فهرست مطالب

معماری و شهرسازی آرمان شهر - پیاپی 13 (پاییز و زمستان 1393)
  • پیاپی 13 (پاییز و زمستان 1393)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/10/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 30
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  • معماری
  • آیدا آل هاشمی صفحه 1
    افزایش بی رویه جمعیت شهر نشین در کشور، موجب گسترش مجتمع های انبوه مسکونی به عنوان جایگزین مسکن سازی سنتی در کلان شهرهای کشور شده است. این تغییر الگو تغییری مهم در زندگی ساکنین گذارد و آن حذف حیاط خصوصی بود. امروز فضاهای باز در مجتمع های مسکونی علاوه بر اینکه جایگزین حیاط و نقش آن در زندگی خصوصی ساکنین می شود، نقش های متنوعی را نیز در زندگی اجتماعی ساکنین بازی می کند. با افزایش روزافزون ساخت وسازها مجتمع های بزرگ دولتی در کشور و همچنین گذر از دوران کمیت گرایی به کیفیت گرایی در شهرهای کشور به ویژه پایتخت، نیاز به پژوهش در نحوه پاسخگویی فضاهای باز در چنین مجتمع هایی به نیازهای مختلف فردی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی، روانی و فیزیکی ساکنین این مجتمع ها اهمیت ویژه ای پیدا می کند. هدف از این پژوهش شناسایی کاربری های فضاهای باز مجتمع های مسکونی بزرگ مقیاس شهر تهران بررسی و میزان پاسخگویی آن ها به نیازهای مختلف ساکنین است. در نهایت این شناخت زمینه ساز برنامه ریزی آگاهانه تر در استقرار کاربری ها در فضاهای باز مجتمع های مسکونی تهران و بهره گیری حداکثر از قابلیت های فضای باز در مجتمع ها است. به این منظور پس از بررسی گونه های مختلف کاربری ها و دسته بندی نقش های متنوع آن ها در فضاهای باز مجتمع های مسکونی امروزی، فضاهای باز مجتمع های مسکونی پایتخت (با بیش از 70 درصد فضای باز) و کاربری های آن ها مورد توجه قرار می گیرند. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که قابلیت های فضاهای باز مجتمع های مسکونی در سطوح مختلف توسط برنامه ریزان، طراحان و همچنین ساکنین مجتمع های مسکونی شهر تهران مورد بی توجهی قرارگرفته و می گیرد. در این مجتمع ها تنها قابلیت فضای باز در بخش کاربری های عمومی مشاع ساکنین موردتوجه بوده و نقش این فضاها در کاربری های اختصاصی خانواده و کاربری های عمومی شهری مغفول مانده است، در این بخش، توجه به فعالیت های تفریحی، ورزشی و بعضا اقتصادی در فضای باز بیشترین سهم را به خود اختصاص داده و کاربری های فرهنگی آموزشی از اهمیت کمتری برخوردارند.
    کلیدواژگان: فضای باز، مجتمع های مسکونی، کاربری های فضای باز، تهران
  • سیدمحسن حبیبی، محمدحسن خادم زاده صفحه 13
    تاریخ نگاری هنر و طبیعتا معماری و شهرسازی از جمله علومی است که گرچه می توان ریشه های تاریخی برای آن در ایران یافت ولی در شکل کنونی، در پی مواجه جامعه ایرانی با تغییرات و تحولات علمی و صنعتی غرب به آن توجه و اقبال نموده است. در فرآیند این امر فراز و فرودهایی را شاهد بوده و نگرش ها و گرایش های متفاوتی را تجربه کرده و با محاسن و معایب آن از نزدیک آشنا شده است. اما همچنان و علیرغم گذشت نزدیک به یک قرن هنوز تعریف واضح و روشنی از عناوین مورد استفاده و بار معنایی آن ها در دست نیست. در راستای حصول به هدف تبیین و تدوین ادبیات مناسب برای این منظور، سوال اصلی این است که کدام واژه و یا ترکیب واژگان می تواند عنوانی مناسب و کارآمد در زمینه طبقه بندی تاریخ هنر و خصوصا معماری با جایگاه ویژه سرزمینی در ایران به دست دهد. در این مقاله سعی شده است که با استفاده از روش تحقیق تفسیری تاریخی و تکنیک های روش تحقیق استدلال منطقی ضمن بررسی دقیق معنای تحت اللفظی واژگان کلیدی در این زمینه مانند شیوه، سبک، مکتب، دوره، و مشابهات لاتین آن ها که در تاریخ نگاری معماری و شهرسازی بسیار مورد استفاده قرار گرفته اند و مطالعه پیرامون سیر تاریخی به کارگیری آن ها در این روند و همچنین بررسی و تحلیل آراء و نظرات اندیشمندانی که دستی در این موضوع دارند به درک مفاهیم عمیق تری از آن ها برسد و تاثیر هریک را بر فرآیند تدوین تاریخ معماری و شهرسازی ایران مطالعه نماید. در این مسیر نقش این عناوین در تنظیم تاریخ سایر هنرها اعم از قدیم و جدید نیز بررسی شده و در نهایت به نظر می رسد که استفاده از یک ترکیب سه وجهی متشکل از واژه شیوه و وجه سرزمینی و همچنین زمانه تولید اثر می تواند ترکیب مناسبی برای تاریخ نگاری معماری و شهرسازی ایران باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: تاریخ نگاری هنر، شیوه، سبک، مکتب، دوره
  • بررسی روش های مدل آویزان محاسباتی در یافتن فرم سازه های پوسته ای
    افسانه زرکش صفحه 23
    سازه های پوسته ای یکی از سیستم های نوین در معماری معاصر می باشند که واجد خصوصیاتی همچون کسب مقاومت از طریق فرم و ارتباط با فرم معماری هستند. این سازه ها بار دیگر مورد توجه قرار گرفته اند. لذا مساله فرآیند تعیین فرم آن ها به طور بارز مطرح شده و راه حل هایی ارائه و به کار گرفته شده تا فرم بهینه به دست آید. یکی از این روش ها مدل آویزان معکوس است. این روش از قرن هفدهم به صورت فیزیکی به کار می رفته و سپس به صور محاسباتی شکل گرفته است. از این رو بررسی این شیوه ها در یافتن فرم، خصوصیات فرم بهینه و پیشنهاد روش های مناسب تر، جهت بهره برداری ضرورت می یابد. لذا اهداف، دستیابی به چگونگی شکل گیری روش های محاسباتی بر اساس مدل آویزان فیزیکی و فرآیند یافتن فرم در آن ها، نیل به ویژگی های فرم بهینه و تعیین راه حل های مناسب تر می باشد. روش های تحقیق توصیفی تحلیلی و در پروسه » هر مرحله فرآیند فرم فیزیکی «تاریخی به کار رفته است. از بررسی ها استنتاج می شود که با سنجش نیاز به فرم رقومی، معادل هایی برای آن ها معین می شود. در این روش ها هم لزوم تعیین فرضیات و متغیرهایی مشخص می شود. چگونگی شبیه سازی بار خارجی، مصالح و شرایط مرزی نیز آشکار می شود. نحوه شبیه سازی مدل آویزان هم با استفاده از روش های نظری انجام گشته و چگونگی تبدیل کابل به قوس نیز باقی می ماند. فرم حاصله، فرم اولیه بهینه می باشد، جهت تثبیت فرم، نمونه هایی براساس چندین شیوه مورد آزمون قرار می گیرد، بدین گونه فرآیند یافتن فرم طی می شود. خصوصیات شکل بهینه مانند حداکثر سختی، رفتار غشایی، حداقل انرژی و غیره می باشد. گرچه روش های محاسباتی دقیق تر عمل می کنند، لکن تقریبا اکثر ویژگی های فرم آن ها نظیر روش فیزیکی است و برخی مانند کم بودن کل انرژی و بهینگی تغییر مکان ها افزوده شده اند. بیشتر نتایج روش ها یکسان می باشند. تمام روش ها غیر از 3 و 1 و نیمی از 5 راه حل های مناسب تری جهت به کارگیری می باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: یافتن فرم، سازه های پوسته ای، مدل آویزان، روش های محاسباتی
  • زهرا سخندان سرخابی، محمدعلی خانمحمدی صفحه 39
    در مقاله حاضر، راهکار نوینی برای ارتقاء کیفیت سرمایشی و تهویه ای بنا با استفاده از اجزای پیش آمده پوسته های خارجی مانند سایبان ها ارائه شده است. در فصول گرم، هوای گرم بالا آمده، عامل بالقوه ای در افزایش گرمایش تابشی فضا محسوب می شود که تنها راهکار ایستا، دفع آن به واسطه پدیده دودکشی است. لیکن در پاره ای از موارد، به دلیل بادهای نامطلوب و رطوبت نسبی بالا، امکان هدایت جریان هوا به داخل بنا و تخلیه هوای گرم به حداقل می رسد، پس ضرورت به کار بستن سامانه ای که بتواند بدون ورود جریان هوا از بیرون به داخل و صرف هزینه قابل توجه، به تهویه و سرمایش فضا بپردازد، اجتناب ناپذیر خواهد بود. جهت دستیابی به هدف مذکور در مقاله، با مطالعه خصوصیات منطقه ای ارسباران شمالی مانند پوشش گیاهی انبوه، بادهای متنوع و همچنین خصوصیات تابشی اجزاء پوسته خارجی بنا، سامانه ای طراحی گردید که با تبدیل حجم توپر لبه های پیش آمده سایبان ها به احجام توخالی، جایگذاری یک تیغه جمع کننده آب در قسمت میانی و همچنین استفاده از کارکرد ترکیبی جریان هوا و پوشش گیاهی در قسمت فوقانی آن، کارکرد موثری را ایجاد کرده و بدون دخالت هیچ نوع انرژی پویا، چرخه ایستای سرمایش و تهویه را در بنا دایر ساخت. پژوهش حاضر از نوع تحقیقات توسعه ای است و به روش موردی و تحلیلی صورت گرفته است. نتایج حاصل از آزمایش و مشاهدات محلی، بیانگر کارآمدی و اقتصادی بودن کارکرد این سامانه در منطقه هدف می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: تهویه، سامانه ایستا، لبه پیش آمده، هوای گرم بالا آمده، پوشش گیاهی
