فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:5 Issue: 3, 2015
  • Volume:5 Issue: 3, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/01/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Alireza Ghannadi, Ahmad Movahedian, Zahra Jannesary Pages 167-173
    Objectives
    Lallemantia royleana (Benth. in Wall.) Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Iranian traditional and folklore medicine in the treatment of various nervous, hepatic, and renal diseases. In the present study, whole seeds of the herb were prepared and evaluated for hypolipidemic activities using an animal model.
    Materials And Methods
    Animals were fed normal diets or diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.5%) for 12 weeks to evoke hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, hypercholesterolemic animals were treated with different doses of whole seeds of Balangu (0, 5, 10, and 20%) for 12 weeks.
    Results
    Results showed that the serum total cholesterol and triglyceride decreased in all groups treated with Balangu seeds p
    Conclusions
    Our results showed that L. royleana seeds decreased the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hypercholesterolemic animals but led to the increase of atherogenic index in all treated groups.
    Keywords: Lallemantia royleana, Lamiaceae, Iranian Traditional Medicine, Cholesterol, Hypercholesterolemia
  • Shokat Majidian Eydgahi, Javad Baharara, Saeideh Zafar Balanezhad, Majid Asadi Samani Pages 174-181
    Objective
    Much attention is paid to angiogenesis due to its mutual role in health and disease. Therefore, the effect of various chemical and physical agents on inhibition of this process has been recently studied. This study was conducted to investigate the synergic effect of glycyrrhizic acid and electromagnetic field on angiogenesis.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, 44 Ross fertilized chicken eggs were randomly divided into four groups, one control and three experimental. Control group was kept with dimethyl sulfoxide on the eighth day, experimental group 1 treated with 200 gauss, 50 Hz electromagnetic field on the 10th day, experimental group 2 treated with 1 mg/ml glycyrrhizic acid on the eighth day, and experimental group 3 simultaneously treated with glycyrrhizic acid on the eighth day and electromagnetic field on the 10th day. On the 12th day, the images of chorioallantoic membrane samples were prepared using photostreomicroscope and the number and length of vessels were measured.
    Results
    The mean number of vessels in the experimental groups 1 and 3 (29.31±3.60 and 27.43±4.61, respectively) was not significantly different from that in the control group (29.11±4.76) (p>0.05). The length of vessels in the experimental groups 1 and 3 (52.35±3.25 mm and 54.94±4.70 mm, respectively) decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with the control group (61.79±6.46 mm). In experimental group 2, both length and number of vessels (54.53±5.85 mm and 23.96±3.94) decreased significantly compared with the control group (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Electromagnetic field and glycyrrhizic acid separately led to inhibition of angiogenesis. However, use of electromagnetic field accompanied with glycyrrhizic acid not only did not increase but also decreased the inhibitory effect.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis, Glycyrrhizic acid, Electromagnetic field, Chick chorioallantoic membrane
  • Shahla Mahdizadeh, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri, Ali Gorji Pages 182-202
    Naturally occurring substances mentioned in medieval medical literatures currently have, and will continue to have, a crucial place in drug discovery. Avicenna was a Persian physician who is known as the most influential medical writers in the Middle ages. Avicenna`s Canon of Medicine, the most famous books in the history of medicine, presents a clear and organized summary of all the medical knowledge of the time, including a long list of drugs. Several hundred substances and receipts from different sources are mentioned for treatment of different illnesses in this book. The aim of the present study was to provide a descriptive review of all anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs presented in this comprehensive encyclopedia of medicine. Data for this review were provided by searches of different sections of this book. Long lists of anti-inflammatory and analgesic substances used in the treatment of various diseases are provided. The efficacy of some of these drugs, such as opium, willow oil, curcuma, and garlic, was investigated by modern medicine; pointed to their potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. This review will help further research into the clinical benefits of new drugs for treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain.
    Keywords: Medicinal plants, Medieval period, Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy, Phytotherapy
  • Mahin Dianat, Ali Veisi, Akram Ahangarpour, Hadi Fathi Moghaddam Pages 203-209
    Objectives
    Hypertension is one of the most common diseases of the modern era. This study evaluates the effect of hydro-alcoholic celery leaf extract onsystolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and lipid profile in animals’ model of hypertension induced by fructose.
