فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 24 (بهار 1394)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/01/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • سوران مصطفوی صاحب، فرزانه ساسان پور، علی موحد، علی شماعی صفحات 1-26
    زیستگاه انسانی هنگامی می تواند بیشترین مطلوبیت را برای انسان دربرداشته باشد که انتظارات وی را در ابعاد مختلف، زیست محیطی، اجتماعی، کالبدی، اقتصادی و... برآورده سازد. چنانچه هریک از این عوامل، در محیط زندگی یک فرد، فاقد کیفیات مطلوب باشند، بر احساس و ادراک وی از فضا و درنتیجه بر سطح رضایت مندی او از محیط زندگی تاثیرگذار خواهد بود. پژوهش حاضر با تاکید بر مشترکات دو مبحث «توسعه پایدار محله ای» و «کیفیت محیط» صورت گرفته است. اهداف این پژوهش شامل ارزیابی نحوه تعامل میان فرد و ادراک او از محیط از یک سو و همچنین وضعیت فیزیکی و عینی محیط از سوی دیگر، تعیین عوامل موثر بر کیفیت محیط مسکونی در فضای محله های شهری است. شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات میدانی، بر پایه بررسی های عینی محقق و تکمیل پرسشنامه از ساکنان و مسئولان بوده است. این پژوهش ازنظر نوع، «کاربردی» و ازنظر روش، «تحلیلی-تطبیقی» با تاکید بر «نگرش سیستمی» است. مدل ارزیابی کیفیت محیط در قالب مولفه های کالبدی-فضایی، اجتماعی-فرهنگی، اقتصادی، زیست محیطی و مدیریتی –حکمروایی به صورت سلسله مراتبی و ایجاد درخت ارزش با رویکرد بالا به پایین ایجاد گردیده است. به منظور تحلیل همزمان شاخص های عینی و ذهنی از فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP) و نرم افزار expert choice استفاده شد. بر اساس نتایج تکنیک AHP محله های شهرک دانشگاه و شاناز با 383/0 و 277/0 امتیاز ازنظر شاخص های موردمطالعه در بهترین شرایط و محله های بهارستان پایین و تپه مالان با 071/0 و 061/0 در بدترین شرایط و پایین ترین رتبه قرار دارند. درمجموع سهم هریک از مولفه ها محاسبه شد که مولفه زیست محیطی با سهم 7/35 درصدی در رتبه اول قرار گرفت و مولفه های اقتصادی، مدیریتی-حکمروایی به ترتیب با سهم 1/6 و 1/4 درصد در رتبه های آخر قرار دارند که در برنامه ریزی های آتی باید به آن توجه شود.
    کلیدواژگان: محیط شهری، کیفیت محیط، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، شهر سقز
  • حسین نظم فر، ابوذر مطیع دوست کومله، نصرالله مولایی هشجین صفحات 27-48
    امروزه پدیده دستفروشی که از جمله مشاغل بخش غیررسمی شهر می باشد، پدیده ای شناخته شده و در عین حال پیچیده به نظر می رسد. گذشته از مسائل و مشکلات به وجود آمده توسط دستفروشان، این دسته از فروشندگان فرصت های ارزشمندی را نیز برای شهر و شهروندان مهیا می سازند. ایجاد اشتغال هرچند موقت برای افراد بیکار جامعه و به تبع آن کاهش انحرافات اجتماعی، کاستن فشار اقتصادی بر اقشار کم درآمد جامعه و... نمونه هایی از این فرصت ها می باشند. اما مهم ترین مسئله ای که بسیاری از شهرها در این رابطه با آن مواجه هستند، مشکل حضور دستفروشان در پیاده روهای مراکز شهرهاست که موجبات ترافیک پیاده و سواره و ازدحام جمعیت در بخش مرکزی شهر را فراهم می نمایند. از همین رو در بسیاری از شهرها - از جمله شهر لنگرود - مکان هایی ویژه در قالب طرح های ساماندهی دستفروشان شهری جهت حضور این دسته از فروشندگان در نظر گرفته شده است. این تحقیق به دنبال آن است که علاوه بر برررسی پدیده دستفروشی در شهر، تاثیرات حضور یا عدم حضور دستفروشان در شهر را بر ترافیک پیاده و سواره شهری مورد بررسی قرار دهد. روش تحقیق از نوع مطالعات توصیفی- تحلیلی و مبتنی بر دو روش مطالعات کتابخانه ای و میدانی می باشد. برای بررسی روابط بین متغیرهای مورد مطالعه نیز از آزمون های همبستگی پیرسون و همبستگی جزیی استفاده شده است. نتایج این تحقیق حکایت از رابطه همبستگی مستقیم بین تعداد دستفروشان در مرکز شهر و حجم ترافیک پیاده و سواره در مرکز شهر و نیز رابطه همبستگی مستقیم بین تعداد دستفروشان در بازارهای حاشیه شهر و حجم ترافیک پیاده و سواره در حاشیه شهر و از سوی دیگر رابطه همبستگی معکوس میان تعداد دستفروشان در بازارهای حاشیه شهر و حجم ترافیک پیاده در مرکز شهر و درنهایت عدم رابطه همبستگی معنادار بین تعداد دستفروشان در بازارهای حاشیه شهر و حجم ترافیک سواره در مرکز شهر دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: پدیده دستفروشی، ترافیک پیاده، ترافیک سواره، مرکز شهر، بازارهای حاشیه شهر، شهر لنگرود
  • اصغر عابدینی، رضا کریمی صفحات 49-64
    وضعیت مطلوب مسکن در مناطق شهری یکی از شاخص های توسعه اقتصادی- اجتماعی در کشور های جهان محسوب می شود. یکی از راه های آگاهی از وضعیت مسکن در فرآیند برنامه ریزی، استفاده از شاخص های مسکن است. این شاخص ها از یک سو بیانگر وضعیت کمی و کیفی مسکن در دوره های زمانی مختلف بوده و از سویی دیگر راهنمایی موثر جهت بهبود بخشی برنامه ریزی مسکن برای آینده می باشد. لذا این تحقیق با هدف بررسی شاخص های مسکن در شهر ارومیه در صدد رتبه بندی مناطق 4 گانه با بهره گیری از مدل TOPSIS می باشد. این تحقیق با توجه به هدف آن از نوع تحقیقات کاربردی- توسعه ای بوده و با توجه به روش انجام کار، از ماهیتی توصیفی- تحلیلی برخوردار می باشد. گردآوری اطلاعات نیز از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه ای، مقالات موجود و اطلاعات سرشماری شهر ارومیه در سال 1390 صورت گرفته است. برای استخراج شاخص ها جهت رتبه بندی مناطق چهارگانه شهر ارومیه از نظرات 10 نفر از کارشناسان و اساتید دانشگاه استفاده شده است. وزن دهی به شاخص ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل مولفه های اصلی در نرم افزار SPSS صورت گرفته است. در نهایت مناطق 4 گانه شهر ارومیه با استفاده از مدل TOPSIS بر اساس شاخص های کمی و کیفی مسکن رتبه بندی شده است. نتایج بیانگر آن است که مناطق 1، 4، 3 و 2 به ترتیب در رتبه های اول تا چهارم قرار دارند که به ترتیب شامل بافت جدید، بافت مرکزی و فرسوده و در نهایت بافت میانی شهر که اکثر بافت های حاشیه نشین در آن قرار گرفته اند می شود..