  • حمیدرضا عظمتی، بهرام صالح صدق پور، زهرا جلیلی *، لیلا برات پور صفحه 51

    امروزه به دلیل تغییرات روز افزون و پرشتاب جوامع بشری و نقش کلیدی تعلیم و تربیت در تربیت نسل خلاق به منظور توان رو به رو شدن با این تغییرات، اهمیت و ضرورت خلاقیت و عوامل موثر بر آن در تعلیم و تربیت بیش از هر زمان دیگری آشکار شده است. خلاقیت و نوآوری از مهم ترین اهداف آموزش و پرورش و جزء مهم ترین رسالت سازمان های آموزشی است، هدف از تحقیق حاضر، دستیابی به معیارهای طراحی فضاهای هنرستان دخترانه با تاکید بر بهره گیری از قابلیت های محیطی موثر بر ذهن و رفتار نوجوانان و رویکرد ارتقاء خلاقیت آنان است. در این تحقیق، بر پایه تلفیق نظریات مرتبط با موضوع تحقیق، از روش تحقیق پیمایشی استفاده شده و بر اساس نتایج تحقیق، معیارهای معمارانه برای طراحی فضاهای آموزشی در جهت ارتقاء انگیزش و خلاقیت هنرجویان استنتاج شده است. تا با به کارگیری این معیارها بتوان فضاها را به گونه ای طراحی کرد که قدرت کنجکاوی و ابتکار هنرجویان ارتقاء یابد. روش تحقیق این پژوهش، از نوع زمینه یابی و کاربردی است. جامعه آماری در این پژوهش شامل کلیه هنرآموزان شهر تهران در سال تحصیلی91-90 می باشند. روش نمونه گیری، خوشه ایچند مرحله ای است و حجم نمونه در این تحقیق 124 هنرآموز می باشد. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات تحقیق، از پرسشنامه های محقق ساخته استفاده شده است. اطلاعات حاصله پس از طبقه بندی، با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری SPSS، به مقتضای نوع متغیرها و ارتباط آن ها با یکدیگر توسط آزمون تی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل،SPSS استفاده از نرم افزار آماری قرار گرفته، نتایج زیر به دست آمده است. ایجاد انعطاف پذیری عملکردی در فضاهای آموزشی ایجاد تنوع در فضاهای آموزشی ایجاد ارتباط درون و بیرون در فضاهای آموزشی ایجاد تنوع فرم در فضاهای آموزشی.

    کلیدواژگان: معماری، فضاهای آموزشی، ارتقاء خلاقیت، طراحی هنرستان
  • شهلا غفاری جباری، شیوا غفاری جباری، الهام صالح صفحه 59
    داشتن زندگی توام با آرامش و آسایش اهمیت فراوانی دارد. هیاهوی شهری و صدای ترافیک از جمله عواملی است که آرامش را از بین می برد. این صداها تاثیر منفی بر زندگی مردم دارد و استفاده از تدابیر مناسب در جهت کاهش آلودگی صدا یکی از مهم ترین نکاتی است که باید مد نظر قرار گیرد، انتظار می رود که پروژه ها و مقالات بسیاری درباره این موضوع ارائه شده باشد، در صورتی که چنین نیست و مقالات ارائه شده در این زمینه بسیار محدود است و بسیاری از دانشجویان ساختمان آموزش مناسب را در این زمینه نمی بینند. و در طراحی های خود به این موضوع توجهی نمی کنند. بنابراین لزوم ارائه مقاله ای شامل یک روش کاربردی ساده که به بررسی وضعیت آکوستیکی یک نمونه موردی می پردازد، احساس می شود. در این مقاله با استفاده از روش میدانی-تحلیلی وضعیت صدا در یکی از آپارتمان های متداول شهر تهران مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. نمونه موردی از جامعه آماری آپارتمان های متداولی که معمولا در سطح شهر وجود دارد، انتخاب شده است. چرا که باید موضوع آسایش صوتی در ساختمان را برای همه ساخت و سازهای متداول فرهنگ سازی کرد. این موضوع به ویژه در ساختمان های حواشی بزرگراه ها از اهمیت فراوان برخوردار است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که با یک طراحی مناسب و استفاده از مصالح مناسب می توان تا میزان زیادی در برابر صداهای هوابرد چون ترافیک، عایق صوتی ایجاد کرد. در مورد نمونه های اجرا شده، اصلاح جدارها، باعث بهبود افت صوتی خواهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: آکوستیک، صدای هوابرد، نوفه، افت صوتی، ساختمان های حواشی بزرگراه
  • شادی فروغی، سعیده جعفری صفحه 67
    در فرآیند برنامه ریزی و مدیریت توسعه پایدار گردشگری، شناخت توان و تناسب جاذبه ها و به کارگیری روش های کمی برای برآورد مقادیر استفاده از منابع موجود در آن ها، در محدوده های مکانی و زمانی مشخص نقش کلیدی را ایفا می کنند. امروزه با افزایش گردشگری فرهنگی هدف بسیاری از گردشگران از سفر به یک منطقه بازدید از بناهای تاریخی منطقه می باشد. اما هجوم خیل عظیم گردشگران به بناهای تاریخی به دلیل ساختارها و ویژگی های خاص آن ها می تواند آسیب های جبران ناپذیری را در پی داشته باشد. بنابراین ضروری است تا با آگاهی از ظرفیت های اماکن تاریخی گردشگری در کشور از تخریب آن ها جلوگیری شود و برنامه ریزی ها متناسب با شرایط موجود انجام پذیرد. تعیین ظرفیت قابل تحمل یکی از روش های موثر در جهت حفاظت از جاذبه های گردشگری است. در این پژوهش پس از تعیین شاخص های موثر در برآورد ظرفیت پذیرش بنا، با به کارگیری روش کمی (TCC) تعداد گردشگرانی که می توانند به صورت فیزیکی و واقعی در مسجد شیخ لطف الله حضور یابند، محاسبه شده است. بنابر آمارهای در دسترس، نتایج حاصله نشان می دهد که تعداد بازدیدکنندگان مسجد شیخ لطف الله تنها در نوروز از میزان ظرفیت قابل تحمل واقعی روزانه بنا بیشتر بوده و در سایر ماه های سال از میزان ظرفیت قابل تحمل واقعی ماهانه بسیار پایین تر بوده است. لذا سیاستگذاری های لازم برای بهره برداری از این بنا در ایام اوج و ایام رکود ضرورتی اجتناب ناپذیر بوده و از رسیدن آسیب های جبران ناپذیر به این بنای تاریخی جلوگیری می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: ظرفیت قابل تحمل واقعی، توسعه پایدار، گردشگری پایدار، مسجد شیخ لطف الله
  • حمزه غلامعلی زاده، نغمه مخبری * صفحه 81

    تحقق استعدادهای بالقوه دانشجویان معماری، علاوه بر موارد عامی همچون کنجکاوی، دانش اندوزی، یادگیری وکسب حقیقت در عرصه معماری، وابسته به کسب تجربه و مهارت های حرفه ای در امر زیبائی شناختی است. حصول موارد فوق، بستگی به چگونگی تامین نیازهای اساسی آنان دارد. در این ارتباط صرف نظر از روابط اجتماعی مربوط به اجرای برنامه های آموزش معماری، تاثیر محیط فیزیکی آموزش معماری، به دلیل تسهیل در انجام رفتارهای مربوط به تامین نیازهای اساسی و نیز برانگیختگی آن ها جهت ادراک، شناخت و یادگیری آنان از معانی مربوط به مصداق های مناسب معماری از اهمیت ویژ هایی برخوردار است. این مقاله اهدافی را مبنی بر شناخت نیازها و شرایط مناسب محیط فیزیکی آموزش معماری برای تامین نیازها و قرار گرفتن دانشجویان معماری در فرآیند رشد استعدادهای بالقوه آنان دنبال می کند. لذا زیر ساخت آن بر پایه علومی چون روانشناسی محیط، روانشناسی یادگیری و علوم رفتاری و شیوه تحقیق بر مبنای توصیف و تحلیل اطلاعات از طریق استدلال منطقی است. در راستای تامین مجموعه نیازهای فوق الذکر، ضرورت امر ایجاب می کند که اولا، عادات نادرست ناشی از روزمرگی که سبب تنزل ارتقاء معماری می شود، از ذهن دانشجویان خارج گشته، ثانیا اسکیماهای لازم برای تعالی معماری حاصل شود. بدین منظور احکامی عملیاتی همچون استفاده از جذبه های بصری، جزئیات غنی، نیز ارزش ها و مفاهیم کیفی محیطی به گونه ای بدیع و نو، اما مرتبط با الگوهای بومی و فرهنگی آنان در محیط مورد نظر می تواند از جمله موارد بارزی تلقی شود که برای طراحی مکان های آموزش معماری و رشته های نظیر آن مورد استفاده طراحان و برنامه ریزان آموزشی قرار گیرد.

