فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 4, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/11/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Farima Anbari *, Parvaneh Mohammadkhani, Ebrahim Rezaei Dogaheh Pages 253-260
    Objective
    The present study aims to investigate thought control strategies in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and the relationship of these metacognitive strategies with trait anxiety, as a construct of emotional vulnerability.
    Methods
    60 patients with diagnosis of GAD and MDD and 30 control subjects (nonpatients) were selected from the university students. Participants answered to Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II), Thought Control Questionnaire (TCQ), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28).The data was analyzed by Manova and Enter regression.
    Results
    The results showed that GAD group was distinguished from the control group by their greater use of worry and punishment strategies. The depression group was differentiated from nonpatient group by the greater use of worry strategy and lesser use of distraction and reappraisal strategies. The GAD group was distinguished from MDD group by greater use of reappraisal strategy and lesser use of worry strategy. Worry and punishment strategies can positively predict (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001) trait anxiety while distraction and reappraisal negatively predict (P< 0.001 and P = 0.047) it.
    Conclusion
    GAD and MDD patients use maladaptive thought control strategies more frequently and these maladaptive metacognitive strategies can be predictors of trait anxiety as an underlying pathology.
    Keywords: Metacognition, Thought control strategies, Trait anxiety, Generalized anxiety disorder, Major depressive disorder
  • Younes Doostian, Sheida Fattahi, Ali Akbar Goudini, Yusof Azami, Omid Massah *, Reza Daneshmand Pages 261-270
    Objective
    This research was conducted to study the effectiveness of self-regulation training among female students’ academic achievement motivation in Birjand City, Iran.
    Methods
    In this interventional comparative study (pretest-posttest design with control group), 84 eighth grade students (from public intermediate schools) in Birjand were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. They were placed in two groups: experiment and control with randomization. The academic achievement motivation test and science test were administered as pre- and post-tests, respectively. The experimental group was taught self-regulation skills in 8 sessions. Data were analyzed using the mixed-design factorial analysis of variance model.
    Results
    The results showed significant differences in the experiment group’s achievement motivation test (p<0.05), but no signs of change in the science test.
    Conclusion
    We can provide students with effective and useful tips to improve their academic achievement and performance by teaching them self-regulation skills.
    Keywords: Self, regulation, Management, time, planning skills, Academic achievement, motivation, Academic performance
  • Samira Lotfi, Behrooz Dolatshahi, Parvaneh Mohammadkhani, Marilyn Campbell, Ebrahim Rezaei Dogaheh * Pages 271-276
    Objective
    Bullying and peer victimization in school are serious concerns for students, parents, psychologists, and school officials around the world. This descriptive study examined bullying/victimization among Iranian students and the relationship between bullying and trauma symptoms.
    Methods
    This study was a cross-sectional research and descriptive correlative study. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation were used to analyze the data. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children (TSCC-A) were administered to 591(325males and 266 females) students aged 10 to 14 year.
    Results
    The results revealed that 38.4 % of students reported bullying behavior. In addition, victims had the highest level of depression, anxiety, and anger compared to uninvolved students. Bullies were not related to trauma symptoms.
    Conclusion
    Conclusions include detailed recommendations for further empirical studies.
    Keywords: Bully, Victim, Trauma symptoms, Prevalence
  • Banafsheh Hasanvand, Ali Reza Mohammadi Arya, Ebrahim Rezaei Dogaheh * Pages 277-284
    Objective
    Psychological hardiness is a protective personality structure against life stresses that plays a major role in resisting stressful events. Thus, the present research aimed to predict the psychological hardiness based on mental health and emotional intelligence in students.
    Methods
    The method applied in the research was a descriptive-correlation type. A total of 348 students of Payame Noor University, Eleshtar branch, studying in the academic year of 2012/13 were selected through random sampling method. Data were collected through the psychological hardiness, mental health, and emotional intelligence questionnaires and were analyzed by the simple correlation coefficient and multiple regressions.
    Results
    Findings revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship between mental health and emotional intelligence and its components (self-motivation, self-consciousness, self-control, social awareness, and social skills) with psychological hardiness. Also, step by step regression results indicated that self-motivation (β =0.386), self-control (β=0.229), social skills (β=0.239), and social consciousness (β=0.210) are highly capable of predicting psychological hardiness scores.
    Conclusion
    By promoting psychological hardiness through increasing mental health and emotional intelligence, we can overcome stressful and anxious factors, as well as factors resulting in most psychological problems.
    Keywords: Mental health, Emotional intelligence, Emotional intelligence components, Psychological hardiness, Students
  • Sepideh Minoosepehr *, Mansooreh Nikoogoftar, Gholamreza Sarami Foroushani Pages 285-292
    Objective
    This study aimed to examine factors influencing attitudes toward cosmetic surgery among university students. Sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, physical appearance perfectionism, and appearance investment were considered as predictors of tendency toward cosmetic surgery.