    کلیدواژگان: رتبه بندی، TOPSIS، شاخص، مسکن، ارومیه
  • نگین صادقی، حسین ذبیحی *، تایماز لاریمیان صفحات 65-86

    با توجه به رابطه دو جانبه محیط-رفتار، مباحث مرتبط با جرایم رفتاری، ناهنجاری های رفتاری و وندالیسم بطور گسترده ای مورد توجه طراحان و جرم شناسان قرار گرفته است. از سوی دیگر، با وجود اهمیت درمان ریشه ای جرایم، مباحث پیشگیری از جرایم ارجح بر تنبیه و مجازات دانسته شده است. در نتیجه، اتخاذ تدابیر و روش های لازم جهت پیش بینی به صورت علمی و تکنیکی ضروری به نظر می رسد. بدین منظور هدف از این پژوهش ارایه روش پیش بینی پتانسیل جرم خیزی نقاط از طریق تحلیل کیفیات محیط شهری می باشد. در این راستا، مدل تحلیلی 5 سطحی متشکل از سه مولفه اصلی کیفیت فضای شهری و 11 معیار و 36 زیر معیار ارائه گردیده است. در ادامه معیارها و زیر معیارهای مدل ارائه شده با استفاده از تکنیک تحلیل شبکه ای فازی، مورد سنجش و اولویت بندی قرار گرفته و اهمیت نسبی هریک از این عوامل بر روی کیفیات محیطی موثر بر پتانسیل جرم خیزی مشخص گردیده است. سپس این مدل در مناطق 14 گاانه شهرداری اصفهان پیاده سازی شده و این مناطق در قالب 5 حوزه شهری براساس کیفیات محیطی موثر بر پتانسیل جرم خیزی و با استفاده از تکنیک تاپسیس فازی مورد تحلیل و رتبه بندی قرار گرفته اند. همچنین با توجه به نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش استراتژی هایی جهت ارتقاء کیفیت فضای شهری در راستای کنترل جرایم شهری حوزه های 5 گانه شهر اصفهان ارائه گردیده است. در پایان، همسانی یافته های تحقیق حاصل از مقایسه نتایج تحلیل در قالب رتبه بندی حوزه ها، با آمار جرم رخ داده در حوزه ها، بیانگر کارایی و تعمیم پذیری مدل پیشنهادی می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: کانون جرم خیز، تجزیه و تحلیل جغرافیایی جرم، تکنیک سلسله مراتب فازی، راهکارها و استراتژیها
  • مصطفی محمدی صفحات 87-104
    محدوده های شهری و روش منطقی تعیین و تدقیق آنها را می توان جنبه فراموش شده در نظام شهرسازی ایران دانست. هر چند در مراحل تدوین و تکوین قوانین شهری در ایران، عناوین متناظر موضوع بحث محدوده های شهری(حریم، محدوده خدماتی، حریم استحفاظی، حوزه، حد مصوب و 16 واژه دیگر) به صورت متواتر به کار رفته اند، ولی این تواتر و تکرار بر ناکارآمدی قوانین ملاک عمل افزوده تا هیچ گاه مکانیزم مطلوبی برای تعیین سطح منطقی آنها موجود نباشد. تجارب نظام شهرسازی ایران در قالب تهیه و اجرای طرح های توسعه شهری و بررسی چالش های فراروی آن گواه این ادعاست که امروزه بخش قابل توجهی از چالش های فراروی شهرسازی ایران(پراکنده رویی شهری، دسترسی غیرموثر به خدمات شهری، بورس بازی زمین، اسکان غیر رسمی، تغییر کاربری اراضی و...) مستقیما متآثر از رویه های نادرست در تعیین سطح منطقی محدوده و حریم در شهرهاست. اما به راستی ملاک و شاخص بهینه تعیین سطح محدوده های شهری در ایران چیست؟ برای پاسخگویی به این سوال، پس از آسیب-شناسی رویه های موجود و مطالعه طرح های جامع مصوب شورای عالی شهرسازی و معماری، با استفاده از روش طوفان مغزی و تکنیک دلفی با 45 کارشناس صاحبنظر همفکری و پس از ادغام نتایج، 5 عامل اجتماعی، اقتصادی، کالبدی، طبیعی و قانونی و 18 زیر عامل(شاخص) شناسایی و با توجه به ماهیت علی- معلولی در قالب تکنیک Fussy Dematel مدلسازی شدند. مهم ترین یافته های پژوهش حاضر عبارتند از؛ اول، استخراج و پیشنهاد عوامل و شاخص های تعیین سطح منطقی محدوده و حریم در شهرهای ایران، دوم، تعیین الگوی اثرگذاری و اثرپذیری شاخص منتخب و سوم، اولویت گذاری شاخص ها به عنوان ملاک عمل تعیین سطحی منطقی محدوده و حریم در شهرهای ایران.
  • هادی علیزاده، مرتضی نعمتی، کامران رضایی جعفری صفحات 105-128
    حکمرانی خوب شهری ساختار جدیدی در فرایند مدیریت شهرهاست که اشکال سنتی و متمرکز مدیریتی در شهرها را دگرگون و مبانی نظری آن را به چالش کشیده است. رهاورد جدید این رویکرد در یکپارچگی جامعه شهروندی، مدیریت شهری و بخش های خصوصی برای رویارویی با مسائل موجود در شهرهاست. این رویکرد جدید با تمامی دستاورد های مثبت خود در مبحث مدیریت شهرها خود یک اصل گمشده در فرایند مدیریت شهری کشورهای در حال توسعه و به خصوص کشور ما به حساب می آید. چرا که هنوز شاخص ها و مولفه های آن و لزوم نهادینه سازی و بسترسازی شرایط این رویکرد نوین با توجه به این شاخص-ها و مولفه ها امری ناشناخته بوده و مورد غفلت واقع شده است. این امر و لزوم پرداخت به آن وقتی ضروری می نماید که برخلاف رویکردهای انعطاف مند، مردمی و مشارکتی حاکم بر فرایند حکمروایی شهری، در کشور ما فرایند مدیریت شهری از تمرکزگرایی در امور، غیر مشارکتی بودن، عدم کارایی، عدم شفافیت و داشتن نگرش های بالا به پایین به عنوان ضعف های درون سازمانی همزمان با رشد شتابان شهرنشینی و شهرگرایی و کمبود منابع و امکانات و عدم انعطاف و پاسخگویی به این مسائل به عنوان چالش های برون سازمانی رنج می برد. بر این اساس این پژوهش در صدد است تا چالش موجود در خصوص مفهوم حکمروایی شهری و ابعاد آن در کشوری همانند ایران را بررسی نماید. در پژوهش حاضرکه با روش توصیفی – تحلیلی به انجام رسیده است سعی گردیده است نحوه بکاربست اصول و شاخص های حاکم بر نگرش حکمروایی شهری برحسب اهمیت آن و با توجه به وضع موجود فرایند مدیریت شهری کشور مورد تحلیل و ارزیابی قرار گیرد. برای برآورد این هدف از بین شاخص های حکمروایی شهری، چهار شاخص شفافیت و کارایی، تحت عنوان شاخص های درون سازمانی مدیریت شهری، و پاسخگویی و انعطاف پذیری به عنوان شاخص های برون سازمانی مدیریت شهری در قالب چندین زیر شاخص انتخاب و با استفاده از نظرات کارشناسان میزان اهمیت آنها با توجه به وضع موجود مدیریت شهری در محیط الگوریتم AHP فازی اقدام گردید. نتایج بدست آمده نشان می دهد که شاخص کارایی در بین شاخص های منتخب پژوهش به عنوان معیار درون سازمانی در فرایند مدیریت شهری بیشترین وزن را از سوی کارشناسان به خود اختصاص داد و در قسمت زیر شاخص ها نیز، داشتن خلاقیت و رهبری همه جانبه به عنوان یکی از زیر شاخص های کارایی، حائز بیشترین وزن از سوی کارشناسان گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت شهری، حکمروایی، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، تحلیل فازی
  • جهانگیر حیدری صفحات 129-152
    در سطح جهانی، در برخی از کشورها بویژه کشورهای در حال توسعه، افزایش جمعیت شهری ناشی از افزایش نرخ رشد طبیعی و تشدید روند مهاجرت روستا به شهر موجب تسلط یک شهر بر نظام شهری گردیده که در اصطلاح به آن پدیده «نخست شهری» می گویند. در ایران، رشد انفجاری جمعیت شهرنشین و رشد شتابان واقعی آن بعد از سال 1345 منجر به فروپاشی نظام های تولیدی ماقبل سرمایه داری، تغییر مناسبات شهر و روستا و تشدید جریانات مهاجرتی گردید که یکی از نتایج مهم کالبدی– فضایی آن بروز و ظهور ناهمگونی و عدم تعادل شبکه شهری کشور بوده است. با این حال، این وضعیت با توجه به شرایط متنوع جغرافیایی و اقتصادی هر پهنه ای از سرزمین یکسان نبوده و الگویی خاص به خود گرفته است. این پژوهش به بررسی سلسله مراتب شهری در استان بوشهر طی سال های 1355 تا 1390 با تاکید بر نقش منطقه ویژه اقتصادی انرژی پارس جنوبی در دوره اخیر می پردازد. روش تحقیق از نوع «توصیفی- تحلیلی» است که با استفاده از داده های سرشماری سال های مورد بررسی و مدل های مختلف، سلسله مراتب شهری استان بوشهر بررسی و تحلیل شده است. یافته های پژوهش با استفاده از تمامی روش ها و شاخص های گوناگون تعیین نخست شهری حاکی از آن است که استان بوشهر فاقد پدیده نخست شهری بوده و از این رو دارای تعادل در نظام شهری می باشد. اما، این نوع تعادل از نوع «الگوی مختلط» است. یعنی سلسله مراتب شهری استان بوشهر، نه دارای پدیده نخست شهری است و نه استاندارد بوده بلکه حالتی بینابین دارد. همچنین، مهم ترین عامل تاثیرگذار بر تغییرات سلسله مراتب شهری این استان در دوره اخیر صنایع مستقر در منطقه ویژه اقتصادی انرژی پارس جنوبی بوده است که باعث افزایش رتبه و اندازه شهرهای واقع در محدوده آن منطقه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سلسله مراتب شهری، حد اختلاف طبقه ای، قانون رتبه - اندازه، نخست شهری، استان بوشهر، منطقه ویژه اقتصادی انرژی پارس جنوبی
  • عطا غفاری گیلانده، زهرا امینی صفحات 153-174
    نقش و جایگاه صنعت در فرآیند توسعه اقتصادی جوامع مختلف بر همگان واضح است به گونه ای که صنعتی شدن در بسیاری از کشورهای در حال توسعه به منزله ی شالوده دستیابی به توسعه محسوب می شود امروزه در بیشتر کشور های جهان، صنایع کوچک و متوسط از جنبه های مختلف اقتصادی، اجتماعی، تولید صنعتی و ارائه خدمات در حال نقش آفرینی هستند. در ایران با وجودی که بیش از 90 درصد واحد های تولیدی در گروه صنایع کوچک و متوسط قرار می گیرند، به دلیل نداشتن استراتژی توسعه مبتنی بر ساختار های موجود صنعتی و رها کردن واحد های کوچک تولیدی به حال خود، این بنگاه ها نتوانسته اند سهم قابل توجهی در تولید ناخالص ملی و ایجاد ارزش افزوده داشته باشند. در این رابطه ایجاد و تجهیز شهرک های صنعتی می-تواند شرایط مناسب تری را برای مکان گزینی صنایع کوچک و متوسط، و مدیریت متمرکز این صنایع فراهم کند. در مقاله حاضر، جاذبه های شهرک صنعتی شیراز در مکان گزینی واحد های صنعتی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته است. این تحقیق بر مبنای هدف از نوع کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت توصیفی- تحلیلی است که جاذبه های شهرک را در 20 معیار مورد بررسی قرار می-دهد. در حصول به سرجمع تناسب شهرک صنعتی شیراز در مکان گزینی واحد های صنعتی سعی شده است اطلاعات جمع-آوری شده در چهارچوب تکنیک TOPSIS، بارگذاری شود. در برایند استفاده از این تکنیک، امتیاز 50/0 در رابطه با جاذبه-های شهرک به لحاظ سرجمع معیار های مورد بررسی بدست آمد. این وضعیت می تواندگویای وجود پاشنه آشیلهای متعدد در زمینه جذب واحد های صنعتی در این شهرک باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: مکان گزینی، شهرک صنعتی، خوشه های صنعتی، شهرک صنعتی شیراز
  • نفیسه مرصوصی، رضا خدادادی صفحات 175-192
    رشد سریع شهر و شهرنشینی و افزایش جمعیت شهری در کشور یکی از مشکلات شهرها می باشد. یکی از راه حل های که امروزه، می تواند از مشکلات شهری بکاهد تقویت نقش سرمایه های اجتماعی در جوامع شهری می باشد این مفهوم به عنوان یکی از عوامل تقویت کننده روابط جمعی، شبکه ها و انسجام بخش «میان انسان ها»، «انسان ها و سازمان ها» و «سازمان ها با یکدیگر» در توسعه شهری محسوب می شود و زیربنای توسعه فرهنگی، اقتصادی، سیاسی یک شهر، کلان شهر و حتی یک کشور را تشکیل می دهد. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی نقش سرمایه های اجتماعی در توسعه شهر زنجان می باشد و در پی پاسخ گویی به این سوال می باشد:آیا سرمایه اجتماعی توانسته است منجر به بهبود کیفیت زندگی در منطقه مورد مطالعه شود. نوع تحقیق کاربردی و روش مورد استفاده توصیفی- تحلیلی می باشد. برای گردآوری داده ها از روش کتابخانه ای و میدانی (پرسشنامه، مشاهده و مصاحبه) استفاده شده و برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از روش های (t تک نمونه، فریدمن، اسپیرمن و تحلیل مسیر)استفاده شده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که عامل های اعتماد اجتماعی، مشارکت اجتماعی، انسجام اجتماعی، سرمایه گذاری اجتماعی و ناهنجاری های اجتماعی به عقیده مردم بیشترین تاثیر بر توسعه شهری و کیفیت زندگی شهر زنجان داشته است که در این بین بیشترین تاثیر مربوط به میزان اعتماد اجتماعی با 63/38 درصد و کمترین عامل مربوط به ناهنجاری های اجتماعی با 2/4 درصد بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سرمایه اجتماعی، انسجام اجتماعی توسعه شهری، کیفیت زندگی، شهر زنجان
