فهرست مطالب

Veterinary Science and Technology - Volume:6 Issue:1, 2014
  • Volume:6 Issue:1, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
  • Sima Nasri, Mehri Bahaaddini, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Saeed Esmaeili Mahani, Ramin Raoof Pages 1-15
    Previous studies had reported that extracellular levels of ascorbic acid have modulatory effects on dopamine receptors. Both ascorbic acid and dopamine receptor have an important role in learning and memory processes. However، the central interaction between ascorbic acid and dopamine D2 receptor on spatial learning and memory has not yet been elucidated. All experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats. Animals were subjected to 5 days of training in the Morris water maze (MWM) task; 4 days with an invisible platform to test special learning and the 5th day with a visible platform to test motivation and sensorimotor coordination. The data showed that ascorbic acid (25 µg، i. c. v.) could improve spatial learning and memory indices. Administration of bromocriptine، a D2 agonist، increased the effect of ascorbic acid، while treatment with the selective D2 antagonist sulpiride resulted in prevention of the ascorbate-induced memory consolidation. These results indicate that dopamine D2 receptors may be involved in ascorbic acid-induced learning and memory impairment.
    Keywords: Ascorbic acid, dopamine D2 receptors, learning, memory, morris water maze, rats water maze, Rats
  • Fatemeh Ahmadi, Samaneh Eidi, Hesam A. Seifi Pages 16-22
    The aim of this study was to assess skin colonization by Malassezia species in full-term healthy newborn calves and their dams. Two hundred samples from the skins and ears of 50 neonatal calves and their dams were examined on two occasions، first and fourth weeks after birth. All of the samples were determined by cytological examination and fungal culture. The isolated yeasts were identified for Malassezia spp. using the conventional techniques based on the morphological and physiological characteristics. All the samples included in the first and fourth weeks showed typical Malassezia cells on cytological examination. Colonization with Malassezia species was obtained in 11. 5% of neonatal calves and their dams. The most commonly isolated species in neonates with culture-positive results was M. pachydermatis (68. 75%)، followed by M. sympodialis (12. 5%)، M. furfur (6. 25%)، M. globosa (6. 25%) and M. slooffiae (6. 25%). The most commonly isolated species in dams with culture-positive results was M. pachydermatis (85. 71%)، followed by M. furfur (14. 3%). This study confirms that Malassezia colonization of the skin begins at the first week of life. A high prevalence of M. pachydermatis in neonates is noted from first week. Environmental factors and maternal contact probably affect this colonization، but neonatal skin characteristics are probably important.
    Keywords: neonatal calves, dams, skin colonization, Malassezia species, M. pachydermatis
  • Samaneh Fallah, Hossein Hamali, Raziallah Jafari Joozani, Payman Zare, Gholamreza Norsaadat Pages 23-29
    Campylobacteriosis is an important infectious disease of animals and humans caused by the pathogenic Campylobacter species. A total number of 132 aborted sheep fetuses and related placentas were admitted to the large animal clinic at the University of Tabriz، from October 2010 to March 2011. Tissue samples were collected from several fetal organs including liver، brain، kidney، lung، spleen، heart، stomach fluid and placenta، then separately pulverized under liquid nitrogen and finally stored at -20°C until DNA extraction. Of 132 submissions (fetuses and placentas)، 12 (9. 09%) and 2 (1. 51%) samples were diagnosed positive to the Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and Campylobacter jejuni by the PCR protocol، respectively. No samples were positive for Campylobacter coli.
    Keywords: Campylobacteriosis, abortion, sheep, PCR
  • Farideh Ghasemi, Behrooz Fathi, Abdollah Jamshidi Pages 30-36
    In poultry breeding، use of any antibiotics as a food additive that promotes growth، prevention or treatment of infectious diseases will increase the chance of drug residues in poultry meat products. In this study، the presence of different antibiotics in ten broiler flocks، which were later transported to Mashhad poultry abattoir have been investigated، using four plate test (FPT) method. A total of one hundred breast muscle and sixty liver samples (10 breast muscles and 6 liver samples from each flock) were collected randomly. The results of this study showed، the 18. 75% of samples were positive for antibiotic residues and 6. 88% of samples were suspected. The results also showed that sulfonamides residue in meat and liver samples were higher than other investigated antibiotics (22% in meat and 11. 7% in livers). It can be concluded that the withdrawal time of antibiotics before slaughter has been ignored in many of these farms therefore، the administration of antibiotics in poultry farms must be more rigidly controlled to prevent drug residues in food-producing animals.