    کلیدواژگان: نیازهای دانشجویان معماری، محیط فیزیکی آموزش، استعدادهای بالقوه
  • فرهنگ مظفر، سیده سمیه میرمرادی صفحه 93
    فضاهای آموزشی یکی از مهم ترین فضاهای تاثیرگذار بر روی کودکان به دلیل گذراندن ساعت های زیادی از طول روزشان می باشد. در فضاهای آموزشی، هر دو گونه فضاهای باز و بسته از اهمیت برخوردارند و ارتباط میان این دو فضای مکمل نیز بسیار با اهمیت است. ارتباط میان این دو فضا به کاربری داخلی و تفاوت در فعالیت هایی که در آن انجام می شود و میزان پویایی فضاها مرتبط است. چگونگی ارتباط میان فضاهای باز و بسته در مدارس می تواند منجر به چیدمان فضایی ساختمان آموزشی شود. یکی از مهم ترین فضاهای موجود در مدارس، کلاس های درس هستند که چگونگی ارتباط آن ها با فضاهای باز و همچنین چیدمان آن ها در کنار یکدیگر به دلیل تعدد آن ها در یک مدرسه نقش بسیار تاثیرگذاری در طراحی فضا خواهد داشت. طراحی فضاهای آموزشی با تاکید بر چگونگی چیدمان فضایی، یکی از رویکردهای موجود در زمینه طراحی فضاهای آموزشی است. با توجه به رواج دو الگوی خطی و حیاط مرکزی در سیر تحول معماری مدارس ایرانی، از میان انواع چیدمان های فضایی ساختمان مدرسه، این دو الگوی چیدمانی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و چگونگی تحقق اصول طراحی ارتباط میان کلاس درس و فضاهای بیرونی در آن ها بررسی می شود. در نهایت الگوهای بهینه طراحی برای این دو الگوی چیدمانی پیشنهاد خواهد شد. در روند دستیابی به اصول ارتباط بهینه و بررسی الگوهای چیدمانی از روش استدلال منطقی استفاده شده است. در این مقاله تلاش شده است تا با دستیابی به الگوی بهینه ارتباطی میان کلاس درس و انواع فضاهای بیرونی مدرسه به پیشنهاداتی برای چیدمان فضایی رایج در مدارس ایرانی دست یافت.
    کلیدواژگان: ارتباط، کلاس درس، طراحی فضاهای آموزشی، چیدمان فضایی، مدارس ایرانی
  • سعید میرریاحی صفحه 107
    آموزش معماری یکی از موضوعات مهم و کلیدی در جریان رشد و شکوفایی معماری در ایران و ترسیم آینده معماری ایران و جهان به شمار می آید. پرورش خلاقیت و روحیه انتقادی دانشجویان در ارائه طرح های معماری و ارزیابی دقیق و صحیح آن، دارای پیچیدگی های خاصی بوده، و عدم توجه کافی به عوامل جنبی موثر و تاثیرگذار بر ارزیابی، شیوه های جاری آموزش و قضاوت را با چالش های اساسی مواجه ساخته است که ماحصل این مسائل عمل و حرفه معماری را متاثر ساخته است. انواع روش های آموزشی در کلاس درس دوره های معماری نتایج متفاوتی را حاصل می کند، اما آنچه که امروزه در اغلب کلاس های معماری رایج است، استفاده از روش های مبتنی بر تیم است. یادگیری مبتنی بر تیم نوعی راهبرد آموزشی است که با هدف ارتقای کیفیت یادگیری در دانشجویان از طریق افزایش مهارت حل مساله اطمینان از حضور دانشجویان در کلاس درس با آمادگی قبلی، ایجاد کلاسی پر انرژی و غیره ارائه گردیده است که بخشی از مقاله حاضر به مناسب سازی این روش برای کاربرد در کلاس های آموزشی معماری پرداخته است. ارزیابی دانشجویان در محیط های آموزشی از گذشته مورد استفاده مراکز آموزشی قرار داشته و در اغلب دانشگاه ها به صورت امری معمول و در برخی به صورت اجباری سالیانه انجام می پذیرد. ارزیابی به طور کلی به یافته های خود متکی بوده و مستلزم نوعی داوری درباره موثر بودن، ثمربخشی اجتماعی و مطلوب بودن فرآیند یا برنامه و نهایتا فرآورده بر حسب اهداف و ارزش های تعیین شده می باشد. ارزیابی پروژه ها باید به نحوی انجام پذیرد که تاثیر عوامل اغتشاشگر، نظیر جو مناسبات اجتماعی، سیاسی و مدیریتی برآن به حداقل ممکن برسد و فقط ملاک های علمی و عملی و حرفه ای ملحوظ شود. ماهیت متفاوت رشته معماری نسبت به سایر رشته ها باعث می شود که معیارهایی که برای قضاوت طرح ها در این رشته به کار می روند، صد در صد ثابت و بدون تغییر نباشند. از طرفی نقش غیرقابل انکار عوامل انسانی در داوری طرح ها باعث می شود که همواره درصدی از انحراف نسبت به معیارها با توجه به سلایق هیات قضاوت وجود داشته باشد. بر همین اساس، در بخش دیگری، مقاله به معرفی روش ارزشیابی همتایان به عنوان رویکردی مطلوب در نحوه سنجش آثار معماری از یک سو و از دیگر سو به عنوان مناس بترین روش ارزیابی در رویکرد آموزشی مبتنی بر تیم پرداخته است.
    کلیدواژگان: آموزش معماری، ارزیابی آموزشی، یادگیری مبتنی بر تیم، ارزشیابی همتایان
  • عبدالحمید نقره کار، مهدی حمزه نژاد، صدیقه معین مهر * صفحه 119

    اسلام ارزش های تعالی جویانه ای را در زمینه شهر و محیط زندگی انسانی مطرح کرده که امروزه با ظهور فرهنگ جدید و غفلت از ابعاد معنوی انسان مورد بی مهری قرار گرفته است. برای احیاء این ارزش ها در شهرسازی معاصر لازم است این ارزش ها از حالت عام و کلی به صورت مساله تخصصی تبدیل شوند. هدف از این مقاله طرح مسائل شهرسازی اسلامی و استخراج اصول مربوطه برای طراحان شهری و معماران می باشد. روش مورد استفاده در این مقاله مراجعه به منابع خطاناپذیر اسلامی و استنباط و استدلال منطقی است و با بررسی مبانی و متون دینی در مقایسه شیوه سنتی و تاریخی ساخت و ساز از یک سو و نیازهای جدید از سوی دیگر تلاش می شود اصول و ارزش ها برای تعالی انسان در شهر استخراج شود. مهم ترین این ارزش ها را می توان در کلیت شهر در عرصه هایی همچون ارزش شهر به منظور بسترسازی برای اشتغال، تفریح و سلامت جسمی، نظارت عمومی و توجه به اظهار شعائر دینی در عرصه شهر دانست. در محله نیز مسجد به عنوان مرکز محله با تشویق مردم به حضور در آن مطرح شده و بازار و مراکز فروش به عنوان تامین کننده مایحتاج مطرح می شود. کلیت محله ها از نظر شان فرهنگی و دینی اعتبارهای مختلف دارند و لازم است در انتخاب محله اسلامی این اعتبار مطالعه گردد. خانه ها نیز مهم ترین عرصه خصوصی و حریم خانوادگی بوده و نباید استقلال و حرمت آن ها با هر نوع مزاحمت همجواری خدشه دار شود. در مجموع هنگامی خانه، محله و شهر اسلامی خواهیم داشت، که معماران و شهرسازان ما با شناخت کافی از حکمت نظری و عملی اسلام در حوزه برنامه ریزی و طراحی محیط اقدام نمایند. بدیهی است که سایر ارکان شهر یعنی قوانین، مدیران و شهروندان نیز می بایست از مبانی اسلامی تبعیت نمایند.