  • محمد طباطبایی نسب، فرزانه ضرابخانه صفحات 192-216
    در چشم انداز صنعت گردشگری معاصر، به دلیل رقابت روز افزون مقاصد گردشگری، توسعه برند مقصد به ابزاری استراتژیک در سراسر جهان تبدیل شده است. داشتن برند موفق گردشگری می تواند در افزایش مزیت رقابتی مقصد، جذب گردشگر و در نتیجه افزایش درآمدهای ناشی از صنعت گردشگری و رونق اقتصاد ملی بسیار تاثیر گذار باشد. با این وجود مطالعه در زمینه برند و ارزش ویژه برند مقصد در ابتدای مسیر خود است. در این راستا، پژوهش حاضر تلاشی در جهت ارائه مدلی جامع برای ارزش ویژه برند شهر اصفهان به عنوان مقصد گردشگری و بررسی عوامل موثر بر آن است. تحقیق حاضر از نظر هدف کاربردی و بر اساس روش گردآوری داده ها از نوع توصیفی- پیمایشی می باشد. داده های مورد نیاز با استفاده از پرسشنامه ای که روایی و پایایی آن مورد تایید قرار گرفته، جمع آوری شده است. در نهایت 230 پرسشنامه مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها، از نرم افزار اسمارت پی ال اس استفاده شده است. یافته های حاصل از پژوهش نشان می دهد آگاهی از برند مقصد، تصویر برند مقصد، کیفیت ادراک شده برند مقصد و هویت برند مقصد از طریق متغیر وفاداری به برند مقصد، بر ارزش ویژه برند مقصد تاثیر می گذارند. همچنین تجربه برند مقصد و شخصیت برند مقصد نیز از طریق تاثیر گذاری بر هویت برند مقصد بر مفهوم برند مقصد تاثیر گذاشته و از این طریق منجر به افزایش ارزش ویژه برند مقصد می گردند.
    کلیدواژگان: صنعت گردشگری، برند مقصد، ارزش ویژه برند مقصد، عوامل موثر بر ارزش ویژه برند
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  • S. Mostafavi Saheb, F. Sasanpour, A. Movahed, A. Shama Pages 1-26
    Introduction Cities and neighborhoods in Iran couldn’t adjust themselves to quick changes of the recent decades and have lost their quality in many aspects. due to poor planning and governance at the regional and urban design on physical function، rapid growth of large-scale migrations and inefficient policies and procedures in dealing with urban neighborhoods neglected urban neighborhoods as well as constructive role in promoting social identity، economic، physical of urban، neighborhoods problems are somehow unprecedented appearance. Vision of neighborhood sustainable development strengthened new approach of urban problems that return to concept that imagined neighborhoods as cells if urban living. Following، one of the approaches that emerged from increasing urbanization is environmental quality: as an approach that seeking “urban favorable living”. Present research based on share point of two topic: “Neighborhood sustainable development” and “environment quality”. Because of deep study this research according residents satisfaction and non-satisfaction of residents’ neighborhood quality. Finally in edition of producing criteria to neighborhood sustainably assessment، proposed the process to the decision makers and managers to priorities action for improving environment quality consistent of sustainable development process. This paper intends to promote the environmental quality and people satisfaction of living in neighborhood by recognizing and prioritizing the main environmental quality factors which have effect on satisfaction of living in neighborhood. Neighborhoods of Saqez is decades was selected for this study. So، in this paper، the environmental quality of urban in Neighborhoods of Saqez City was evaluated from residents Perspective. In this regard، this study is to pursue the following
    Objectives
    -The evaluation of urban environmental quality of Saqez neighborhoods. -Identify the affecting factors on quality of urban environment in the neighborhood. 2-Theoretical bases 1-2 Quality of urban environment Quality of urban environment is an aspect of quality of life that encompasses a sense of well being، comfort and satisfaction of people''s from economic and social factors، environmental، physical and symbolic environment of their lives. In other words، environmental quality not only attention to supply the material needs of man''s but also attention to provide and promote community capacity and social development which Also affect on their social behavior patterns. Cognitive – Psychological Perspective is current perspectives in urban environmental quality. This view from one side shows of the environment and human interactions over time and the other hand reveals the positive and negative factors that affected on the satisfaction rate and hurt sense of people from their environment lives. Two important variables include the perspective of cognitive psychology 1- Characteristics of environmental factors. 2- Characteristics of Individual and personality. These two variables explain the quality of urban environment. 2-2 The paradigm of Sustainable Development After the energy crisis of the 70''s Built a new era in urban development to as the «age lasting» brand name. Sustainable development paradigm is inspiring: Over the past 25 years، governments، Business organizations، and citizens have embraced it as a guiding principle and to achieve the desired objectives And assessment have been devised strategies. In this context، the use of indicators as one of the most essential tools to assess progress towards sustainable development have been sought. The community appropriate to their conditions Framework certain Uses. Such frameworks are based Sustainability objectives، dimensions of sustainability، sustainable development processes. The most widely Framework in terms of used Based on The stability dimensions of the Review sustainable development of the content and to assess the results of the policy pays. 3-Discussion According to the research objectives and components، the type of this research is practical and the methodology is descriptive- analytical. A survey of 6 neighborhoods in Saqez، according to the administrative division – is political. The sampling method was multi-stage: stage one was cluster sampling and in stage two، simple random sampling was used. First، based on the total population the number of samples was specified. Cronbach''s alpha was used to obtain the reliability of the research instrument. The value of 0. 86 for the tool suggests that this tool has very good reliability. To obtain validity of the questionnaire we used for factor analysis by KMO. KMO value of 0. 75 for this tool indicates a good level of validity. Some of the information has been gathered from the Population Census of Housing، data from annals، organizations، and institutions concerned. For data analysis AHP model was used to evaluate the ability of neighborhoods of Saqez City. Using AHP first the parameters are extracted Questionnaire were compared individually and in pair And a paired comparison the relative weight of each identified the weight ratio of each other is a measure. After determining the coefficients of each of the options put measures in relation to each of the indicators judged. As is evident most criteria، including quality، form and texture (0. 389)، And Activities0. 396، Citizenship Rights 0. 352، Environmental Performance0. 254، Performance and Effectiveness0. 417، in the neighborhood. Terms active in terms of economy of scale is low. in the Shanaze neighborhood criteria authenticity 0. 375، Litter quality and the natural environment 0. 346، Accountability 0. 397 is in very good condition. Terms to the quality standards of bazar neighborhood vitality 0. 366، identity and image 0. 321، mental flexibility، interaction and social life 0. 274، the economy needs 0. 418 ideally located. In terms of quality، form and texture 0. 171 and quality of the substrate and the natural environment 0. 089 in an unenviable position. Neighborhood koshtgarah can be said with regard to quality criteria are moderate. The overall quality of neighborhood identity and mental Score is the first priority. In this neighborhood vitality 0. 214، identity and image0. 210 quality with a score of mental flexibility is a priority. And the remaining criteria are moderate. in the Tape Malan All resolutions on the situation in the neighborhood environment is low، indicating the importance of these measures in the neighborhood. Conclusion In this study، the performance of each criterion was analyzed separately in the community. At the end techniques using AHP neighborhoods were ranked based on the dimensions and measures. Sensitivity analysis of the dynamics of environmental quality for the expert choice software indicated. The physical-space (mental-physical) with a share of 23. 23 and the physical-space (objective) with a share of 22. 1 in the first and second. The factors economic and management- governance In order to share 6. 1 and 4. 1 Percent are in the final rankings. The result show that according environmental quality all neighborhoods are low level generality. According to quality of suitable aspects the neighborhoods have big gap. According result central neighborhood (bazar، shanaz، koshtargah) than marginal neighborhoods (tapemalan، baharestan pain، shahrak daneshgah) exceptions shahrak daneshgah ’have more suitable and environmental sustainably. According index shahrak daneshgah with 0. 283 is in best situation and high environmental quality than other neighborhoods and tapemalan Wight 0. 061 mark is in lowest level and environmental quality. Figure 1: The final weight of the target neighborhood environmental quality of urban neighborhoods 5- Suggestions At the end، for promotion of the environmental qualities، some solutions was recommended. The main special –physical indicators that should be considered to promote the environmental qualities are including neighborhood that is well-connected with important parts of the city، aesthetic aspects of the neighborhood، mixed use، neighborhood center and sense of central location. The main social indicators are residents’ responsibility، social interaction and participation in public activities، and interaction with city managers.