    Methods
    This study was a descriptive-correlative research. One stage cluster sampling was utilized to collect data of 631 students (male and female), aged between 18 and 49 years (21.83 ± 4.09 y) of Islamic Azad university (from North, South, East, West, Medical Sciences and Dentistry branches) with different degrees and majors during the first semester of 2013-14 academic year. A 77-item questionnaire was utilized to measure sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, appearance perfectionism, appearance investment, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery, and demographic data. First a pilot study was conducted on 30 students with similar ability and background to the survey target population to obtain an assessment of the validity and reliability of the translated questionnaires in Persian. A stepwise regression analysis was utilized to address the prediction power of tendency toward cosmetic surgery.
    Results
    Media influences as sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, appearance investment, appearance perfectionism through two ways; worry about imperfection and hope for perfection, which were significantly correlated to attitude toward cosmetic surgery. Variables were not identical for men and women apart from worry about imperfection subscale. Furthermore, media influences, appearance investment, and worry about imperfection accounted for 27% of variance of positive attitude toward cosmetic surgery. Hope for perfection as the second subscale of appearance perfectionism has no effect on predicting tendency toward cosmetic surgery.
    Conclusion
    These findings suggest that a greater perfectionist tendency and psychological investment in physical appearance (among sociocultural attitudes toward appearance) predict more favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery.
    Keywords: Appearance investment, Cosmetic surgery, Media influences, Perfectionism
  • Farhad Ghadiri Sourman Abadi *, Hasan Sabouri Moghadam, Jalil Babapur Kheiradin Pages 293-298
    Objective
    Addiction is one of the most vulnerable social issues and the tendency to it involve several factors, including psychosocial stressors (life unpleasant events), and inability to deal with these stressors and the belief that drug use will lead to the desired result. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between psychosocial stressors and vulnerability to drug abuse among students.
    Methods
    This research was a correlational study. In this study, 483 male students from Salmas City (West Azerbaijan Province) high schools were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. Then, the questionnaire to identify people at risk of addiction and also perceptions of stressful events questionnaire were conducted to them. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and simultaneous regression analysis.Statistical analysis were performed using the SPSS 20.
    Results
    The results showed that among these variables, stressors associated with solution of unpleasant events have the greatest ability to predict vulnerability to addiction. Next, stressors related to lack, positively predict vulnerability to addiction.
    Conclusion
    The present study showed that psychosocial stressors can contribute to the vulnerability of adolescents to addiction.
    Keywords: Vulnerability to addiction, Psychosocial stressors, Stress, Addiction
  • Mohammad Rostami, Nasrollah Veisi *, Fatemeh Jafarian Dehkordi, Emad Alkasir Pages 299-306
    Objective
    The present study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of ‘Acceptance and Commitment Therapy’ (ACT) on reducing social anxiety in students with learning disability.
    Method
    In this experimental research, pretest-posttest and control group were utilized. Population of this study included all the middle-school male students with learning disability in Koohdasht City (2013-2014). The sample included 40 male students with learning disability who were randomly selected after structured clinical interview. Subjects were randomly put into experimental group and control group (20 individuals each). Instruments of this research included structured clinical interview, Raven IQ Test (1962), and Watson & Friend’s Anxiety Scale (1969). Pretest and posttest were administered for both groups. Experimental group received acceptance and commitment therapy model for 10 1-hour sessions, while the control group received no intervention. To analyze the data, Multivariate Analysis of Variance test (MANOVA) was used. Statistical Package for Social Science 16 (SPSS 16) program was used for statistical analysis.
    Results
    the results of MANOVA showed that acceptance and commitment therapy model training has been effective on decreasing social anxiety in students with learning disability (P < 0.001). The findings also showed that there is a significant difference in social anxiety between control group and experimental group.
    Conclusion
    According to the findings of this study, acceptance and commitment therapy model training reduces social anxiety in students with learning disability and it is possible to make use of this model as a suitable intervention method.
    Keywords: Acceptance, commitment Therapy model, Social anxiety, Learning disability, Students
  • Mostafa Zarean *, Shahriar Shahidi, Fons Van De Vijver, Mohsen Dehghani, Amin Asadollahpour, Roghayeh Sohrabi Pages 307-316
    Objective
    Depression and Anxiety literature in Iran is short of cultural/indigenous studies, especially with regard to Azeri ethnic group. This study was carried out in order to identify depression and anxiety aspects in Azeri ethnic group.
    Methods
    In a cross sectional qualitative design, 32 Azeri informants (14 patients, 13 lay people, and 5 professionals) recruited in the study using purposeful sampling method. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted and the collected data were analyzed through content analysis technique.
    Results
    Primary results indicated that 11 main theme categories exist in Azeri ethnic group: avoidance, dysfunction, arousality, disorganized personality, repetition, somatization, problematic behavior, maladaptive cognition, awareness, positive, and negative emotionality.
    Conclusions
    Current evidence does not support the hypothesis of “Somatizing” depression and anxiety in Iranian cultural background, and perhaps other psychological processes are involved in somatic symptom report. Theoretical advantages and implications of the study in the framework of clinical and indigenous studies are discussed.
    Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Emotional disorders, Azeri ethnic group, Indigenous study, Qualitative research