فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:44 Issue: 5, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/02/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 24
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  • Antonio Paoli, Antonino Bianco Pages 602-614
    Background
    This review based upon studies searched from the major scientific libraries has the objective of clarifying what is fitness training in modern days، the implications that it has on health in both youth and elderly and finally discuss fitness training practical implications.
    Methods
    The PRISMA statement was partially adopted and a number of 92 items were selected، according to the inclusion criteria. Results were discussed in 4 main sections: 1. Children and adolescents fitness levels; 2. Fitness training in the elderly; 3. Pathology prevention through fitness training; 4. Training through Fitness activities.
    Results
    This review pointed out the fact that nowadays there is a large variety of fitness activities available within gyms and fitness centers. Even though they significantly differ with each other، the common aim they have is the wellbeing of the people through the improvement of the physical fitness components and the psychological balance.
    Conclusion
    Fitness instructors’ recommendations should be followed in gym context and should be contingent upon an individual’s objectives، physical capacity، physical characteristics and experience.
    Keywords: Fitness training, Conditioning, Physical fitness, Physical activity
  • Daye Cheng, Bin Liang Pages 615-624
    Background
    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) Lys469Glu (K469E) polymorphism and Gly 241Arg (G241R) polymorphism might play important roles in cancer development and progression. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and the risk of cancer by meta-analysis.
    Methods
    A comprehensive literature search (last search updated in November 2013) was conducted to identify case-control studies that investigated the association between ICAM-1 K469E and G241R polymorphisms and cancer risk.
    Results
    A total of 18 case-control studies for ICAM-1 polymorphisms were included in the meta-analysis, including 4,844 cancer cases and 5,618 healthy controls. For K469E polymorphism, no significant association was found between K469E polymorphism and cancer risk. However, subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed one genetic comparison (GG vs. AA) presented the relationship with cancer risk in Asian subgroup, and two genetic models (GG+GA vs. AA and GA vs. AA) in European subgroup, respectively. For G241R polymorphism, G241R polymorphism was significantly association with cancer risk in overall analysis. The subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that G241R polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in European subgroup.
    Conclusion
    ICAM-1 G241R polymorphism might be associated with cancer risk, especially in European populations, but the results doesn’t support ICAM-1 K469E polymorphism as a risk factor for cancer.
    Keywords: Intercellular adhesion molecule, 1, Polymorphism, Cancer, Meta, analysis
  • Weihua Qu, Zhijun Yan, Guohua Qu, Maria Ikram Pages 625-638
    Background
    More than 80 percent of the China’s population is located in the rural areas, 95 percent of which use coal, wood etc for cooking and heating. Limited by data availability, the association between household solid fuels and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in China’s rural areas is ignored in prior studies.
    Methods
    This cross sectional study was conducted from 2010-2012 and carried out on rural population aging 20-80 yr, comprised of 13877 participants from eighteen villages. Self-report questionnaire data were collected. Each outcome represents whether the participant has a kind of CVDs or not and it is reported in participants’ questionnaire. Then the collected data is analyzed by logistic regression models with odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence interval.
    Results
    After adjusting for potential confounders, the use of household solid fuels was significantly associated with an increased risk for hypertension (OR 1.751), CHD (OR 2.251), stroke (OR 1.642), diabetes (OR 1.975) and dyslipidemia (OR 1.185). Residents with the highest tertile of the duration of household solid fuel exposure had an increased odd of hypertension (OR 1.651), stroke (OR 1.812), diabetes (OR 2.891) and dyslipidemia (OR 1.756) compared with those in the lowest tertile of the duration of solid fuel exposure.
    Conclusion
    Indoor pollution exposure from household solid fuels combustion may be a positive risk factor for CVDs in the perspectives of China’s rural population. Our findings should be corroborated in longitudinal studies.
    Keywords: Household solid fuels, Rural areas, Cardiovascular diseases, China
  • Haruyuki Ito, Takako Kumagai, Midori Kimura, Shotaro Koike, Takeshi Shimizu Pages 639-645
    Background
    Patients with schizophrenia reportedly have a high prevalence of obesity. One of the reasons is a poor choice of diet. The goal of this study was to clarify characteristics of the dietary intake across the strata of the body mass index (BMI) and to compare the general population and patients with schizophrenia in Japan.
    Methods
    This is a cross-sectional study of 51 patients with schizophrenia residing in rural areas in 2011. Anthropometric indices (of height, weight, body mass index) were measured at the commencement of the survey. Intakes of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, total fiber, and salt were noted through a 3-day dietary recording. The nutrient intake was estimated using Excel add-in software (Excel Eiyou-kun Ver. 6.0, Kenpakusha Co., Ltd.). Patients were divided into two groups: those with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and with a BMI <25 kg/m2, and the differences in their nutrition intake were analyzed. To compare these patients with the general population, the results of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2010 (NHNS) were used (the NHNS group). For statistical analysis, an unpaired t-test was performed with P < 0.05.