    Keywords: Urban Environment, Environmental Quality, Sustainable Development, Analytic Hierarchical Process, City Saqez
  • H. Nazmfar, A. Motiedost, N. Molayi Pages 27-48
    The phenomenon of Peddling (peddler) in a city is a known and complicated phenomenon. But the most important problem is the problem of the presence of the peddlers in pavements city centers. This problem cause traffic and crowding of population in city centre. Today Topics and Issues hawkers gathered or organized in many cities is considered one of the most important urban issues. The main problem that many cities in relation to hawkers and urban Peddlers faced with the problem of the people on the sidewalks of the city and particularly in the urban centers. To solve this problem، in recent years، initiatives such as the Reorganization Plan or Reorganization Plan barrier crossing urban street vendors implemented in different cities، in the form of the scheme in some cities، special places for the vendors is considered Although many vendors، organizing projects، analyzing the causes of the growth of informal markets in the central area، had little success And also among the vendors is considered false jobs، however، due to past experiences، the destruction of specific sites of vendors is not recommended by experts and urban planners in any way. Langerood city within a city due to its small size and focus of the various applications such as commercial، office، residential، recreational downtown traffic problems together with horse and foot traffic is faced with problems. In addition to issues related to the movement of vehicles، presence of vendors and retailers in the city center as well as increase the foot traffic and the problems it has had in the city. Hence، in this city، organizing projects carried out in urban hawkers and market vendors، especially in the outskirts of urban activities is considered. This research is followed to study the effects of the presence or lack of the presence of peddlers in city in focuses of crowding of population. The study method is as kind of descriptive- analytical studies. It has been interviewed with 379 persons of the peddlers (oral interview or questionnaire) totally. Sampling method is simple random sampling too. The qualitative analysis and statistical tests are used to answer the research questions. It is used for data analysis from Excel and SPSS software. Spearman correlation coefficient and partial correlations is used to determining relationship between variables. Some of the findings of this study are: Female peddlers are active among peddlers of Langeroud City، in addition to male peddlers. The age average of peddlers of Langeroud City is fairly young. Most peddlers have medium education. Most peddlers of Langeroud City live in this township. The medium number of peddlers that are active in marginal markets of Langeroud City is more than the medium number of peddlers that are active in city centre of Langeroud. The results of this study indicate that: 1- There is a straight relationship between the numbers of peddlers in city centre and the crowd of city centre. 2- There is an inverted relationship between the numbers of peddlers in marginal markets and the crowd of city centre. 3- There is a straight relationship between the numbers of peddlers in marginal markets and the crowd of city margin.
    Keywords: Phenomenon of Peddling (peddler), Crowding of population, City Centre, Marginal Markets, Langeroud City
  • Asghar Abedini, Reza Karimi Pages 49-64
    Introduction In today’s world، housing and shelter have over shadowed more aspects if human life، so that it allocates more than 50 percent of households income. Nowadays housing and subject correlate with it considered as world subjects، urban planners and policymakers of different countries attend to solving the problem of related to that. UN - HABITATE is a pioneer organization in collecting urban indicators that it has based the subject of housing indicators in 1991 and focus on surveillance of settlements work. According to that housing is one of the fundamentals requirements of per household، should answer human needs، because the shortage of each needs in a dwelling unit will cause crisis and imbalance in the whole system of social life and lack of housing will prevent for forming and growth of healthy family. 2- Theoretical Bases Housing is a fundamental needs of human and it confirms that governments legally are responsible authority for assure to citizens in order to adequate accessibility to proper housing. Housing has the maximum weight in costs basket of Iranian citizen households and citizen households for provision of housing in cities especially in big cities are faced with many problems. In Islamic ideology the importance of housing as far as that housing provision is considered as fundamental of economic freedom and eradication of poverty. The low income citizens especially in big cities in order to different reasons like land cheap in periphery of cities، speculation، ease in buying and selling the lands without official document، non - payment of tax، weakness of urban management system and … proceed to construction of sub - standard and low quality housing and thus studying and surveying the housing indicators is necessary in cities. List the housing polices as a proper instrument for evaluation of criterions. These indicators can help us to picture of housing status in future careers. According to this، done studies in Urmia city represent that strong population migration from around villages of city because of Urmia lake drought and increase in population of city on the one hand and lack of planning and necessary tools for favorable settlement of population have caused dissonance in skeletal and social system of Urmia city. 3- Discussion This research with the goal of surveying housing quantitative and qualitative indicators in Urmia zones attend to ranking zone status according to quantitative and qualitative indicators in order to priority for comprehensive urban housing planning provision. This research according to its purpose is the kind of applied research and according to method of work، it has descriptive- analytical nature. Data collection has done via library studies، existent articles and information of the 1390 census of Urmia city. To extract the parameters for ranking the four regions of Urmia city، opinion of 10 experts and professors have been used. In this research for surveying housing indicators at 4 zones of Urmia، it has used TOPSIS model. Also in order to apply weights to indicators for ranking zones، it has used principal component method in SPSS software. Qualitative and quantitative indicators are used in this research include kind of building structure)consistency of building)، density of person dwelling، density of family per dwelling، possessive occupancy، number of room per dwelling، room for every family، density of person in room، bad housing and destructive of dwelling units. To run the TOPSIS model according to housing indicators in 4 zones of Urmia، at first the raw matrix of housing indicators is formed then according to that indicators have different scales، the normalize of these indicators via Euclidean method has done. Since used indicators don’t have equal value and importance، so for eliminate this difference it needs to calculate the weight of desired indicators and multiply this weight in disputed resolution of scale matrix. In this research calculating the weight of indicators is done via principal component method In SPSS software، so that calculated weight for each indicators as follows: kind of building structure)consistency of building) 0/65، density of person dwelling 0/37، density of family per dwelling 0/91، possessive occupancy 0/82، number of room per dwelling 0/96، room for every family 0/95، density of person in room 0/99، bad housing 0/86 and destructive of dwelling units is 0/40. With multiply normalize matrix in obtained weight from weighted normal matrix is obtained. In the next stage ideal () and non-ideal () solution for each indicators according to being positive and negative of indicators are obtained via the value of weighted normalize matrix. Therefore distance of each indicator with ideal solution () and non-ideal () solution are calculated according to the kind of indicators (in order to being positive or negative). In the next stage relative proximity of 4 zones from ideal solution () are calculated and therefore sorted in descending order according to value of as follows: zone one with value of 0/965، zone four with0/627، zone three with 0/311 and zone tow with the value of 0/301. 4- Conclusion In an overall conclusion can say in order to that Urmia city have 4 zones according to subdivisions of municipality and zone one includes new texture of city، the most of housing indicators have desirable status. Zones of two and three include median texture of city so that marginal areas of Urmia city locate in tow zones. The zone four includes old texture. Obtained results from process of TOPSIS model express that according to composition of 9 housing indicators، zones of 1، 4، 3 and 2 respectively are in grades of one through four. Note that pay attention to the results of the housing indicators ranking in Urmia city can help to planners and urban authorities in priority of urban development plans in order to intervention in housing. At the end of research suggestions are submitted in order to improvement of housing indicators. 5- Suggestions At the end، proposals are based on the results of the study are presented in the context of housing planning in the city of Urmia: - Prioritize deprived areas in order to having the bank and government facilities. - Housing master planning provision for the city of Urmia. - Benefit from the views of citizens in order to improve the housing indexes. - Improvement and renovation planning provision for old textures. - planning in order to empowerment of residents of informal settlements.
