فهرست مطالب

ساخت شهر - پیاپی 28 (پاییز 1393)
  • پیاپی 28 (پاییز 1393)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/09/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Babak Omidvar*, Mohammad, Sadegh Tavakkoli Sani Page 2

    The quick increase in the dependency on infrastructure systems in modern life has increased the need for them. If the services of these infrastructures, due to natural or manmade disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes or terrorism events, are threatened or interrupted, the commercial and business activities would be hampered; production would decrease or completely stop; and, finally, the public welfare would be jeopardized. In addition to the direct loses, there is another factor that affects the vulnerability of lifelines in the case of disasters, that of the interdependency between lifelines. As the systems are more developed and advanced, the effect of this phenomenon is heightened and more widespread. It can cause a disruption in the undamaged components of a system due to its functional dependency on another damaged system. Therefore, vulnerability evaluation is not complete without considering the whole system of interacting infrastructures. The purpose of this study is modeling the functionality of the water network and finding some solutions to increase resilience against disruptions after the occurrence of an earthquake. An algorithm using the Leontief inputoutput model is proposed to survey the interaction between the water and electricity networks in one of the districts of Tehran, the capital of Iran. It is quantitatively shown that the decrease in interdependency has a direct and great effect on the increase in service flow reduction. However, the pattern of this effect is different between various earthquake scenarios. It is concluded that the first 20% reduction of interdependency has the greatest effect on the network performance measure. The proposed model may be used in system analysis for other dependent infrastructures and disasters and can be considered as a helpful measure for decision-makers in emergency management.

    Keywords: Quantitative performance assessment, infrastructure, interdependency, Intra dependency, Earthquake, Water network, Power system, Leontief IO model
  • Gholamali Shafabakhsh*, Mehdi Mohammadi, Raheb Mirzanamadi Page 16

    Sidewalks are considered to be the most popular places among all the public places in a city. Not only walking is important for public health, it also helps the city environment to be alive. In addition, people’s walking can attract customers to shopping centers and improve the environmental conditions and increase people’s interactions with each other. In most cases, traffic engineers adopt some models which are used to analyze the vehicle traffic to determine the levels of service of the streams in pedestrians. The new method with which the traffic capacity of Iran›s sidewalks is investigated is the Micro-Simulation method.In order to investigate various types of sidewalks, three different sidewalks with narrow, medium, and wide widths were simulated. Also, three models with 10%, 20%, and 30% presence of the elderly in sidewalks were considered for each model.Increasing elderly people’s ratio resulted in less the walking space of pedestrians for a specific unit flow rate. The decrease of the average of the walking space with only 10% elderly population is negligible in lower flow condition such as E, but in higher levels of service such as A, B, And C with higher elderly people’s population, this decrease is more noticeable.The adopted procedure in this paper can be used to investigate the effects of pedestrians from other age groups on the crossing stream and emergency situations.

    Keywords: Sidewalk, Design, Micro, Simulation, Elderly, Pedestrian, Level of Service
  • Ahmadreza Keshtkar Ghalati, Mohammadreza Bemanian*, Mojtaba Ansari Page 28

    Functions in landscape design include values in design and management process to satisfy moral and environmental needs that current attitudes see as open space design by natural and man-made elements, while the basic intellectual layers related to human as the principles of environmental design have been forgotten. Human urban knowledge seeks to meet health, biological, psychological, social and cultural human needs. Landscape design aims to utilize all these cases. The result is moral landscape design that is defined as the given social and moral values in relationship between humans and environment. Psychological functions along with environmental issues and performance are also discussed. In this process, human and environmental functions according to management priorities must be defined. At the next step, the starting point is determined by planning the ethical and environmental values, and the executive would not be affected by technical issues.