    Materials And Methods
    Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: 1) control group (free access to tap drinking water), 2) group receiving 200mg/kg celery leaf extract, 3) group receiving fructose 10%, and 4,5) receiving fructose and 100mg/kg or 200mg/kg of extract (n=8). In all groups, before and during the test period, SBP and HR were measured by Power lab system. Lipid profiles were determined by auto analysis. Repeated measurement and one way ANOVA were used for data analysis.
    Results
    The SBP in the fructose group significantly increased compared to control group (P<0.01). SBP, in groups receiving fructose+100mg/kg extract, fructose and receiving 200mg/kg extract, and receiving 200mg/kg of extract, compared to fructose group significantly decreased. Heart rate in any of these groups showed no significant difference. Cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL in the fructose group significantly increased; however, these effects significantly decreased in the recipient extract groups. HDL levels in the fructose group showed no difference while in the groups receiving the extract they significantly increased.
    Conclusions
    Celery leaf extract reduces SBP, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL in animal model of fructose-induced hypertension. In conclusion, celery leaf extract with its blood pressure and lipid lowering effects, can be considered as an antihypertensive agent in chronic treatment of elevated SBP.
    Keywords: Hypertension, Celery extract, Systolic blood pressure, Lipid profile, Rat
  • Saman Soleimanpour, Fereshteh Sadat Sedighinia, Akbar Safipour Afshar, Reza Zarif, Kiarash Ghazvini Pages 210-217
    Objective
    In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli.
    Materials And Methods
    Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control.
    Results
    Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05). No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method.
    Conclusion
    This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts.
    Keywords: Antibacterial Activity, Tribulus terrestris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Capsella bursa, pastoris, Oral Pathogens
  • Emad Khalilzadeh, Gholamreza Vafaei Saiah, Hamideh Hasannejad, Adel Ghaderi, Shahla Ghaderi, Gholamreza Hamidian, Razzagh Mahmoudi, Davoud Eshgi, Mahsa Zangisheh Pages 218-230
    Objective
    Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) and its essential oil have been traditionally used to treat many conditions and symptoms such as premenstrual problems, mastalgia, inflammation, sexual dysfunction, and pain. In this study, the effects of essential oil extracted from Vitex agnus-castus (EOVAC) leaves were investigated in three behavioral models of nociception in adult male Wistar rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Chemical composition of EOVAC was analyzed using gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and also its possible toxicity was determined in mice. Analgesic effect of EOVAC was determined using tail immersion test, formalin test, and acetic acid-induced visceral pain in rats.
    Results
    EOVAC (s.c.) and morphine (i.p.) significantly (p<0.05) reduced pain responses in both formalin and tail immersion tests. In the study of evolved mechanisms, pretreatment with naloxone or atropine significantly (p <0.05) reversed the essential oil-induced analgesia in both formalin and tail immersion tests. Moreover, EOVAC and Piroxicam produced significant (p<0.05) inhibition in the acetic acid-induced writhing response.EOVAC did not show any mortality even at high dose (5 g/kg, p.o.) of administration in toxicity test. Moreover, according to GC-MS results, major components of the EOVAC were α-pinene (14.83%), limonene (10.29%), β-caryophyllene (6.9%), sabinene (5.27%), and β-farnesene (5.9%).
    Conclusions
    These results suggest that endogenous opioidergic system as well as muscarinergic receptors of cholinergic system may be involve in the antinociceptive activity of Vitex agnus-castus essential oil in these models of pain in rats.
    Keywords: Vitex agnus, castus, Antinociception, Acute toxicity, Chemical composition, Rat
  • Elham Bakhtiari, Azar Hosseini, Seyed Hadi Mousavi Pages 231-237
    Objectives
    Findings natural products with antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties has been one of the interesting challenges in the search for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has been used as a model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia in vitro and for the expansion of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies showed that Hibiscus sabdariffa exert pharmacological actions such as potent antioxidant. Therefore, in this study we investigated the protective effect of extract of H. sabdariffa against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury.
    Materials And Methods
    Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) for 2 hr, and then exposed to SGD condition for 6, 12 and 18 hr.
    Results
    SGD caused a major reduction in cell viability after 6, 12, and 18 hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE (30-500 𝜇g/mL) significantly increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6, 12 and 18 hr. A significant increase in cell apoptosis was seen in cells under SGD condition after 12hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE significantly decreased cell apoptosis subsequent SGD conditionafter12hr at concentration of 60, 125 and 250.