    Keywords: Ranking, TOPSIS, Indicator, Housing, Urmia
  • N. Sadeghi, Dr. H. Zabihi, T. Larimian Pages 65-86

    Introduction During recent years، there has been an increasing interest in behavioral science studies. Crime as one of the basic problems of urban societies has long been of a great interest to many fields such as sociology، psychology، urban planning، and etc. However، most studies are mainly restricted to crime prevention techniques instead of focusing on certain effective methods to diagnose hot spots of crime in order to bring criminal cases of crime under certain control. Accordingly this paper aims to present an analytical model to evaluate the quality of space and its use to estimate the probability of crime occurrences. In fact a team of urban designers، criminologists، urban managers and environmental psychologists are needed to utilize the method for predicting the chances of crime occurrences to prevent crime. For this purpose a hierarchical model with five levels is suggested. This model ranks urban spaces based on their quality of life in order to predict the hot spots of crime. These factors were later prioritized using pairwise comparison logic and fuzzy group Analytic Network Process (ANP) method and the relative importance of each factor on achieving environmental security determined. In addition the proposed model has been used to calculate the overall rating of quadratic areas in region 17 of Tehran based on their environmental sustainability. Also، using the calculation results، strategies were suggested separately for each SBD principle in order to reduce urban crime and improve the environmental sustainability of the studied area. Results showed that the area 4 and area 1 have the highest and lowest environmental security rate respectively. The result has important implication for design urban spaces، districts، cities considering the views of domestic urban designers. Theoretical bases The Quality of urban design One of the main concepts of new urban theories focuses on the planning، designing and controlling the factors to upgrade the urban quality of life that can be considered as a basic response to urban problems. The quality of urban life as a complex concept is related to society and urban space in all physical، social، and natural factors. Urban spaces have an important role in the community quality of life. One of the best sources of data for urban managers، planners or designers is use survey that can lead them to envisage the users need in their prospect plan. In order to improve environmental quality and pursue a sustainable use of resources in metropolitan areas، it is necessary to define measures that guide designers and users to have better spaces with better behavior. It is obvious that the environment and users have mutual effect on each other، so these items have their own effect on the space users to foster or facilitate certain types of behavior and hinder or impede others. Environmental security Man’s real environment is men. It is social behavior that conditions human development in any crucial sense of that term. And what is it that molds social behavior — ideas، beliefs، notions، biases، presuppositions. The method of doing an activity is called “behavior”. The human behavior is an outcome from his needs and motivations، the environment potentials، the image of the world which caused by his perception and the meaning of this image (Lang، 1987:58). Crime as the linked part of urban life is linked to the term of human، objects، activities and users perception from space. It’s proved that the environment affects the user’s mentality and the result is being appeared in his behavior. The relationship between the urban environment and human behavior is complex، dynamic and constantly changing. While it is false to assume that a certain environment will cause certain behaviors، the environment nevertheless has the capacity to foster or facilitate certain types of behavior and hinder or impede others. In environmental crime prevention it is important to understand the relationship between design and management in reducing crime and antisocial behavior. Cornish & Clarke (2014) focuses on the importance role of multidisciplinary researches on the subject of crime. Apart from the effect of social and cultural، the result of programming and secure environment of the city and the pattern of the behavior of the citizens and the Improvement and quality of environmental surrounding، the acceptance feature and the effect of the city framework is due to the decrease of city people or the decrease of crimes، is an important and difficult issue is focused on city planning theory. Weisberg et al. (2004) in their research focus on explaining crime through place-based factors as hot spots and the influence of users’ characteristics on space. Environmental criminology is associated with space، design and behavior. The criminologists believe in the fact that environment has undeniable role on the model of crime. As a basic theory crime is outcome of “opportunity، goal، risk and effort”، so controlling each item would be useful to rebate the chance of crime. Urban crime theories which are locative are proposed in two fields: physical factors and social factors. Crime prevention Public safety and security by crime prevention as one of the top priorities of justice system all over the world. Enforcing safety and criminal fairness by tackling the risk factors that cause crime as government tasks is the basis of crime prevention. By the concept of rational choice، situational crime prevention is the method of reducing crime opportunities and make people feel unable to commit crime. The process consists of incrementing crime risks & difficulty and also declining crime achievements. Crime prevention strategies consist of CPTSD (crime prevention trough social development) and CPTED (crime prevention through environmental design). Crime prevention by environmental design isn''t new. Our Ancestors respected this matter in designing their cities and neighborhood. Today we are responsible to design our living environment so that the behaviors improve and this will result an improvement of the quality of life. Discussion This paper critically traces the new integrative method for predicting crime rates through urban studies in the urban district and its use to rank urban spaces in Esfahan. The proposed method consists of defining criteria of urban spaces quality، using FUZZY ANP and TOPSIS to rank the districts and the analyses of outcome data. The steps of this process are: Step 1: Form a committee of experts. Step 2: Identify the factors and sub-factors to be used in the model. Step 3: Structure the hierarchical model based on the factors and sub-factors identified at Step 2. Step 4: Assuming that there is no dependence among the main factors، Form a pairwise comparison matrix to obtain pairwise comparison results of the importance of main success factors toward achieving the overall objective. Step 5: calculating the influence priority super matrix Step 6: In this step، the interdependent priorities of the main success factors are calculated Step 7: In this step، local priorities of the sub success factors are calculated using the pairwise comparison matrices. Step 8: Finally، the overall priorities (global weight) of the sub success factor are calculated by multiplying the local priorities of sub success factors (obtained in Step 7) Step 9: Determining inter organizational critical success factors. Step 10: Rank districts. This method is one of the more practical ways for ranking districts in order to predict the potentiality of crime hot spots.

    Conclusion

    Crime prevention and Safety is one of the basic necessities of today’s urban life. Besides، urban safety as an applied science in the field of urban design focuses on the relation between space and behavior. Although studying crime in the cities is majorly focused on prevention and punishment، the importance of crime prediction is undeniable. This study argues that qualitative factors of urban design are the best way to determine criminal potentials in different districts. The new proposed hierarchical - network model is consisted with urban and crime theories and is usable to rank crime hotspots before committing crime by their potentiality. Access to crime potential of districts can be used to plan، design and manage urban areas by aim of crime control. For this analytical model 5 levels، include triplet principles of urban quality، 11 criteria and 37 sub-criteria have been used and analyzed through ANP analytical method. As for inner relations، this relation model isn’t linear but as a network. Through the analytical results، the most important index of “triplet indexes of urban space quality” the most important is “structural-functional” issue with importance weight “0. 382”. Applying the model in studied area (14 districts and 5 zones of Esfahan) resulted in the ranked zones which really has invers relation with statistics of reported crime in the same zones. It shows the ascendant process of crime in 5 zones (center، south، east، west and north) has the same sequence of descending process of urban quality in the same 5 zones of Esfahan. Suggestions: What is now needed is a cross-national study involving crime as a behavior influenced by space. These studies can continue with the relational cases of fear of crime، social participation or social identity. Based on the results of this study، some of the suggested strategies for increasing urban quality and thereupon decreasing possibility of crime are as follows: - Considering standard facilities and enough lighting in the streets and passages - Preventing vandalism and repairing or replacing damaged city equipment - Reforming uncontrollable and indefensible spaces - Increasing control and surveillance on urban spaces - Planning flexibility and aggregation in urban spaces - Creating more dynamic and vibrant urban spaces - Enhancing urban safety through increasing surveillance and sense of belonging among citizens.

    Keywords: Crime Prevention, Crime Hot Spots, Geographical analyses of crime, Urban Safety, Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), Guidelines, Strategies
  • M. Mohammadi Pages 87-104
    Statement of problem: Urban boundaries and how they can be reasonably determined is neglected aspect in the Iranian urban planning system. However، in the formulation and development of municipal laws in Iran the subject of urban areas frequently been used، But the frequency and repetition criteria are added to the ineffectiveness of laws. So that، Has never been a good mechanism for determining a logical level for iranian urban bundaries. Iran urban palnning system experehence and examine the challenges faced by the witness that today، a significant part of urban development challenges in iran (urban spwral، ineffective access to utilities، land speculation، informal settlements، land use changes، etc.) directly affected by improper procedures in determining a reasonable area of urban boundares. 2.
    Objectives
    The main objective of this study is to Extraction and modeling of selected indicators to determine the logic level of Iranian Urban Boundary (IUB) by using Fussy Dematel. 3. Research
    Method
    But what indicators are optimum to determine urban boundary in Iran? To answer this question، after pathological examination of existing procedures and the examination of comprehensive plan approved by the Supreme Council for Planning and Architecture of iran، with using brainstorming and Delphi، been consulted with 45 experts. 4.