    کلیدواژگان: اولویت های سکونت، اسلام، شهر، محله، خانه
  • لادن وجدان زاده صفحه 137
    در ابتدای هزاره سوم میلادی، فناوری از جنس نانو، نوید انقلاب صنعتی دیگری را می دهد که از آن به عنوان موج چهارم انقلاب صنعتی یاد می شود. بسیاری از پژوهشگران بر این باورند که در آینده ای نه چندان دور همه اشیا بر مبنای مقیاس نانو ساخته شده و خواصشان در آن مقیاس شکل می گیرد و تولید همه اشیای دست ساز بشر دچار تحول خواهد شد. بنابراین تغییر و تحول مصالح ساختمانی و فناوری ساخت امری امکان پذیر به نظر می رسد و باید از هم اکنون تاثیرات آن بر معماری مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. این مقاله بر آن است تا تاثیرات فناوری نانو در حوزه معماری را با مطالعه کاربرد فناوری نانو در عرصه معماری و بهره گیری از مصالح نانو بنیان و تغییر ساختار یاخته ای و فرمی معماری مورد بررسی قرار دهد. چهارچوب نظری پژوهش بر اساس اهمیت به کارگیری مصالح نانو بنیان و ساخت و ارائه طرح هایی برمبنای بهره گیری از ساختار علم طبیعی یا همان بیونیک استوار شده است. روش تحقیق به کار گرفته شده در این مقاله، روش تحقیقات کاربردی و بر اساس خصوصیت موضوع روش توصیفی است. تاثیر فراگیر نانو فناوری در زندگی بشر و نحوه ارتباط او با محیط اطراف و ساختمان ها اجتناب ناپذیر و غیر قابل تصور است. بنابراین مصالح نانو بنیان باید به مرور جایگزین مصالح سنتی شوند تا بتوان در صنعت ساخت و ساز تحویلی عظیم را به وجودآورد از سوی دیگر ارائه طرح های معمارانه بر اساس ساختار مورفولوژی و یاخته ای نانو به عنوان پادزهری برای بناهای فرم محور امروزی خواهد بود.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری، معماری پایدار، فناوری نانو، معماری، نانو مواد، بیونیک
  • طراحی شهری
  • سید حسین بحرینی، ملیحه علی قلعه باباخانی، رضا سامه صفحه 151
    کیفیت زندگی شهری یکی از رویکردهای جدید به مسائل شهری است که به موجب آن طراحان و برنامه ریزان شهری راهکارهایی جهت تحقق آن ارائه می دهند که نشان از اقدامات جدی در خلق تغییرات مثبت در محیط زندگی شهری در گونه های» کیفیت زندگی شهری «است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش تبیین یک چارچوب مفهومی برای بررسی ماهیت مختلف تئوری های طراحی شهری است تا از طریق آن بتوان به فهم عمیق تری نسبت به موضوعات اساسی در این حوزه پرداخت، به سطح و روش به کارگیری آن جامعیت بخشید و ابعاد مختلف این رویکرد از قبیل جهت گیری فلسفی و مبانی معرفتی را روشن ساخت. برای انجام این پژوهش، بخشی از گونه شناسی های مرتبط با انواع تئوری های طراحی شهری از دیدگاه های مختلف بررسی شده و براساس آن با تکیه بر روش استنباط استقرایی و تحلیلی به تبیین ماهیت این رویکرد در میان گونه های مختلف تئوری های طراحی شهری پرداخته شد. رویکرد کیفیت زندگی شهری در پی انتقادات به شیوه برنامه ریزی خردگرا وارد مطالعات شهری شده و در سطوح مختلف قابلیت کاربرد را دارد. این رویکرد با شناخت و تفسیر وضعیت موجود از جنبه های عینی و ذهنی، فرآیندهایی را جهت ارتقاء ارزش های زندگی شهری ارائه می کند. اگرچه غایت این رویکرد، برنامه ریزی و طرح ریزی برای ابعاد کالبدی و عینی شهر است، ولی شناخت کیفیت موجود شرایط زندگی و تعریف ارزش های هنجاری براساس دیدگاه و ذهنیت ساکنین می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت زندگی شهری، طراحی شهری، گونه شناسی، تئوری های هنجاری، ابعاد عینی، ابعاد ذهنی
  • علی پورجعفر، محمدرضا پورجعفر صفحه 169
    برخی از صاحبنظران مطرح شدن موضوع طراحی شهری را بیشتر به غرب و دهه شصت نسبت می دهند. لیکن طراحی مجموعه های بزرگ و باشکوه تجاری همچون بازارهای سنتی و اجزاء آن ها در شهرهایی همچون تبریز، تهران، کاشان و اصفهان از غنای تجلی طراحی شهری در ایران حکایت دارد. در نظام تقسی مبندی فضاهای شهری، به دو دسته فضاهای حرکت و مکث اشاره شده است. فضاهای شهری سنتی در ایران را نیز می توان به همین طریق دسته بندی نمود. در مجموعه های تجاری سنتی ایران می توان، راسته های بازار را فضای حرکت و تیمچه ها را فضای مکث نیمه عمومی شهری محسوب نمود. طراحی و اجرای باشکوه تیمچه هایی همچون تیمچه های بزرگ قم و امین الدوله، در کاشان از جمله منابع فیزیکی معتبری است که دلالت به توجه و تاکید بر قدمت طراحی شهری در ایران دارد. از جمله ویژگی های این تیمچه ها، چند عملکردی بودن فضای آن هاست. تیمچه ها در بیشتر مواقع به صورت فضایی تجاری تخصصی عمل می کنند، لیکن در مواقع ضروری به خصوص ایام سوگواری و یا اعیاد بزرگ برای انجام این مراسم به خوبی ایفای نقش نموده و فضایی پاسخگو می باشند. در این مقاله با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی ضمن اشاره به دسته بندی برخی تیمچه های معروف ایران، سعی شده است به صورت موردی تیمچه های بزرگ قم و امین الدوله کاشان به عنوان دو اثر برجسته از لحاظ ویژگی هایی مانند موقعیت، پلان، شکل، فرم، مقطع و برخی جزئیات معرفی گردند و در ادامه با دو نمونه از پاساژهای طراحی شده در غرب که تقریبا همزمان با طراحی تیمچه ها در ایران، شکل گرفته اند، مقایسه شوند. نتیجه پژوهش، برتری تیمچه ها را در زمینه ویژگی های مذکور نسبت به پاساژها نشان می دهد، که خود دلیلی بر اصالت و قدمت موضوع طراحی شهری در ایران اسلامی نسبت به غرب است.