    Conclusion
    These data showed that HSE had a protective property under SGD condition in PC12 cells, suggesting that H. sabdariffa has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders.
    Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa, SGD, PC12 cell, Apoptosis
  • Mehdi Akbartabar Toori, Behzad Joodi, Heibatollah Sadeghi, Hossein Sadeghi, Mehrzad Jafari, Mohammad Sharif Talebianpoor, Foad Mehraban, Mostafa Mostafazadeh, Mehdi Ghavamizadeh Pages 238-246
    Objective
    To evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of Otostegia persica (O. persica) ethanol extract on carbon tetrachlo­­ride-induced liver damage in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Fifty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Group I served as normal control and was given only olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.). Group II, III, IV, and V were administered CCl4 mixed with olive oil 1:1 (1 ml/kg) i.p., twice a week for 8 weeks. Group II was maintained as CCl4-intoxicated control (hepatotoxic group). Group III, IV, and V received O. persica extract at a dose of 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg for 8 weeks every 48 h orally, respectively. Biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), and lipid peroxidation marker (Malonaldialdehyde, (MDA) were determined in serum. After 8 weeks, animals were sacrificed, livers dissected out, and evaluated for histomorphological changes.
    Results
    The administration of CCl4 increased AST, ALT, ALP, TB, and MDA in serum but it decreased TP, and ALB compared with normal control. Treatment with O. persica extract at three doses resulted in decreased enzyme markers, bilirubin levels, and lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) and increased TP and ALB compared with CCl4 group. The results of pathological study also support the hepatoprotective effects which were observed at doses of 80 and 120 mg/kg.
    Conclusion
    The results of the present study indicate that ethanol extract of O. persica may have hepatoprotective effect which is probably due to its antioxidant property.
    Keywords: Hepatoprotective effect, Otostegia persica, Liver injury, Carbon Tetrachloride, Antioxidant property
  • Dougnon Tossou Jacques, AdÉhan Safiou, Houessionon JÉdirfort, Farougou SouaÏbou Pages 247-259
    Objectives
    Ticks are vectors of several diseases, of which many are zoonosis transmissible to humans. The use of Tephrosia leafs’ extract as a low cost acaricide is spreading among farmers in central Kenya.
    Materials And Methods
    The present study’s aim is to inventory endogenous control methods against dogs’ ticks among which Rhipicephalus sanguineus, in the Municipality of Abomey-Calavi. From September to October 2013, a survey was made on forty randomly selected breeders and ticks samples were collected on forty dogs. The web platform, www.epicollect.net, was used for the survey. In total, 77.5% (n=40) of examined dogs were infested with ticks
    Results
    Three species of ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Amblyomma variegatum. They were found on 77.5%, 17.5%, and 15% of examined dogs, respectively. The numerical abundance of the three species was 87.06%, 11.9%, and 1.03%, respectively. The average number of ticks per animal was 16.83±5.04, 2.3±1.64, and 0.2±0.08 for Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Amblyomma variegatum, respectively. Farmers used manual diptank (67.5%), plant ash (37.5%), petroleum (12.5%), motor oil (2.50 %), and sea water (7.5%) to fight against ticks.
    Conclusions
    The phytochemical screening of the leafy stem’s powder of Tephrosia vogelii revealed the presence of catechol tannins, saponins, sugars, leuco-anthocyanins, polyterpenes, and sterols. A 100% larval mortality was observed at the concentration of 20% the ethanolic extract of the leafy stem of Tephrosia vogelii. The LC50 of this ethanolic extract against Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae was equal to 2.6%.
    Keywords: Dog, Tephrosia vogelii, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Abomey, Calavi
  • Mansour Homayoun, Masoumeh Seghatoleslam, Mojtaba Pourzaki, Reihaneh Shafieian, Mahmoud Hosseini, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan Pages 260-270
    Objective
    Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena). In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ).
    Materials And Methods
    The rats were divided to five groups: (1) Control: received saline, (2) PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3) PTZ-Extract 50 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 50), (4) PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 100), and (5) PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG) recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study.
    Results
    The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model.
    Conclusion
    The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s) as well as the possible mechanism(s).
    Keywords: Rosa damascena, Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), Dark Cell, Hippocampus