    Findings
    after integrating the results، 5 factors of social، economic، physical، natural and legal، and 18 sub-factors (indicators) are identified and were modeled with Fussy Dematel technique and regarding to their nature of the causal effect. The most important findings of this study are: first the extraction of suggestive indicators for reasonable area of urban budaries، second، determine the impact and interact selected indicators anf theird، Third، the priority of this indicator as a criteria to determine a reasonable area of iranian bundares. 5.
    Results
    Lack of transparent rules and codified in the definition and method of determining for these boundaries، On the other hand، the lack of mechanisms for management of these zones; caused spontaneous expansion، scattered overlying municipal services and management costs، rising delinquencies in construction، land speculation and environmental issues in urban boundaries. The point that needs to be considered in determining the boundaries in Iranian cites is urban different geographic. Moreover the pathology of urban areas have shown that a lack of oversight and management of these areas is one of the most important challenges facing urban managers.
    Keywords: boundary, resonable area, Fussy, Dematel
  • H. Alizadeh, M. Nemati, K. R.Jafari Pages 105-128
    Defining and Measuring Urban Governance Indicators Using Fuzzy AHP 1-Introduction Urban governance is new structure in the process of urban management that changed the centralized and traditional forms of management in cities and challenged its theoretical base. The results of this new approach in the integration of civil society، urban management and private sectors to deal with urban issues are salient. This approach looks at the system and all sectors of society as a unified body، so it can be very useful in urban management topic. Rapid population increase، that coupled with rapid urban development and urbanization، facing policy makers، official’s managers and municipal system with many problems in different countries. Naturally، a huge wave of urbanization has made urban problems such poverty، migration، lack of resources، services and infrastructure، urban congestion and pollution which are significant challenges for urban management and also has hampered economic، social and cultural processes in cities. Nowadays، urban management facing with new challenges. These challenges proof the necessity of change in the structure of city management. Traditional approaches to management and planning in process of society''s problems solution are not effective. Urban governance has appeared as a new strategy in process of urban management in the late 90''s، after the emergence of these events and new trends in urban society. Accordingly، this study seeks to survey the challenge of urban governance and its dimensions in a country like Iran.. This study with descriptive and analytical method، try to analysis how to apply the principles governing of urban governance. To estimate this purpose، four samples of this new approach as transparency، accountability، efficiency and flexibility with several sub-indices were analyzed in fuzzy AHP algorithm، under expert opinions 2- Theoretical bases After urban management attitudes، economic and political views and scientific development and planning concept began to change، urban governance has considered in urban management process. The evolution of urban management approaches shows that flexibility، replication and accountability of government systems and acceptance of hierarchical bottom-up process are the original pressing principles are sustainable development. Literature review defining new criteria’s related to urban governance (Cronwall and gaventa،2001). They all emphasize three main elements in the process of urban conduction system: civil society، private sector and city management bodies. Governance pattern of urban development is remembered as the participatory process by which all stakeholders including government، urban management، private sector and civil society provide the tools to solve the problems of rapid urbanization. The situation in developing countries، rapid urbanization in the continuation of traditional management approaches in cities، created conditions that necessity to strengthen local governments and public and private sector participation in urban development planning. In fact، today it is recognized that solving the problems caused by rapid urbanization in these countries is possible by reformed traditional methods and use of new management approaches. Indentify the indicator and applying priciples is the most omportant fair in urban governance approch. Because with this indicatorse we could find the theories and view points. 3– Discussion One goal of this research is defining appropriate indicators for urban governance. After review the history and literature of urban governance، we selected indicators that match the Iran conditions. Because this study deals with qualitative concepts، fuzzy logic was based as a leading methodology. Then، the decision making team that contains management and urban planning experts have formed. This group were asked about their views on the criteria and sub criteria’s of urban governance with paired comparisons. In the next step، hierarchical model has drawn and the relationship between criteria’s and sub criteria’s has determined. After this stage، we constitution the primary decision matrix and then fuzzy decision matrix. FAHP model has multiple computational steps، which were conducted in this study as a hierarchical prosses. Finally، we determined the weights of urban governance criteria’s and sub criteria’s based on decision making team. 4– Conclusion This study with analytical – descriptive methodology، analysis the main urban governance criteria’s (transparency، efficiency، accountability and flexibility) and sub criteria’s by using experts viewpoints and FAHP model. The results show that، among the main indicators، performance with28% was considered as important indicators and accountability index gain the minimal weight. Between sub criteria’s، performance allocated the lowest and highest weight. So that Creativity and leadership with 88% gain the heights weight and Problem-Solving Skills with 20% gain the lowest weight. In the present study using the expert opinions، transparency and efficiency with its own secondary indicators were selected as a revolutionary indicator of urban governance. Results in data analysis using a fuzzy AHP (FAHP) showed that the main problem in urban management system is within organization problemse. We could see this topic in creativity and leadership as a sub criteries. The results showed that for move in urban governance road، we have to attention to internal organization relations. 5– Suggestions This study، according to its objects، determined and proposed indicators and their weights، for urban governance، by using expert’s viewpoints.
    Keywords: urban management, Governance, analytic hierarchy process, Fuzzy Logic
  • J. Heidari Pages 129-152
    A survey of the urban hierarchy in Bushehr province Emphasis on the role of Pars Special Economic Energy Zone 1. Abstract In some countries، especially developing countries، Population growth due to natural growth rate increases and intensification of rural-urban migration process has led to dominance one City on urban systems، in terms، says to it «Prime urban phenomenon». In Iran، the explosive growth of urban population and its real rapid growth after 1345 led to collapse of pre capitalist system of production، Changing relations between urban and rural intensification of migration flows. One of results of its main Physical - spatial has been a manifestation of heterogeneity and imbalances in urban networks in the Country. This research investigates urban hierarchy in Bushehr province during 1355 to 1390.. Research method «is a descriptive analysis» that using Official census data for 1355 to 1390 and various models، urban hierarchical in Bushehr province، has been studied and analyzed. Research findings using of all different methods and indexes to determine Primate city index that Bushehr Province was without primate city. Hence، It balanced in urban system. 2. Introduction Since 1800 has increased growth of urbanization، So that in 1980، about 8/39% of the world''s population have lived in urban areas. (Darkush، 1383:10). In 2005، been estimated that the urban population of the world 18/3 billion people of a total population of 46/6 of the world''s billions، In other words close to half of world''s population has resided in urban areas، and hence، this year، we witnessed a rapid urbanization of the world ''s population. Roosa; 2008:3). Currently، urban population of the world is increasing about 3/2 percent each year، Meanwhile، rapid development and rapid industrialization in many Third World cities is astounding، Therefore، the important point is that huge volume of this growth will happen in the developing world، Place where cities، more than three times a Location in rich and developed countries are growing. (Leman; 1991:216). Mainly، These cities are Centers that a high proportion of the population living in those places، as the dominant cities or primate cities are known. An American geographer Mark Jefferson coined word، «Primate City» in 1939، for the first time for such cities (Azimi، 1381:65). the dominant cities or primate cities is a city that in terms of population or functioning can affect on other cities in a country (Shekooi، 1380:485). In relation to Iran، the explosive growth of urban population begins since 1345 that it is a actual reflection of the agrarian reform and national investment and rapid growth of investments is in the cities، Which led to complete collapse Pre-capitalist system of production with completion and development of new relations in the cities، led to the intensification of migration flows (Nazarian، 1383:79). Consequently، the country''s urban network gradually becomes heterogeneous. Thus، the present Study attempted to investigate and analyze Bushehr Urban hierarchy based on demographic variables of different models such as class differences، rank size rule، and based on demographics 1355 to 1385، 3. Research Methodology The research method is a kind of «a little – Analytical، with reference to official census figures of our country، Data and information needed to population of province''s cities، extracting، Then utilizing of models of different urban hierarchy، Bushehr province urban hierarchy has been analyzed. 4. Research findings survey of Bushehr province urban hierarchy over 1355 to 1390 Suggests that the province has almost balanced and homogenous urban network. At first، in province urban hierarchy using a model classes difference and then using model rank - size investigated and same results has obtained in a model classes difference over the course 55 to 85، number of demographic groups، will grow from 4 groups of 55 years into 6 groups in the year 85. In all courses، only in second group of model، city of province has not been place for it، and Bushehr in first group، Borazjan in second group، Ganaveh port city in third group، and in the Latest course Khormoj in fourth group and other cities of the province have been placed in last group، the same process also is repeated in Rank-size model. In general، Research finding are indicated a relative balance is in province urban networks. 5. Conclusions urban population increasing has been of the most significant reflection of Agrarian Reform and national investments after 1345، That eventually، It has led to imbalanced and heterogeneous country urban network، and in many cases to first urban phenomenon. The important point is that this condition should not be generalized to all regions of the country. In the meantime، survey of the Bushehr province urban hierarchy over 1355 to 1390 indicates that This province، on the contrary many provinces، especially the provinces that have megacities، provinces that almost are balanced and homogeneous urban network. Urban hierarchy In Province using model Difference classes and model rank - size has been investigated and similar results have been obtained. In a model classes difference over the course 55 to 85، Number of demographic groups، will grow from 4 groups of 55 years into 6 groups in the year 85. In all courses، only in second group of model، Bushehr in first group، Borazjan in second group، Ganaveh port city in third group، and in the Latest course Khormoj in fourth group and other cities of the province have been placed in last group. In general based on all different methods and indexes to determine Urban Primacy Index، (Two City Index، Four City Iindex، Mahta formula، Moomav and Alwosabi) can be said that Bushehr Province was without a Primate city، and it balanced in the urban system. But this kind balance is of type»mixed model«، Meaning that Bushehr province urban hierarchy is not Standard and Primate City is not dominate in it.