    کلیدواژگان: فضای شهری سنتی ایرانی اسلامی، تیمچه، پاساژ
  • آرش ثقفی اصل، اسفندیار زبردست، حمید ماجدی صفحه 183
    به موازات ارتقاء جایگاه طراحی شهری در نظام برنامه ریزی کشور، توجه به فرآیند تحقق پذیری آن از اهمیت به سزایی برخوردار است. چه بسیار پروژه های طراحی شهری که علی رغم نیاز مبرم به آن ها جهت رفع کمبودها و نارسایی های محیط شهرهای معاصر کشورمان، به دلیل ضعف اساسی در تعریف، تهیه و تصویب به اجرا نرسیده اند. عدم اجرای پروژه های مذکور سبب کاهش کیفیت فضاهای عمومی شهرها و نارضایتی عموم شهروندان شده و مدیران شهری را بر آن داشته است که با تجدید نظر در فرآیند اجرایی پروژه ها در پی یافتن دلایل اصلی کاهش تحقق پذیری باشند. از این رو مطالعه فرآیند تحقق این قبیل پروژه ها از ضروریات پژوهش های شهرسازی کشور می باشد. بر این اساس پژوهش حاضر تلاشی برای شناسایی و اولویت بندی معیارها و شاخص های موثر در این فرآیند می باشد. بدین منظور، با استفاده از مطالعات اسنادی و با مروری بر متون مربوطه، ابتدا به تدوین چارچوب نظری پرداخته، سپس با استفاده از روش تحلیلی تطبیقی و مرور مستندات و آراء مشابه سایر اندیشمندان، معیارها و شاخص های اولیه مشخص شد. سپس به منظور بومی سازی و انطباق با زمینه ایران، معیارها و شاخص های مذکور با روش مصاحبه با صاح بنظران تدقیق و تکمیل شد. در نهایت میزان اهمیت هر یک از معیارها و شاخص ها به وسیله پرسشنامه توسط بازیگران اصلی پروژه های طراحی شهری ایران تعیین شده و اولویت بندی انجام یافت. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد در شرایط موجود طراحی شهری ایران، معیار صلاحیت کارفرما و مدیریت پروژه، مشارکت عمومی و شاخص های مربوطه بالاترین میزان اهمیت و معیار میزان تعامل قانونی، پشتیبانی علمی- آکادمیکی و شاخص های مربوطه کمترین اهمیت را از نظر بازیگران اصلی دارا می باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: معیار، شاخص، تحق قپذیری، فرآیند، پروژه های طراحی شهری
  • فرح حبیب، تکتم حنایی صفحه 199
    رفتار مسیریابی در فضای شهری از طریق دریافت اطلاعات از محیط انجام می شود. در اختیار داشتن اطلاعاتی شامل مکان قرارگیری، مبدا، مقصد و ارتباطات میان آن ها منجر به سهولت تصمیم گیری در انتخاب مسیر می شود. لذا استفاده کنندگان از محیط نمی توانند بدون اطلاعات، به ادراک محیط و ذخیره اطلاعات در ذهن خود بپردازند. هدف از این پژوهش تشخیص ارتباط میان اطلاعات محیطی، نحوه ادراک محیط و الگوهای رفتاری مسیریابی مردان می باشد. به منظور گردآوری داده ها، از روش های کیفی شامل، پرسشنامه، مشاهده و شبیه سازی استفاده شده است. حجم جامعه آماری برابر با 150 نفر از مردان در خیابان های امام رضا (ع)، دانشگاه و امام خمینی در شهر مشهد است. همچنین تحلیل اطلاعات از طریق تحلیل های آمار Chi-Square و Cramer’s V Test انجام شده است. نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه نشان می دهد، اهمیت عوامل کالبدی راهنمای مسیریابی برای مردان در هنگام انتخاب مسیر متفاوت است. مردان در اولویت اول از راه ها به عنوان راهنما استفاده نموده و در مرحله بعد در هنگام حرکت در طول مسیر تقاطع ها برایشان دارای اهمیت است. ساختمان های شاخص در محیط برای رسیدن به مقصد در اولویت سوم بوده و در آخرین مرحله مردان از علائم راهنما کمک می گیرند. از سویی دیگر، مردان در میان انواع ابزارهای مسیریابی ترجیح می دهند از طریق جستجو کردن در محیط و استفاده از جهات اصلی مسیر خود را تشخیص دهند. عوامل راهنمای بصری برای مردان، در صورت قرارگیری در محل تقاطع و سبک معماری متمایز بیشتر در مسیریابی مورد توجه می باشند. همچنین ساختمان ها با تعداد طبقات زیاد و قابلیت رویت از فاصله دور در صورتی که دارای رنگ سفید نیز باشند به عنوان هدایت گر مردان در رسیدن به مقصد صحیح استفاده می شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: ادراک محیط، مردان، عوامل هدایت کننده، رفتار مسیریابی
  • سینا رزاقی اصل صفحه 211
    امروزه از مقیاس طراحی اشیاء و مبلمان گرفته تا طراحی منطقه ای و شهری، در داخل طراحی محیطی جای می گیرند. طراحان محیطی اعم از معماران، معماران منظر، برنامه ریزان و طراحان شهری، با مقولات و موضوعاتی فرا رشته خودشان ارتباط دارند. این مقولات که در حوزه ها و زمینه های تخصصی سایر علوم و فنون جای می گیرند، از اهمیت بسیار زیادی در رشد و توسعه مرزهای دانش و فناوری در سطح کشور برخوردارند. از این رو توجه ویژه اساتید و حرفه مندان رشته های طراحی محیطی به این موضوعات و بررسی روندها و رویه های به کارگیری صحیح و اصولی آن ها در میان مباحث اصلی رشته ای، حائز اهمیت است. این مقاله با هدف کنکاشی در شناخت مهم ترین موضوعات و مقولات فرارشته ای مطرح در طراحی محیطی، به بیان دیدگاه اساتید در این زمینه می پردازد. از روش های پیمایشی و تحلیل محتوا سود جسته و سعی در معرفی حوزه های تاثیرگذار پیرامونی طراحی محیطی در رشد و توسعه این زمینه تخصصی دارد. مطابق این شیوه، پرسشنامه ای باز پاسخ از بیست استاد رشته های طراحی شهری، معماری و معماری منظر در سطح دانشگاه های تهران،شهید بهشتی و علم و صنعت ایران و در فاصله زمانی تیرماه تا مرداد ماه 1391 تهیه شد. یافته های این نوشتار نشان می دهد که پنج مقوله مرزی اکولوژی محیط، جهانی شدن، هویت ایرانی- اسلامی، اجتماع محلی و آموزش فرارشته ای جزء مهم ترین دغدغه های اساتید نسبت به موضوعات فرارشته ای طراحی محیطی در ایران می باشند. همچنین معرفی ضرورت توجه به نگاه های فرارشته ای و کاربرد موضوعات مرزی در طراحی محیطی نیز جزء دیگر نتایج این تحقیق به شمار می رود.
    کلیدواژگان: فرارشته ای، طراحی محیطی، موضوعات مرزی، میان رشته ای
  • نرگس سلطانی، نجمه سادات مصطفوی، سحر امانی کلاریجانی صفحه 221
    رشد سریع شهرها و توسعه کالبدی آن موجبات بروز بحران های مختلف در زندگی شهری نظیر مشکلات محیطی و نزول کیفیت محیط را حاصل می آورد. به دنبال این امر لزوم توجه به مفهوم کیفیت و ارتقاء آن در محیط های شهری در کنار توجه به مسائل کمی بیشتر احساس شد. توجه به ارزش های فرهنگی، اجتماعی، معیشتی و هویتی شهروندان و معیارهای زیباشناختی شهری که اصلی ترین معیارها برای بالا بردن کیفیت یک محیط شهری به خصوص فضاهای شهری که هسته های اصلی و هویتی شهر هستند و توجه به منافع مشترک شهروندان، علاوه بر نتایج مثبت روانی که به دنبال دارد، رضایتمندی شهروندان از فضای شهری و حضور بیشتر در فضا را تشویق می کند. بنابراین یکی از مسائل مهم در برنامه ریزی توجه به ارزش های کیفیت محیط از دید شهروندان است. هدف اصلی در این مقاله سنجش میزان کیفیت محیط، نحوه رتبه بندی و میزان تمایل به پرداخت افراد مراجعه کننده جهت ارتقاء سطح کیفی هریک از ارزش های محیطی است تا زمینه مناسبی را در جهت ارتقاء کیفیت محیط از دید افراد مراجعه کننده به پارک کوهستانی صفه شهر اصفهان فراهم کند. روش انجام این تحقیق بر مبنای روش های انتخاب تجربی (CEM) و ارزیابی مشروط (CVM) است. میزان تمایل به پرداخت، رضایتمندی و الویت بندی برای تمایل به پرداخت هریک از ارزش های محیطی توسط استفاده کنندگان از فضای شهری مورد پژوهش قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از روش انتخاب تجربی نشان داد که همه متغیرهای ارزشی رابطه بالایی را در نظر افراد برای انتخاب فضای شهری خود داشته اند. (p<0.05) متغیر دسترسی بالاترین ارزش را از دید افراد مخاطب (با عدد 1.52) داشت و همچنین نتایج حاصل از روش ارزیابی مشروط نشان داد افراد برای ورودی پارک صفه تمایل دارند مبلغ 150 تومان بپردازند و هیچ یک از ویژگی های اجتماعی- اقتصادی افراد بر این تمایل به پرداخت تاثیرگذار نیست.