    Keywords: Antibiotic residues, poultry, meat, liver, withdrawal time, four plate test
  • Hamid Reza Kazrani, Seddigheh Jalali Pages 37-47
    Thepossible laxative and prokinetic effects of bitter almond were studied: 1- two groups of 7 rats were gavaged with ethanol extract of bitter almond (500mg/kg) or placebo and the number of feces، fecal weight and its percentage of water were studied 18-24h thereafter. 2- Ethanol extract of bitter almond (125 or 250mg/ml)، lactulose (as positive control) or placebo was randomly injected into jejuna segments in anesthetized rats (n=9). The volume of the fluid in each segment was measured after 1h. 3- Gastrointestinal (GI) transit time was studied in rats treated with the extract or placebo using phenol red. The rats were sacrificed at times 30min، 1، 2 and 4h. ethanol extract of bitter almond at 500mg/kg significantly increased fecal weight and water. It had no significant effects on the osmotic infiltration of fluid into the intestine or on the transit time of the contents in the GI tract. The current results suggest that bitter almond has a laxative effect that seems to be due to malabsorption of electrolytes and water via enterocytes.
    Keywords: bitter almond, Amygdalus communis var. amara, laxative, prokinetic
  • Iman Amani, Kamran Sharifi, Mohamad Reza Aslani, Abdonnaser Mohhebi Pages 48-57
    Hepatic and renal contents of essential trace elements provide good clues to monitor the nutritional status of grazing animals. Liver and kidney samples were collected from 60 sheep and 60 goats slaughtered in Zarrinshahr abattoirs and analyzed for essential trace elements. Hepatic Fe concentrations were significantly higher in sheep than goats. There were also higher renal and hepatic Fe concentration in age group of 2-4 year Scompared with age groups of <2 and 4-6 years. The concentration of hepatic trace elements including Fe, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni and Cr was significantly higher than renal ones. Concentration of Cu in the liver and kidney of the sheep from Zarrinshahr were lower than normal values and findings from other countries. Fe, Cr and Ni in the organs, however, were high and Zn and Co concentrations were in normal ranges. It is concluded that high concentrations of Fe, Cr and Ni in the liver and kidney of sheep and goats from Zarrinshaher area may be related to industrial operations and should be considered with regards to animal and human health, while potentially copper deficiency may be regarded as a potential burden to flock efficiency.
    Keywords: Sheep, goat, trace elements, industrial pollution, liver, kidney
  • The epidural analgesic effects of Meloxicam in dogs
    Azin Tavakoli Pages 58-69
    Epidural analgesia is an effective and frequent method used to induce analgesia in perineal region during orthopedic or obstetric procedures of pain management. 18 healthy mixed-breed dogs، were randomly divided into three groups. Lumbosacral epidural analgesia was performed in all dogs in the following order: lidocaine (0. 2 mg/kg) in group A، meloxicam (0. 1 mg/kg) in group B and the combination of both drugs in group C. Heart rate، respiratory rate and body temperatures were recorded for every 5 minutes، while analgesia onset time، duration of analgesia and paralysis were also recorded in all dogs. Without any systemic complications، no significant difference was observed in mean heart rate، respiratory rate and body temperature in all groups (p>0. 05). Duration of analgesia was significantly lower in group B (59 ± 15) compared to group A (109±10) and C (127± 24) (p).
    Keywords: Epidural analgesia, meloxicam, lidocaine, dog
  • Ezzatollah Fathi, Shahram Jamshidi Pages 64-70
    The aim of the present case report is to describe the outcome, hematological and biochemical changes of treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenia in a Terrier dog using human intravenous immunglobulin. The complete blood count, serum biochemistry, indirect immunofluorescence antibody and direct coomb’s tests, radiography and sonography were performed. Laboratory findings indicated sever thrombocytopenia (<15×103/μl) and mild leukocytosis. Increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total protein concentration were last up to 19 and 14 days, respectively. After it, areduction was observed and no relapse was reported. This case report provides the first successful treatment and clinical evidence of a terrier dog with idiopathic thrombocytopenia in which no underlying etiology has been identified. It was concluded that human intravenous immunoglobulin infusion (1 g/kg) is a safe treatment with a significant increase in platelet count without increase in hospitalization and the cost of patient care.
    Keywords: Dog, Idiopathic thrombocytopenia, Treatment, Human intravenous immunoglobulin