    Keywords: Urban hierarchy, classes difference, Rank, size rule, Size, Primate City, Bushehr province, Pars Special Economic Energy Zone
  • A. Ghafati Gilandeh, Z. Amini Pages 153-174
    Introduction One of the most effective work in the field of urban and regional planning، is establishment of industrial towns that can provide a good platform for the location of small and medium industries that include more than ninety percent of the manufacturing industries in Iran. Construction of this towns in the outside of the cities and residential areas، will lead to create a healthy environment and allocation of land for other urban uses. In this regard، it is necessary that these industrial towns have features that are indicators of good condition and attraction for establishment of industrial estates. Recognition of the towns conditions in terms of mentioned features can be a pre-introduction to measures the strength points and filling existent gaps in the attraction of industrial units. This importance is considered as a central approach in the present paper and by selecting Shiraz industrial town as a case study، the strength and weak points in terms of good condition for locating industrial units are investigated in an empirical field. So in this paper، we have tried to done an investigation on the attractions of Shiraz industrial town for location of industrial units. In determining the overall utility of Shiraz industrial estate for locating industrial units، we have tried to load collected data in the framework of TOPSIS technique. 2- Theoretical basics The industrial towns as a way in achieving general purposes of development has have attracted attention of country planners. Industry development in the framework of industrial complex; industrial area; industrial region; industrial pole or industrial towns is a phenomenon that in term of importance is considered from the beginning of 20th century in the industrial development of world countries and taking advantages of capacities and facilitates of every region. Any country that wants to take a step on the way to industrialization، is forced in terms of land and labor division in different regions of the country، using industry development strategy، and organizing poles and places for accumulation of industrial. The necessity of organizing industrial towns is caused by the growth of the population; the issue of employment، environmental protection، land restrictions and the development of industrial land. Also leading manufactures for locating industrial units in particular area such as industrial towns can be considered to prevent environmental pollution and to use the economies of aggregation. The establishment of industrial estates and complexes is from the major actions in recent years in many cities of Iran. The task of locating in one dimension can be considered in the location of industrial towns. According to the important direct and indirect role of new industrial towns in changes in population and employment of region ‘these towns are of considerable importance From the other dimension، The task of locating is considered from the angle of the attractions of the industrial estates for location of industrial units that usually include small and medium industries. Really، in the present paper، task of locating is considered by the recent aspect. The problem of factory location has been considered in the strategic stage of decision making and has major importance on its success. Appropriate place has an important role in the competitiveness of the company in the market and should choose in a way that results can be obtained in the form of achieving competitive and strategic advantages in comparison with other competitors. 3-Discussion Variable and indicators in this study include data and information that are used in 20 criteria in determining the compliance level of Shiraz industrial town for locating the industrial units. A criterion is considered as a standard to the judgment or a rule for compliance test of decision options. In this research as a result of literature relates to the research، the used criteria in the process of locating were selected and organized. Also in this paper، an option that its desirability has been measured based on different criterion is Shiraz industrial estate that is located in the south of Shiraz metropolis. The main steps in the process of study that reflects the research methodology are: -standardization of the criterion values based on the degree of membership in the fuzzy function and calculating status of Shiraz industrial town based on standardized domain. -determining the weight of used criteria based on pairwise comparison. - Operational use of multi-criteria decision rules: in this step، there is intention، to test the operational capabilities of TOPSIS model as a prominent example of the multi-criteria analysis techniques; in determining the level of the attraction of Shiraz industrial town for locating industrial units. 4-conclusion One of the important steps in achieving the objectives of regional and urban planning is industrial estates، which can Create the appropriate field for the establishment of small and medium industries that involve more than 90% of the manufacturing industry in Iran. Creating an industrial town outside of cities and residential areas would be lead to creation of healthy environment and so، more Land can be allocated for required urban land uses. In this regard، it is necessary that industrial towns have features which indicate appropriate conditions and attractions for the establishment of industrial units. Understanding the status of industrial towns in terms of noted features، can be viewed as an Introduction to providing Smart Measures to reinforce strengths and to fill gaps in absorbing industrial units. This issue is viewed as the key approach in the present article and by choosing shiraz industrial town as a case study، strengths and weaknesses in this town has been investigated in an experimental field in terms of having good condition for locating industrial activities. This research is applied research in terms of target and so، this research is descriptive research in terms of nature that study attractions of the industrial park in terms of 20 criteria. In order to achieve total fitness of shiraz Industrial park for location of Industrial units in terms of investigated criteria، we have tried to load collected and processed data within TOPSIS method. In consequence of using above techniques، industrial park score was 0/50 in relation to the total number of investigated criteria. It shows that industrial park has some considerable problems for locating Industrial units. 5-suggestions -The establishment and improvement of infrastructures; facilities، equipment and services to attract more of the industrial units in Shiraz industrial town.
    Keywords: location, Industrial Town, Industrial Clusters, Shiraz Industrial park
  • N. Marsoosi, Khodadadi Pages 175-192
    The role of social capitals in urban development with the emphasis on life quality (Case study: Zanjan city) Expended abstract Urban rapid development، living in the city and in crease in city population in country is one of major problems of the cities. Nowadays، one of the solutions which can decrease the urban problems is the empowering the social capital role in city communities. This concept is considered one of the empowering factors in group relations، networks، and solidarities «among human beings»، «human beings and organizations» and «organization with each other» in urban development and they form the infrastructure of cultural، economical، and political development of a city، and a metropolitan، and even a country. The other approach says that nowadays in the developing and undeveloped countries، the increased growth of urbanism and formation of new scale of urban development in the recent decades have caused the urban and contemporaneous urbanism encounter with new challenges such as the increase of official department deficiency، irresponsibility of executive department، the low amount of trust among people and among people and personnel، and lack of incorporative morale in order to improve the social states، social perverts، fade of identity and social dependence، development of environmental and social ecology problems، wonderful inequality of society and economic، and in general decrease of life quality. Due to extensity of scantling and change in the entity and complexity of urban matters، it is avoidable to look thoroughly and note to the coact of matters in order to solve them constantly. Therefore in the urban society، citizens enroll in the widespread social network by living in the urban area and mutual reaction with each other and with urban management، potentially and effectively، in which the amount and actions of these reactions play an important role in the economic and urban management (Romiani، 1392، p. 35). Social capital is emphasized since it has an effective role in these reactions in the development and quality of citizen life (Kiss et al، 2008:388-399، as cited in Romiani، 1392، 38). Considering this matter، Robert Putnam، the politics highbrow applies the social capital term in the wide sense and defines it as «aspects of social organization such as networks، norms and trust that facilitates bailout and cooperation to access to mutual resources and provides access to public goods (Thamizoli and Prabhakar، 2009، p. 193). His definition notes to advantages of social networks (Snelgrove، 2009:1993) and aspects of social cohesion such as trust between individual and norms of reciprocity and it includes characteristics and qualities of social relations (Snelgrove، 2009:1993). So in sidelong of human capitals، financial and economical capitals، the social capitals have found more importance. This concept implies to unions، the relations among members of one network as a valuable resource that induce accessibility to aims by norm creation and mutual trust (Ognibene، 2010; 23). The social capital that has a socialistic history is considered as successful lever and is supported too much. In other words، the social capital is assigned as a proper place to use human capital and is a way to achieve success. As some writers argue that social capital is a hidden nexus between social inequalities and healthy and on the other hand it gives value to people life and makes the life simple and more enjoyable (Mohan and all، 2005:26). So social capital role is being influenced by time and place in the life quality. The components and constituent factors will be different according to time period and geographical place. When life facilities are in access، they provide possibility of favorable life for citizens. Besides the structures improvement and their recovery، it responds to various needs of people in the economic، social، nature، education، urban facilities، place dependence، feel of beauty، place quality fields، and so on (Beumer، 2010:1-2). In other words، life improvement leads to decrease of poverty، change in the people income، life conditions، health state، environment، moral and mental stress، leisure، family happiness، and social relations (Woodhouse، 2006:22). Therefore، the social variables especially social capital plays a key role in the process of life quality promotion because the consensus and social trust do not form without people incorporation. The investigation of developmental program of local and national represents this matter، too. Since social capital create cooperation among people like glue and it is a resource of social reacts in the different fields of life such as public fields in the local level (micro) to government level (macro). The existence of this capital makes the society powerful when encounter with problem and its decrease leads to emergence of social problems. So the purpose of this research is to survey social capital role in Zanjan city development and it is going to answer the question whether social capital can lead to improvement of life quality in the area of the study. The research aim is survey of social capital role in the development of Zanjan city and it attempts to answer the question wether social can lead to life quality improvement in the under study region. Therefore، the research type is applied and its method is descriptive - analytic. Library and field methods (questionnaire، observation، and interview) were used to gather the data. One- sample T. Fridman. Spearman، and factor analysis have bean used to analyze the data. Therefore، research findings showed that the factors including social trust rattem social participation، social coherence، social capital، and social abnorms have the highest effect on urban development and life quality in Zanjan city based on people view. Amongst them، the highest effect is related to social trust rate with 38-63% and the lowest is for social abnorms with 4. 