    کلیدواژگان: مدل انتخاب تجربی (CEM)، مدل ارزیابی مشروط (CVM)، کیفیت محیط، پارک صفه اصفهان
  • علی کاظمی صفحه 233
    رویکرد به شناخت معنی در محیط ساخته شده به ویژه در گونه های خاصی از آن نظیر بافت های تاریخی امروزه اغلب مورد توجه بوده و در مطالعات متعددی مورد بحث و تاکید قرار گرفته است. در این بین، بازشناسی معانی محیطی تاریخی این بافت ها (دوره های گذشته و زمان تکوین آن ها)، از این حیث که می تواند موجب شناخت صحیح تر زمینه شکل گیری محیط ها، ارزیابی درست تغییرات و تحولات پدید آمده در گذر زمان و لذا درک مناسب دلایل وجود تفاوت های احتمالی در معانی محیط شود، ضرورت و اهمیت خاصی دارد. هدف این پژوهش یافتن روش های مقدور و معقول برای شناخت معانی محیطی تاریخی فضاهای تاریخی و قدیمی بوده و بدین منظور از روش های تحقیق تفسیری تاریخی و استدلال منطقی بهره گرفته است.گردآوری اطلاعات به صورت اسنادی و میدانی (مشاهده و مصاحبه) انجام شده است. بر این اساس، در این تحقیق با بهره گیری از رویکردهای ساختارگرایی و نشانه شناسی در معماری و شهرسازی به مثابه مدل عملیاتی تحقیق و تمرکز بر بستر تاریخی مشخصی (محله صیقلان شهر رشت)، سه روش مختلف جهت حصول به اهداف، نتیجه گیری و پیشنهاد شده است: 1- روش شناخت ویژگی های فضا در دوره تاریخی مبتنی بر شناخت شالوده و ساختار آن و درک معانی مستتر در ساختار فضا 2- درک رابطه بین زمینه و بستر کالبدی فضایی محیط های تاریخی و تحولات حادث شده در جهان بینی و ایدئولوژی مخاطبان و جامعه بهره بردار در گذر زمان 3- شناخت تغییرات پدید آمده در نظام های بیانی مرتبط با محیط که اغلب جنبه ذهنی داشته و با اتکاء بر روش نشانه شناسی و بازشناسی تفاوت سطوح نشانه ای عناصر و مجموعه ها در دوره های زمانی مختلف صورت می گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: معنی، محیط های تاریخی، روش شناسی، ساختارگرایی، نشانه شناسی
  • برنامه ریزی شهری
  • بهرام امین زاده، مینا روشن صفحه 243
    با وجود آنکه لزوم تجلی توزیع متعادل یا به عبارتی عدالت در توزیع خدمات شهری امری پذیرفته شده است اما چگونگی سنجش و ارزیابی شرایط برقراری آن در شهر همچنان مورد سوال است. در مقاله حاضر، با هدف تحلیل و مقایسه روش های ارزیابی توزیع عادلانه خدمات شهری، ضمن شناسایی سه روش فرصت های تجمعی، رقابت در دسترسی به فرصت ها و رتبه مکان به عنوان روش های کارآمد در این زمینه، کاربست آن ها بر روی دو نوع از خدمات یک نمونه موردی واقع در شهر قزوین به صورت تطبیقی و مقایسه ای، مورد ارزیابی واقع شده است. یافته های این پژوهش، در وهله اول موید وجود عدم تعادل نسبتا شدید در توزیع این دو نوع کاربری در سطح شهر قزوین است اما از نظر جزئیات و میزان این عدم تعادل، تفاوت های معناداری در نتایج سه روش مطروحه، مشاهده شده است. مقایسه این مقادیر با دو رویکرد مجزا، نتایجی را مبنی بر موارد کاربرد مناسب هر یک از این سه روش در پی داشته است. در رویکرد اول با شناسایی نواحی واجد بهترین رتبه دسترسی در هر یک از روش ها، تفاوت در رتبه های به دست آمده به صورت علی و مقایسه ای بررسی شده است؛ در رویکرد دوم نیز میزان انطباق پذیری نتایج هر روش با تصویر ذهنی شهروندان از دسترسی آن ها به خدمات به عنوان ذینفعان اصلی نحوه توزیع امکانات بررسی شده است. بر این اساس با توجه به خصوصیات نمونه مطالعاتی، روش فرصت های تجمعی در زمینه تشخیص برقراری تعادل به عنوان تحلیلی ساده و اجمالی موثر بوده و روش رقابت در دسترسی به فرصت ها تحت شرایطی خاص، قابلیت به تصویر کشیدن میزان این عدم تعادل در توزیع این دو نوع از خدمات محلی را دارا خواهد بود. همچنین بررسی میزان انطباق نتایج سه روش با تصویر ذهنی شهروندان از میزان دسترسی، حاکی از انطباق پذیری نسبتا مناسب روش فرصت ها تجمعی و سپس روش رقابت، با فاصله اندکی از آن می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی کاربری اراضی، عدالت فضایی، فرصت های تجمعی، رقابت، رتبه مکان
  • مهدی حاجی حسینی، پویان شهابیان صفحه 259
    یکی از علل وجودی علم شهرسازی ارتقای کیفیت زندگی شهروندان می باشد. امروزه به دلیل گسترش ارتباطات، جامعه شهری با دیگر فرهنگ ها آشنا شده و در نتیجه در سطح نگرش مردم تغییر به وجود آمده است. این تغییرات در فرهنگ و مد زندگی جامعه نمود پیدا کرده و به صورت«تغییر در نیازها» ی شهروندان متجلی شده است. به نظر می رسد همین امر در میزان رضایت ساکنان از محل زندگی خود تاثیرگذار بوده و باعث ایجاد نگرش های متفاوت در حوزه کیفیت محیط شده است. در این پژوهش با توجه به عوامل موثر در کیفیت محیط و رضایتمندی سکونتی که توسط صاحب نظران و نظریه پردازان این عرصه ارائه شده است، به شناسایی شاخص های میزان رضایتمندی سکونتی، در سه سطح واحد مسکونی، واحد همسایگی و محله پرداخته، و سپس جهت جمع آوری اطلاعات در محدوده از ابزار پرسشنامه استفاده شده است که طی آن سوالاتی متناسب با شاخص های رضایتمندی سکونتی و برگرفته از چارچوب نظری پژوهش آمده است. در ادامه با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS19 جهت جهت تحلیل پرسشنامه ها به روش تحلیل رگرسیونی چند متغیره، شاخص های موثر در رضایتمندی سکونتی از نگاه ساکنان محله سهیل تهران، مشخص شده است. در نهایت میزان رضایتمندی سکونتی ساکنان در سه سطح مذکور و میزان تاثیرگذاری هریک از عوامل به دست آمده است. تغییر در نوع خواست ساکنان از روابط همسایگی و علاقه مندی آنان به مشارکت از نکات قابل توجه به دست آمده در این پژوهش است. کیفیت مسکن مهم ترین عامل موثر در میزان رضایت ساکنان محله از محل زندگی خود بوده و شاخص های مربوط به محله و واحد همسایگی در رده های بعدی قرار می گیرند.
    کلیدواژگان: کیفیت محل سکونت، رضایتمندی سکونتی، مسکن، واحد همسایگی، محله
  • احمد خلیلی، احسان حیدرزاده، سعید صداقت نیا صفحه 275
    دستیابی به توسعه پایدار هدف نهایی توسعه محله های شهری می باشد. از جمله شاخص های مرتبط با پایداری محله ها می توان به شاخص های رویکرد نوشهرسازی اشاره کرد. ارائه یک روش تحلیلی مناسب برای سنجش نوشهرسازی در محله و ارائه راهکارهای مداخله مبتنی بر این رویکرد، تا به حال کمتر موضوع بحث قرار گرفته است. این پژوهش هدف مبنا و کاربردی می باشد که هدف آن ارائه روشی برای سنجش میزان دستیابی محله ها به توسعه پایدار می باشد. در همین راستا محله شهرک ساحلی شهر بابلسر به عنوان نمونه موردی انتخاب شد. از ویژگی های خاص این محله می توان به هم جواری با ساحل دریا، برخورداری از گونه های مختلف مسکن، اختلاط کاربر ی ها، تنوع قومیت و وجود اقشار دارای سطح درآمدی متوسط و بالا اشاره نمود. به منظور بررسی نوشهرسازی در این محله، با 22 متغیر و انجام تحلیل عاملی، 7 عامل تبیین کننده نوشهرسازی شناسایی شد و میزان هر یک از این عوامل و امتیاز کل در هر یک از واحدهای همسایگی این محله مشخص شد. در مرحله بعد با انجام تحلیل رگرسیونی به رتبه بندی عوامل سازنده نوشهرسازی بر اساس اهمیت آن ها در تبیین متغیر وابسته میزان برخورداری طرح محله از نوشهرسازی پرداخته شد که مطابق با نتایج، عامل تعلق خاطر به محله و مشارکت پذیری بیشترین تاثیر را در تبیین متغیر وابسته ایفا می کند. پس از آن، اولویت مداخله در شاخص ها در واحدهای همسایگی سه گانه محله تعیین شد که مشابهت ها در وهله اول بر کمبود تمایل به خودگردانی توسط اهالی محله و در مراتب بعدی، به نزدیکی فروشگاه های عمده خدماتی با ایستگاه های حمل و نقل عمومی تاکید دارند. با جمع بندی این موارد می توان در مراحل اولیه مداخله، راهبردهای برقراری تعامل میان مدیریت شهری و مردم، توجه به نقش شورایاری در محله و برقراری ارتباط راحت و سریع بین فروشگاه های عمده خدماتی و ایستگاه های حمل و نقل عمومی را مد نظر قرار داد.
