nowadays, tourism is something beyond an industry and in fact a sustainable social and global phenomenon which possesses its own specific complexities. Many developed countries of the modern world assume tourism as the best way for promotion of culture, providing international understanding and achieving plentiful economic income. Actually, the main purpose of developing domestic and foreign tourism is development of the destination areas concerning social and economic development. Tourism attractions are the main reason for travelers to visit a site. Attractions are motivations which can be used for attracting visitors, because of their specific characteristics and beauties.Rural tourism is one of the tourists, the different dimensions of sustainable economic, social and environmental sustainable development of local communities to achieve bidder. Therefore, to achieve this requires the design, development and implementation of the strategic model, together with appropriate strategies and specific areas of the tourism planners and managers. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a strategic model for rural tourism development in the study area has been carried out. Villages are of great importance concerning the tourist attraction, and many tourists visit the rural areas. Therefore, sustainable rural tourism and its intelligent management require planning. Iran also has many cultural, historical and natural attractions, however the country has not be successful to get a suitable position in the world tourism industry and a trivial share of the industry's income has been devoted to Iran. The point is also true in Iran's domestic and specifically in rural tourism.Tourism is an efficient instrument plays a crucial role in economic development of the rural areas. It has been focused in many countries in order to overcome the socio-economic challenges of their rural areas. Tourism, today is one of the most dynamic economic activities plays an important role in the sustainable development of local areas. This industry through a simultaneously combination and utilizing the internal and external resources has many social, economic, cultural and environmental benefits. A survey on the literature reveals that one of the crucial rural tourism in mountainous areas is winter tourism. Winter tourism and winter sports are dependent on snow. The winter sport destination is defined as a geographic, economic and social unit consists of companies, organizations, activities etc. where the enough snowing is the basis for providing the tourist s with required services, activities and snow sports. Also, Beyazit defines the winter tourist as an individual who visits and area for pleasure and to play winter games and sports and to use its snow related natural attractions (2010, 679).The most attractive winter sport is ski. That is why snow is known as white gold (Serbulent, 2007, P.1) and winter tourism requires snow (Luthe, 2007, P.2).The most proper snow depth is 30-50 centimeters for this purpose with at least 100 days sustainment which in turn depends profoundly on other factors including the slope radiant and the sunshine angle (Kammer, 2002, 109). Developing the ski camps is very profitable for the local population including economic and income diversity, improvement of infrastructures and services, providing the local dwellers with mental security and reduction of environmental damages (Lasanta, 2007, 1327). Being seasonal is the most crucial characteristic of the winter tourism which is a function of the weather and holidays (Ahas, 2007).The author has become interested in studying various aspects of the winter tourism, because of its importance in one hand, and presence of numerous visitors on the other hand. Generally, majority of the field studies and scientific studies conducted in the world and Iran confirm that tourism is an effective facilitator of the economic social development and revival and restoration of the societies (Cavaco, 1995; Operman, 1996; Williams and Show, 1998).
    Methodology
    The key question of the research is that. "What is the appropriate strategy for developing winter tourism in rural areas around the Shemshak ski piste?" the present study has been conducted to answer the question, through a survey and field study among the experts and elites using a SWOT model (2010-2011). The questionnaire's validity was confirmed by the panel of professors and tourism experts, and alpha Cronbach's coefficient was calculated (72%) to evaluate its reliability.
    Results And Discussion
    The Harvard or SWOT model has been taught in Harvard commerce school since 1920 as a unit of commercial policy. It has been the main sprite of the most strategy compiling models in various economic, service, public and non-profitable sections (Bristone, 1381, P.31). The main purpose of the model is relating the organization to the environment to achieve the best strategies. The most important points in the model are strengths and weak points of the organizations ands the effective opportunities and threats (Bristone, 2002, P.32). Therefore, data collection process was conducted using field studies and open ended question naire. At the beginning we studied the area's internal and external environment and determined the opportunities and threats. They were ranked according to the questionnaire's data analysis and opinions of the experts. Eighty two questionnaires were distributed and 74 ones were completed by the experts at local and province levels.
    Conclusion
    The results reveal that the winter tourism development strategies in the villages around the Shemshak ski piste tended to be a competitive strategy in the frame work of 8 side-strategies which are practicable and pursuable. However, to achieve a proper position in winter tourism development we need an offensive assaulting strategy with regarding to participation of the villagers around the Shemshak ski piste as the main axis.
    Keywords: tourism, winter tourism, Shemshak Ski Piste, Rural development, Tehran Province