2%. On the other hand، cities as the biggest inhabitant of human beings contain varied human activities which are exposed to great changes in the physical environment unprecedented after industrial revolution period and in social structure as a result. The result of these changes is seen clearly on the social structures especially decrease in social partnership and solidarity as the study of the socialist including Ferdinand، Tonnis، and Georg showed. Tonnis believed that the trust، solidarity، and partnership among people and the neighborhood groups in the traditional communities are gradually decreased in the long- term. In addition، development of social virtual networks leads to»much erosion in social relationship «because of decrease in relativeness and neighborhood. This issue results in increase in social challenges in the urban development. Therefore، it is said that، todays، the common aim of development in local، national، and international levels is life improvement and the future life of human relies on better understanding of the factors. So، some of these factors have influence on the human life quality. On the other hand، some of these factors are related to the quality of our relationship with other groups، formal and informal organizations which are named as the social capital as the lost factor in development. In this process، social capital acts as the empowering factors in group relations، networks، and solidarities» among human beings «،» human beings and organizations «and» organization with each other «Therefore، the term social capital is used for the first time in the classic work of Jacob» Death and is life of American big cities«(1961). The aim of this research was to survey social capital role in Zanjan city development and it is going to answer the question whether social capital can lead to improvement of life quality in the area of the study. The theoretical studies are taken into account to manifest the review of the literature. They are done by referring to the library studies، books papers، and thesis. As a consequence، Likert scale (partnership، trust، solidarity) and life quality is used to create a question and find an answer to the research question. The questionnaire was distributed in the study area and completed by residents of that region then it is analyzed.. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Factor analysis) in SPSS software were used to analyze the data. The population of the study was inhabitants of Zanjan city. Based on censorship data in 2012، population of Zanjan is 341801 people in 4 regions and the family number was 89800. 384 questionnaires were distributed among people randomly. The result of t- test showed that the average gained values in the elements of (Trust، network، and life quality) is less than average point (3). This value is less than average point (3) for the dimensions of social trust، local networks، and life quality and this value shows more than point (3) for the dimensions of social cooperation and cohesion. They are based on the respondents view. Therefore، the two indices showed that cooperation in the thinking and consulting fields of life place improvement has a direct relationship with local councils، cooperation in solving the city problem، and partnership of the local and urban organizations in solving the problems. On the other hand، social solidarity has a direct relationship with the changes of common values among citizens، social deviational and abnormalities. It is natural that when social solidarity is high، social abnormalities including corruption is less in the society. Friedman test showed that there is significant difference among the average of social capital dimension of sample families at alpha level (0/001). Amongst them، the highest ranking average is for partnership (3/40)، social solidarity (3/37) respectively and the lowest is for local network (2. 52). Therefore، it is claimed that citizen partnership in general affairs and urban management is evaluated positively because urban management and services are governmental- centered and local organization are weak. Likewise، non- parametric analysis correlation among the components of social capital shows there is a direct relationship among all dimensions. The direct and indirect effects of indices such as social partnership، social solidarity، social trust، and local organizations on life quality is calculated by analysis test which shows that the highest is for social partnership (0. 427). therefore، the findings showed that the rate of people partnership with local councils، local organization، police، etc. is notably increased in comparison to some years ago – so، this dimension is recognized as the main factor among social components in life quality development and the local organization dimension has the lowest effect in the life quality development of area of the study therefore، there is significant relationship between social capital and life quality increase in urban areas based on the tangible evidence. Suggestions According to the results، the promotion backgrounds of entity and trust networks development should be provided in the city sections. 1. To create a proper culture of city by governments; in which three people entity includes (local groups)، (bazar economic)، (private section) and political entity (government) to act together، but not put against and in opposition to each other. 2. Formation of sympathizer and collaborator groups in locals and fellowship of citizens in that in order to incorporate and acting without considering ethnic and religious differences. 3. to create and support the role of local groups in the incorporative of local people to decide about city management and life quality. 4. The development of social capitals should be systematic and should be analyzed in line with development of social capital. 5. The improvement of mosques roles due to trustee parties'' authority among people. 6. The appointment of more and intimate relations between social entities and urban dwellers to increase their knowledge and to obtain their trust. 7. The creation of advisory committee and holding of educational-participatory meetings in the local societies. 8. the characterization of participatory structure for people and make them understandable for citizens.
    Keywords: social capital, life quality, urban development, Zanjan city
  • M. Tabatabaeenasab, F. Zarabkhaneh Pages 192-216
    Introduction Over the past few decades، the tourism industry developed in many parts of the world and created challenges in tourism marketing. Including the factors affecting development of the tourism industry، employing effective marketing tools and parameters (Sardy Mahkan، 1380). However، one of the main causes retardation of the process of growing industry in the Iran، is poor city and tourism marketing (Saee، Naeechjand Rezaie، 1389). A city marketing strategy means، creating a strong brand for tourism destinations. Successful city branding strategies to differentiate between their brand destination than other competitors and increase their performance in a competitive market، has created a distinct position for the brand. Among the requirements established strong brand، recognition brand equity is one of the causes (Iranzadeh and et al، 1391). Therefore، in this study we have tried to study literature in this field، we offer a model for determining the factors affecting brand equity receptor. 2- Theoretical bases In the present study، after reviewing the relevant literature، eight variables fined، as factors affecting tourism destination brand equity. This variable are destination brand awareness، the destination brand image، the destination brand personality، destination brand loyalty، destination brand identity، the destination brand concept، destination brand experience and destination brand quality. on this basis، we offer a conceptual model for this paper. 2-1- Destination brand awareness: Destination brand awareness is consumer''s ability to recognize or recall a brand specific destination that create destination image in the minds of potential tourists (Koneknik and Gartner، 2007). 2-2- Destination brand image: Destination brand image is defined by Woodward (2000) as، «Brand perceptions of the brand that reflected in the consumer''s mind by brand associated markers (Imani khoshkhoo and Aubi Yazdi، 1389). 2-3- Destination brand personality: Destination brand personality is can be defined as»the set of human characteristics associated with a brand«. These properties are attributes such as young، athletic، energetic، or complex. (Usakli and Baloglo، 2011). 2-4- Destination brand loyalty: Destination brand loyalty is a situation that indicates how likely a customer is to bring another brand، especially when that brand is no change in price or other aspects of product creation is stopped (Iranzadeh et al، 1391). 2-5- Destination brand identity: Destination brand identity is set of unique brand of communication، in the form of slogans، promises and quote that insures customer and creates a new identity or improve the result of his previous identity (Keller، 2003). 2-6- Destination brand concept: Destination brand concept is human minds in relation to brand that including descriptive and evaluative information that is related to brand. In fact، we can say that the source of creation value for the customer''s brand، is brand recognition (Divandari et al، 1390). 2-7- Travel experience: Travel experience is experience that will acquires the tourists after visiting the destination. 2-8- Destination brand quality: Perceived quality of the brand، is the consumer''s perception of the overall quality or superiority of a product or service than other products or services (Imani khoshkhoo and Aubi Yazdi، 1389). 3- Discussion In this paper، after examined conceptual model by using smart pls software، it became apparent conceptual model is a good fit. Then hypotheses were examined. Results indicate that all hypotheses were confirmed. Examined hypotheses study showed that brand loyalty factor by the path coefficient 0/658 is greatest impact on brand equity. result t-value The path coefficient hypotheses confirm 9/231 0/444 Destination brand awareness has a positive direct impact on destination brand image. confirm 4/180 0/173 Destination brand awareness has a positive direct impact on destination brand loyalty. confirm 3/172 0/248 Destination brand image has a positive direct impact on destination brand loyalty. confirm 3/398 0/262 Destination brand quality has a positive direct impact on destination brand loyalty. confirm 4/471 0/316 Destination brand personality has a positive direct impact on destination brand identity. confirm 2/996 0/256 Destination brand experience has a positive direct impact on destination brand identity. confirm 3/025 0/198 Destination brand identity has a positive direct impact on destination brand loyalty. confirm 10/848 0/527 Destination brand identity has a positive direct impact on destination brand concept. confirm 3/707 0/211 Destination brand concept has a positive direct impact on destination brand equity. confirm 12/320 0/658 Destination brand loyalty has a positive direct impact on destination brand equity. 4– Conclusion The target study is investigated affecting Isfahan brand equity factors as a tourist destination. that has been specifically were studied among domestic visitors to the city. To check the hypotheses used of structural Equation modeling and smart pls softwar. A structural equation model showed the conceptual model is a good fit. Also، it was found that all the hypotheses of the study were approved. In support the hypotheses، as main determine which variables، brand awareness target destination brand image، brand loyalty destination، the destination brand quality، brand identity Target، the Target brand، Target brand character with the path coefficient Target brand experience، are the main factors affecting brand equity. 5– Suggestions 1) examine the conceptual model in other cities 2) The effect of other marketing variables on brand equity target 3) review the research on the destination of foreign visitors and attention to cultural variants.
    Keywords: tourism industry, destination brand, destination brand equity, factors affecting brand equity