    کلیدواژگان: پایداری، نوشهرسازی، محله، تحلیل عاملی، تحلیل رگرسیونی
  • هاشم داداش پور، محمد جوادی، مجتبی رفیعیان صفحه 293
    عدم توان پاسخگویی محیط شهری به مسائل ناشی از تحولات شتابان شهرنشینی، موجب شده تا حریم کلان شهر تهران دائما در معرض هجوم کاربری های شهری قرار گیرد. جمعیت سکونت گاه های حریم شهر در فاصله سال های 1365 تا 1385، حدود 200 درصد افزایش یافته در حالی که جمعیت تهران در این فاصله زمانی حدود 30 درصد افزایش یافته است. به تبع تحولات جمعیتی، تحولات کالبدی در محدوده حریم، نسبت به شهر تهران از شدت بیشتری برخوردار شده است. از این رو، این منطقه با چالش های متعددی رو به روست که ضرورت برنامه ریزی برای محدوده حریم را آشکار می سازد. با توجه به موفقیت سیاست کمربند سبز در شهرهای مختلف دنیا (به عنوان نوعی برنامه ریزی برای سیاست محدودسازی رشد شهری) موجب شده که نحوه ایجاد آن در این محدوده با رویکرد توسعه حفاظت محور مورد توجه قرار گیرد. هدف اصلی این مقاله هدایت و کنترل رشد شهر تهران و سایر شهرهای واقع در محدوده حریم تهران از طریق بررسی نحوه ایجاد کمربند سبز و تعریف عملکردهای مجاز شامل چهار عملکرد حفاظتی، تاسیسات و زیرساخت ها، کشاورزی و شهری در این محدوده می باشد. بنابراین پهنه بندی انجام شده در این مقاله بر اساس نگرش یکپارچه و با استفاده از روش دلفی و همپوشانی لایه های مکانی صورت می گیرد. بر این اساس، چهار پهنه حفاظتی، کشاورزی، شهری و تاسیساتی در محدوده حریم شهر تهران پیش بینی شده است. یافته های تحلیل نشان می دهد که پهنه های شمالی و شرقی حریم تهران در اولویت حفاظت، فعالیت های کشاورزی و باغداری قرار می گیرند اما نواحی جنوبی حریم تهران، علاوه بر محوریت کشاورزی در این حوزه، شرایط برای توسعه پهنه های شهری و تاسیسات و زیرساخ تها فراهم می باشد. علاوه بر این، مقایسه تفاوت سطوح عملکردهای مورد نظر در کمربند سبز پیشنهادی و وضع موجود نشان می دهد که سیاست فوق در هدایت و کنترل رشد شهری در حریم تهران می تواند موثر باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: حریم، کمربند سبز، مدیریت توسعه شهری، نگرش یکپارچه، همپوشانی لایه های مکانی
  • سعید رشیدی، محمد طالعی، احید نعیمی صفحه 305
    بسیاری از مسائل در جهان واقعی متاثر از پارامترها و اهداف گوناگونی می باشند. با توجه به گسترش روزافزون جمعیت شهرها، ارائه خدمات شهری مناسب به شهروندان اهمیت بالایی پیدا می کند. این تحقیق به مکان یابی بهینه خدمات شهری و به ویژه مراکز خرید می پردازد و عوامل متعددی را مورد توجه قرار می دهد. با تعریف اهداف مختلف موثر بر مکان یابی، نیازمند استفاده از روش های چندهدفه برای حل مسئله هستیم. دو رویکرد کلی برای حل مسائل چندهدفه، روش های سنتی و فراابتکاری می باشند؛ روش های سنتی همه جواب های بهینه پارتو را ارائه نمی دهند و برای دستیابی به هدف واحد ناچار به وزن دهی اهداف می باشند. لذا علاوه بر اینکه با وزن دهی به اهداف، نظرات کارشناسی را پیش از حل مسئله در آن وارد می کنند، کارکرد مناسبی نیز برای حل مسائل چندهدفه نشان نمی دهند؛ بنابراین در تحقیقات اخیر ترجیح بر کاربرد روش های فراابتکاری می باشد. از میان روش های فراابتکاری، روش بهبود یافته ای از الگوریتم مرتب سازی را به کار بردیم که الگوریتم ژنتیک پارتوی سریع نام دارد. برای پیاده سازی و حل مسئله مکانی ابی بهینه نامغلوب II- مراکز خرید، پس از شناسایی مکان های پتانسیل دار در شهر کرج، با اعمال شرایط رقابتی دو هدف دسترس پذیری و جذب تقاضا تعریف شد و با استفاده از روش الگوریتم ژنتیک پارتوی سریع، ترکیب های چندتایی از مراکز خرید شناسایی گردید. تعداد مراکز خرید پیشنهادی به عنوان ورودی مسئله می باشد و با توجه به نیاز کاربر تعیین می شود و هدف از آن یافتن مکان های مناسب با توجه به اهداف مسئله است. خروجی الگوریتم جواب های بهینه پارتو می باشد. جواب های حاصل از اجرای الگوریتم، مکا نهایی را پیشنهاد می دهد که از مراکز خرید موجود فاصله دارد، تقاضای بیشتری را پوشش می دهد و مکان هایی با دسترس پذیری بالا را ارائه می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: مکان یابی مراکز خرید، شرایط رقابتی، بهینه سازی چندهدفه، الگوریتم ژنتیک پارتو سریع
  • راضیه رضازاده، لاله لطیفی اسکویی * صفحه 321

    پیاده روی قدیمی ترین شکل جایه جایی انسان به خصوص در مقیاس محله ای است. پس از انقلاب صنعتی، پیاده روی اهمیت خود را از دست داد. شهرهای مملو از اتومبیل منجر به افزایش آلودگی های محیطی و کاهش ایمنی و امنیت، سلامت جسمانی و تعاملات اجتماعی شهروندان شده است. همزمان با این شرایط کیفیت زندگی و رضایتمندی سکونتی تنزل یافته است. تا زمانی که شهرها در تلاش برای ارتقاء کیفیت زندگی، بهبود سلامت جسمی انسان، افزایش روابط اجتماعی و غیره هستند، بازگشتی دوباره به طراحی محلات پیاده مدار امری اجتناب ناپذیر به نظر می رسد. لذا سنجش قابلیت پیاده مداری محله را می توان یکی از مولفه های اصلی محیط های مطلوب عنوان کرد که می تواند پیش شرطی مدت زمان «،» تناوب پیاده روی «برای رضایتمندی سکونتی به شمار آید. در این تحقیق سعی بر آن است تا از 3 متغیر به عنوان شاخص قابلیت پیاده مداری محله (متغیر مستقل) استفاده شده» خوشایندی پیاده روی «و» پیاده روی در هر بار و ارتباط آن ها با رضایتمندی سکونتی (متغیر وابسته) سنجیده شود. درک این روابط با روش پیمایشی بوده است. طی این مطالعات، زیرشاخص های قابلیت پیاده مداری محله و رضایتمندی سکونتی از دیدگاه 200 ساکن محله چیذر مورد پرسش قرار گرفته است. بررسی و استخراج شاخص های تاثیرگذار با استفاده از آزمون های همبستگی بوده است. بررسی ها نشان می دهد میان تناوب پیاده روی و رضایتمندی سکونتی رابطه معنی داری وجود ندارد. این در حالی است که رضایتمندی سکونتی شدیدا تحت تاثیر مدت زمان پیاده روی در هربار و نیز خوشایندی پیاده روی می باشد. لذا می توان اذعان کرد که با برنامه ریزی و ارائه راهکارهایی برای افزایش خوشایندی پیاده روی می توان به سطوح بالاتری از رضایتمندی سکونتی در محلات نیز دست یافت.