    Results
    Patients with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 had the higher intakes than those with a BMI <25 kg/m2 of energy, fat and phosphorus and salt. Patients with schizophrenia showed higher intakes of energy, carbohydrate, fat, calcium, phosphorus and salt than the NHNS group.
    Conclusion
    The characteristics of the dietary intake in patients with schizophrenia were suggested the food constitution that is likely to increase the body weight.
    Keywords: Body mass index, Nutrition survey, Obesity, Schizophrenia
  • Maryam Malmir, Maryam Seifenaraghi, Dariush D.Farhud, G.Ali Af­Rooz, Mohammad Khanahmadi Pages 646-653
    Background
    According to the mother''s key roles in bringing up emotional and cognitive abilities of mentally retarded children and respect to positive psychology in recent decades, this research is administered to assess the relation between mother''s happiness level with cognitive- executive functions (i.e. attention, working memory, inhibition and planning) and facial emotional recognition ability as two factors in learning and adjustment skills in mentally retarded children with Down syndrome.
    Methods
    This study was an applied research and data were analyzed by Pearson correlation procedure. Population is included all school children with Down syndrome (9-12 yr) that come from Tehran, Iran. Overall, 30 children were selected as an in access sample. After selection and agreement of parents, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) was performed to determine the student''s IQ, and then mothers were invited to fill out the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). Cognitive-executive functions were evaluated by tests as followed: Continues Performance Test (CPT), N-Back, Stroop test (day and night version) and Tower of London. Ekman emotion facial expression test was also accomplished for assessing facial emotional recognition in children with Down syndrome, individually.
    Results
    Mother''s happiness level had a positive relation with cognitive-executive functions (attention, working memory, inhibition and planning) and facial emotional recognition in her children with Down syndrome, significantly.
    Conclusion
    Parents’ happiness (especially mothers) is a powerful predictor for cognitive and emotional abilities of their children.
    Keywords: Happiness, Cognitive, Executive function, Facial emotional recognition, Down syndrome
  • Alireza Mohammadi, Saeedeh Shojaee, Mahboobeh Salimi, Mehdi Zareei, Mehdi Mohebali, Hossein Keshavarz Pages 654-658
    Background
    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic and usually asymptomatic infection. This study was carried out to investigate the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in women referred to Arak Marriage Consulting Center during 2012-2013.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, serum samples were collected from 400 women referred to Marriage Consulting Center in Arak City, Markazi Province, central Iran during 2012-2013. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were measured by ELISA using homemade antigen. Results were analyzed by SPSS 18 and the correlation between toxoplasmosis and some affecting factors were estimated.
    Results
    Overall, 97 cases (24.3%) had IgG antibodies against T. gondii and 19 cases (4.8%) were positive for IgM antibodies. A significant correlation was seen between T. gondii infection with clinical symptoms, keeping cat as pet animal, education and handling or eating raw or undercooked meat (P < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    The prevalence of (24.3%) for Toxoplasma infection was seen in Arak City. It seems that keeping cat as pet and consumption of undercooked liver and uncooked hamburger are the most important transmission routes for the infection in this city. Since the majority of women are Toxoplasma sero-negative (75.7%) in Arak City, using serological tests and health education prior to marriage or during pregnancy is recommended.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma infection, Marriage, Antibody, ELISA, Iran
  • Khandan Shahandeh, Hamid Reza Basseri, Reza Majdzadeh, Roya Sadeghi, Maryam Shahandeh, Davoud Shojaeizadeh Pages 659-664
    Background
    This study was undertaken to identify key elements for obtaining community interest and motivate them to support eliminate malaria in the places that malaria is no longer a perceived threat.
    Methods
    Sequential explanatory mixed methods research design used to provide more comprehensive evidence research. A questionnaire was developed after reviewing the literature relating to community participation for malaria elimination and used to collect data from three native people, Iranian migrant and foreign immigrant groups. The variables included access to educational facilities, services, social support, social supporters, trust, and supportive norms were assessed. We also employed an ethnographic design involving: observation participant (PO), Key informant interviews (KIIs), and focus group discussions (FGDs).
    Results
    The results revealed that predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors had association with community involvement. Less than 50% of total respondents reported have access to educational sessions, most of them were unaware of available and affordable services. Differences views regarding to social support influence have been found among respondents. Although patterns of social interactions were almost similar in all residents, frequencies of interactions were varied. Three thematic areas emerged including perceptions on involvement, potential barriers, and focus areas for the training community members.