    Keywords: Landscape design, Human, oriented design process, Moral values, Social applications ecosystem concepts
  • Sara Deneshmand*, Abdolhamid Noghrehkar Page 41

    The space among the spaces and the time among the times include different kinds of energy. This quality is illustrated in liminality research. It is a critical interval of transmission that is quite distinct from previous experiences and those which follow. Personification of transmission energy is necessary in making powerful spaces, the main task of which is transmitting (liminality). The manifestation of the concept of liminality can be discussed in present buildings under the title of “liminality Architecture”. In transmission, all languages emphasizing all spaces, are common. Among the liminality spaces, one may refer to the followings: entrances, doors, passages and assigned spaces. This article scrutinizes the concept of liminality and researches it in literature, scientific resources, history, culture, architecture, and case samples and analyzes the qualities of the applied language of “liminality architecture” for future designs. In this method, seven models of liminality are presented in modification of space architecture, and defines transmission in a critical period of modification procedure. Finally, the article aims to personify the liminality spaces and clarifying doors as one kind of liminality and begins identifying the layers. At the next step, four influential reasons on the formation of each layer, and a unified structure are presented for categorization with the aid of which one can study the entrance and exit liminality based on the principles of architectural formation to strengthen the principles of design

    Keywords: Entrance, Liminality, Hierarchy, Border
  • Estimating the Willingness to Pay the Residents of Residential Garden Apartment / Case study: Nazhvan Area and District 4 in Esfahan
    Rasoul Bidram, Elham Jangharban* Page 55

    Attention and protection of certain factors such as comfort, physical and mental health, clean environment, and leisure that are increasingly being deteriorated, are the main concerns of metropolitan and big city authorities all over the world. Due to increasing population in Iran and the formation of metropolises, most suitable spaces in large towns get more dense, and consequently, less space will be left for residential complexes. On the other hand, due to land shortage and overpopulation crisis and destruction of land and gardens for residential apartments and naturally, increase of pollution and lack of green space per capita, the idea of garden apartments is presented to show how nature can be combined with human environment. In this study, an overview of the basics of garden apartments using analytical – descriptive methods as well as CVM approach have been used to estimate the willingness in paying the residents of residential complexes. The collection of data is through the questionnaire. The results show that among the people interviewed about 89% people tend to reside in garden apartments, and 43% agree to pay the average housing price in the desired area and 32% agree to pay 150 dollars more than the average housing prices in the desired area and very small percentage of people are willing to pay more money.

    Keywords: Garden apartments, CVM, Isfahan
  • Mahmoud Ghale Nouie, Nasrin Mohammadi Zadeh* Page 65

    Each of the constituent elements of Iranian traditional Bazaars, according to its relation and integration, can be considered as the source of pedestrian movement in urban spaces. Nowadays, the lack or deficiency of these elements may be considered as the main cause of stagnation or loss of liveliness in Bazaars. The main subject of this research is to define the principal drivers of movement in a chronological approach in the bazaar of Meidan-e-Ghal’e (Kerman) for the purpose of its revitalization. Deterioration of urban fabrics close to this bazaar is the major problem which in general threatens the whole historical fabric of Kerman. This study focuses on the most important elements that create the movement in this area such as mosques, schools and neighborhood centers. Comparing several aerial photos and maps in chronological order, lots of architectural and urban elements were found which no longer exist, and their lack has accented the deterioration of these fabrics because of a significant decrease of pedestrianism. The main axis of bazaar was the subject of analysis of various movements and it was obvious that the lack of movement results in the lack of liveliness and vibration in it. Finally, some suggestions are proposed to regenerate the urban fabric and revitalization of this part of Kerman.

    Keywords: Historical fabric, Revival, Bizarre Meidan Ghale. Movement, Kerman
  • Mehdi Khakzand, Koorosh Aghabozorgi, Shirin Helali* Page 77

    World health organization (WHO) in 1987, decided to create “Healthy City” for developing public health in cities and specially regions. Using the social collaboration, the WHO endeavored to solve environmental, economical and also social issues. After studying the literature review, scholars focused on the 3 mentioned approaches based on managers roles in the health area planning to establish the social collaboration position in the fields. Indeed, one the main necessities of healthy city making is to renovate the rusty fabrics in the city in order to improve people’s physical and psychic health and to save city environment and to create and develop the social justice and to make better opportunities for the residents especially in entrepreneurial area. This research attempts to answer the questions for developing healthy cities regards to managers’ roles and user encouragement in the area of urban environment, according to gathered and analyzed data. The main objective of this paper is to present a solution for achieving sustainable urban environment and improving the city development under people and managers supports and collaborations, entitled a “healthy city”. In this process, the authors, first, extracted the three main healthy city’s factors and after that evaluated the people and managers viewpoints regards to up mentioned issues, using SPSS software, and finally presented the practical guidelines, as a result.

    Keywords: Healthy city, Tehran City, Social Approach, economical Approach, environmental Approach