    Conclusion
    These findings indicate needs for greater understanding about how to strengthen community involvement with emphasize for community capacity building. This research has benefit to national and regional efforts to increase community involvement as a source for effective actions on malaria elimination.
    Keywords: Community participation, Malaria elimination, Mixed methods, Iran
  • Fatemeh Rezaei, Hossein Kakooei, Reza Ahmadkhaniha, Kamal Azam, Leila Omidi, Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri Pages 665-672
    Background
    Vehicle exhaust is a major source of exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in the urban atmosphere. Newsagents usually work close to heavy traffic flow. The purpose of this study was to assess the breathing zone exposure of newsagents to PAHs found in the urban atmosphere of Tehran City during summer and autumn seasons and comparing the levels of exposure in both seasons.
    Methods
    Fifteen non-smoking newsagents were randomly selected from north, south, east, west, and center of Tehran. Particle and gas phases PAHs were collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter and XAD-2 adsorbent. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine PAHs concentrations in newsagent’s breathing zone samples.
    Results
    The highest and lowest values of exposures during summer and autumn in all sampling stations were recorded for benzo[a]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene, respectively. Mann-Whitney test results showed that seasonal variation had significant influence on concentrations of all studied PAHs (P= 0.001) except benzo[ghi]perylene (P= 0.089). An increase in concentrations of PAHs was observed in autumn.
    Conclusion
    The workers of the newsstands in the south area of Tehran City were experiencing higher levels of exposures to PAHs. Newsagents’ breathing zone exposures to PAHs during the cold period were two to three folds higher than those during the warm period were. The levels of exposures in all sampling stations were below the OSHA and NIOSH''s recommended exposure limits.
    Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Newsagents, Exposure, Breathing zone, Seasonal variation
  • Mohammadhosain Afrand, Nasrollah Bashardoost, Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha, Mohammad Afkhami-Ardekani Pages 673-682
    Background
    The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between genetic polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family and the risk of the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) in Zoroastrian females in Yazd, Iran.
    Methods
    In this case-control study, GSTM1, T1, and P1 polymorphisms were genotyped in 51 randomly selected MS patients and 50 randomly selected healthy controls on February 2014 among Zoroastrian females whose ages ranged from 40 to 70 yr. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17.
    Results
    We observed a significant association of GSTP1-I/V (Isoleucine/ Valine) allele and GSTP1-V/V (Valine / Valine) allele with MS (P = 0.047 and P = 0.044, respectively). The combined analysis of the two genotypes, the present genotype of GSTT1, I/V and V/V alleles of GSTP1 genotype demonstrated a decrease in the risk of acquiring MS (OR = 0.246, P = 0.031). The null genotype of GSTM1, I/V, and V/V alleles of the GSTP1 genotype showed a lower risk in double combinations (OR = 0.15, P = 0.028 and OR = 0.13, P = 0.013, respectively). The combinations of the GSTM1 null genotypes and GSTT1 present genotypes and the GSTP1 I/V and V/V alleles together were associated with decreased risk of having MS in triple combinations (OR = 0.071, P = 0.039 and OR = 0.065, P = 0.022, respectively).
    Conclusion
    GSTP1-I/V and V/V alleles, alone or in association with GSTM1 null and GSTT1 present genotypes, are related with decreased susceptibility to the development of MS in Zoroastrian females.
    Keywords: Glutathione S, transferase, Genetic polymorphism, Metabolic syndrome, Ethnic group, Iran
  • Ali-Reza Soltanian, Hossein Mahjub, Ali Taghizadeeh-Afshari, Gholamreza Gholami, Hojjat Sayyadi Pages 683-689
    Background
    The first kidney transplant survival is very important. We know that short-term survival of kidney transplantation is improved over the past two decades in Iran; however, no information is available on long-term survival and predictors. This study explored factors influencing long-term renal transplant survival at northwest of Iran.
    Methods
    In this single-center, study, survival rates and half-life of 201 the first kidney transplants between 1999 and 2008 were measured by a historical-cohort study in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Urmia, Iran. The log-rank test and Cox-regression model were used to compare survival curves and determine factor affecting graft survival time, respectively.
    Results
    First graft survival from one, five, and 10 years was 96%, 89%, and 46%, respectively. Mean±se and median±se of first graft survival time was 3061±105.01 day (95% CI: 2855.47-3267.11 day) and 3411±282.1 day (95%CI: 2858.08-3963.92), respectively. Predictors of first graft rejection were recipient age (P=0.001), LDL cholesterol (P=0.008), immunosuppressive drugs (P=0.047), serum creatinine three and six months (P=0.042 and 0.001, respectively) and related donor family (P=0.037).
    Conclusion
    Patients with first graft transplantation had a moderate long-term survival. The study showed that small age at transplant, low LDL cholesterol before transplant, and relative to donor, could be decrease the risk graft loss.
    Keywords: Graft survival, Kidney transplantation, Surgery
  • Leila Dana-Alamdari, Sorayya Kheirouri, Seyed Gholamreza Noorazar Pages 690-697
    Background
    We investigated the association between serum 25(OH) D levels and depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
    Methods
    Eighty-five adults, 44 drug free patients with MDD and 41 apparently healthy controls, participated in the study. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was used to assess severity of major depression. Mental health of the controls was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. Stress level of the participants was assessed by the Holmes and Rahe stress scale. Serum 25(OH) D levels was measured by immunochemiluminescence assay. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH) D concentration of lower than 20 ng/ml.
    Results
    Depressed patients had the higher levels of stress. There was a positive correlation between stress level and disease severity (r= 0.32, P= 0.03). In total participants, mean percentage of vitamin D deficiency was 77.6% with 75% in patients and 80.5% in the healthy subjects. There were no differences between the two groups in serum 25(OH) D levels and percentage of subjects with the vitamin deficiency. A negative correlation was observed between disease severity and serum 25(OH) D level of patients with depression episodes < 2 y (r= -0.38, P = 0.08) and winter samples (samples collected and measured from December to march, r= -0.62, P = 0.004).
    Conclusion
    Serum 25(OH) D levels were not associated with depression. However, the inverse relationship between levels of vitamin D and depressive symptoms in current depression episodes and in sun-deprived season warrants further investigation.
    Keywords: Vitamin D, Depression, Depression severity, Current depression
  • Elham Hajialilo, Iraj Mobedi, Jafar Masoud, Hamid Hasanpour, Gholamreza Mowlavi Pages 698-700
    During a long term of road survey for detection of the zoonotic helminthes in carnivores, a male Vulpes vulpes was naturally found infected by Dioctophyme renale in Caspian Sea littoral in Iran. Since the parasite transmission usually occurs through consumption of fish and other accidental food items, investigation of the worm amongst fish-eating animals in the areas with potential circulation of the helminth life cycle, has been regarded as a public health importance so far. Concerning the rout of parasite transmission to humans, different epidemiological aspects should be studied in the country. Present paper describes a destructive lesion of the kidney in the fox due to D. renale after almost a decade of monitoring for the parasite reservoirs in the region.
    Keywords: Dioctophyma renale, Fox, Zoonosis, Iran
  • Farzaneh Movaseghi, Heydar Sadeghi Pages 701-704
    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years, first year without any exercise training and three succeeding years with exercise intervention. After three years of exercise training, bone mineral density and bone mineral content were improved in both regions, despite the increase in age and decrease in weight. This case highlights the importance of exercise training in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the spine and hip in postmenopausal women. Considering its positive effects, regular and lifelong exercise training must be incorporated into peoples'' life due to the chronic nature of bone loss in aging process.
    Keywords: Osteoporosis, Bone mineral, Postmenopause, Exercise training
  • Byoung-Wook Yoo, Wi-Young So, Dong Jun Sung Pages 705-706
  • Chidambaram Ramasamy Pages 707-708
  • Zaigham Ali, Muhammad Luqman Tauheed Rana, Atif Mahmood, Mian Ahmad Hanan, Saleem Noshina, Khawar Naila Pages 709-710
  • Assadullah Rasooli, Elham Ahmadnezhad, Keramt Nouri Jelyani, Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni Pages 711-713
  • Maryam Khoubnasab Jafari, Khalil Ansarin, Abolghasem Jouyban Pages 714-715
  • Fatemeh Heidary, Roghayeh Heidary, Hossein Jamali, Reza Ghare­Baghi Pages 716-717
  • Mohsen Hasheminasab, Jalil Babapour Kheiroddin, Majid Mahmood Aliloo, Ali Fakhari Pages 718-719
  • Mina Anjomshoa, Mohammad Reza Maleki, Nasrin Sharbafchi-Zadeh Pages 720-721
  • Maliheh Najaf Pour, Majid Farshdousti Hagh, Ali Akbar Movasagpoor Akbari, Abbas Ali Hosein Poor Feyzi, Majid Malaki Pages 722-723
  • Forouzan Rafie, Mahmoud Shikh, Shahin Jalali, Mohammad Pourranjbar Pages 724-725
  • Alireza Dadashi, Seyed Behzad Jazayeri, Abtin Shahlaee, Farnaz Najmi-Varzaneh, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Pages 726-727