    کلیدواژگان: قابلیت پیاده مداری، رضایتمندی سکونتی، سنجش ذهنی، محله چیذر
  • علی سلطانی، علی دشتی، احسان بابایی، محمد قضایی صفحه 333
    نقش گردشگری در رونق بخشی به فعالیت های انسانی و به تبع آن در توسعه اقتصادی و اجتماعی انکارناپذیر است. کشور ما به دلیل برخورداری از جاذبه های طبیعی و میراث ارزشمند تاریخی توان بالقوه ای برای ترویج و توسعه صنعت گردشگری دارد. در این میان، شهر مقدس مشهد، به عنوان قطب اول گردشگری مذهبی کشور، کمتر توانسته است هماهنگ با روند رشد جهانی، وضعیت گردشگری خود را متحول سازد. این مقاله با هدف ارزیابی وضعیت کنونی خدمات گردشگری در شهر مشهد و واکاوی عوامل دخیل بر کیفیت خدمات از منظر گردشگران ارائه شده است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز، برگرفته از یک مطالعه میدانی از گردشگران و زائران حرم رضوی (n=400) تهیه شده است. نتایج مطالعه نشان می دهد که خصوصیات جمعیتی گردشگران (سن و جنسیت) در ادراک متفاوت از کیفیت خدمات و درنتیجه سطح رضایت موثر است. همچنین رضایتمندی از خدمات در تقویت تصویر ذهنی گردشگران و بهبود دانش فضایی آن ها از مکان ها و جاذبه های گردشگری اثرگذار است. وجود فرهنگ اجتماعی مثبت، اقتصاد فعال و توجه به کیفیت خدمات بر جذب گردشگران موثر می باشند. نتایج این تحقیق بیانگر ابعاد چندگانه کیفیت خدمات گردشگری در اثرگذاری بر رضایت و تمایل به بازگشت گردشگران است.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری مذهبی، خدمات، تصویر ذهنی، مشهد
  • محمد مهدی عزیزی، مصطفی دهقانی صفحه 343
    سرعت گسترش کلان شهرها موجب تغییرات سریعی در الگوی کاربری زمین پیرامون این شهرها شده است. در منطقه 22 شهر تهران نیز، ادامه روند گسترش کاربری های شهری پراکنده، موجب بروز مشکلاتی مانند؛ کاهش فضای سبز، افت کیفیت محیط زیست، تغییرات پوشش گیاهی منطقه و نادیده گرفتن توان اکولوژیکی منطقه و افزایش مشکلات اجتماعی، اقتصادی و سیاسی شهر تهران می شود. بنابراین، ایجاد چارچوبی جهت درک تغییرات سریع کاربری زمین کلان شهرها و عوامل آن در گذشته، برای مدیریت کارآمد این تغییرات، اهمیت بسیاری دارد. این تحقیق با رویکردی توصیفی تبیینی و کمی، در پی شناسایی عوامل و محرک های اصلی تغییرات کاربری زمین در روند گسترش کلان شهرها، جهت کنترل و مدیریت این تغییرات است. در این راستا، شاخص های تغییرات کاربری زمین برگرفته از مطالعات و تجارب جهانی و منطبق با شرایط خاص کلان شهرهای کشور، در محدوده منطقه 22 شهر تهران، مطالعه و سهم هر یک از شاخص ها در تغییر کاربری زمین های بایر و غیرشهری سال 1375 به کاربری های شهری سال 1385، محاسبه شده است. و با استفاده از چارچوب سلول های خودیار (CA) و استفاده از روش تحلیل عاملی با شاخص های تدوین شده پژوهش، عوامل اصلی تغییرات کاربری زمین، شناسایی شده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که عوامل اصلی تغییرات کاربری زمین را می توان در 5 عامل اصلی، شامل دسترسی به خدمات اجتماعی، دسترسی به مراکز شهری، پیشنهادهای طرح تفصیلی، موقعیت طبیعی و مشوق های ساخت و ساز مسکونی جستجو نمود. همچنین نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهند که 53 درصد از تغییرات اراضی باغات خصوصی و 9 درصد از تغییرات اراضی فضای سبز، تغییر به کاربری صنعتی است، که این مساله باید به عنوان یک هشدار محیط زیستی در نظر گرفته شود. بیشترین تغییرات کاربری زمین، از زمین های بایر و ساخته نشده به کاربری مسکونی و معابر، و در زمین های با شیب 2 تا 8 درصد، زمین های دارای مالکیت خصوصی و مسکونی کم تراکم اتفاق افتاده است. شاخص های نزدیکی به مراکز تجاری، نزدیکی به راه های اصلی و کاربری زمین پیشنهادی طرح تفصیلی، بیشترین تاثیر را در تغییرات کاربری زمین دارند. و هر چه سلول به کاربری صنعتی نزدیک تر باشد، احتمال شهری شدن کمتری دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: تغییرات کاربری زمین، سلول های خودیار (CA)، تحلیل عاملی، منطقه 22 تهران
  • هوشمند علیزاده، محمدحامد عبدی صفحه 361
    در دهه های اخیر توسعه حمل و نقل همگانی محور (TOD) به عنوان رویکردی جدید در راستای مفهوم توسعه پایدار شهری گسترش یافته است. این رویکرد درصدد است تا از طریق ایجاد یکپارچگی بین برنامه ریزی حمل و نقل شهری و کاربری زمین، مردم را به زندگی در ناحیه مجاور ایستگاه های حمل و نقل همگانی و استفاده از آن تشویق نماید. این رویکرد، در نهایت استفاده از خودرو شخصی را کاهش داده و سکونتگاهی انسان محور با پویایی بیشتر را به ارمغان می آورد. در واقع توسعه حمل و نقل همگانی محور با نفی شیوه توسعه پراکنده به عنوان مخرب منظر شهری و مروج فرهنگ استفاده خودرو محور، بر توسعه فشرده جوامع تاکید دارد. با توجه به این رویکرد و گسترش رویه توسعه پراکنده در شهرهای ایران منتج از مهاجرت های روستایی، شهر سنندج به عنوان نمونه موردی پژوهش انتخاب شده تا جنبه های مختلف توسعه حمل و نقل همگانی محور به ویژه الگوی کریدوری آن را در بلوار پاسداران این شهر دنبال کند. در این راستا، این پژوهش در پی آن است تا با روش توصیفی تحلیلی، چارچوب الگوی کریدوری حمل و نقل همگانی محور به منظور افزایش پایداری و خلق یک محیط انسان دوستانه، افزایش قابلیت دسترسی، تقویت گزینه های حمل و نقل همگانی وکاهش چالش های زیست محیطی در بلوار پاسداران شهر سنندج به کار گرفته شود. به منظور دستیابی به نتایج بهتر، براساس ویژگی های مشترک کالبدی، عملکردی و ترافیکی، طول محور به دو بخش تقسیم و از فرآیند تحلیل سلسل همراتبی به عنوان یکی از روش های تصمیم سازی چند معیاره به منظور اولویت دهی به راهبردها استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش حاکی از آن است که راهبردهای کاهش وابستگی به خودرو، پیاده راه سازی به همراه توسعه حمل و نقل همگانی و راهبرد افزایش دسترسی به حمل و نقل همگانی برای بخش اول و راهبردهای تقویت دسترسی به حمل و نقل همگانی، اتصال مسیرهای اصلی و بهبود حرکات پیاده برای بخش دوم محور جهت استفاده از پتانسیل های توسعه حمل و نقل همگانی محور و منافع آن بیشترین امتیاز را کسب کرده و در اولویت توسعه می باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه حمل و نقل همگانی محور، الگوی کریدوری حمل و نقل همگانی محور، کاربری زمین، حمل و نقل همگانی، فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی، بلوار پاسداران سنندج
  • محمود محمدی، محمود قلعه نویی، عنایت الله میرزایی صفحه 383
    جهان امروز با چالش های فراوانی در حوزه جا به جایی از جمله مصرف بالای سوخت، آلودگی هوا، شلوغی خیابان ها، کاهش فعالیت فیزیکی، نا امنی عابرین و غیره رو به رو بوده که بسیاری از آن ها ناشی از وابستگی به اتومبیل و در نتیجه شکل های شهری خودرو مدار می باشد. در همین راستا، مطالعات تجربی فردی فراوانی در کشورهای مختلف صورت گرفته تحلیل رفتارهای سفر بوده است که بر اساس آن سفر به منظور یک هدف و رسیدن به یک مقصد انجام می گیرد و خود یک هدف نمی باشد (مانند سفر تفریحی). اما مطالعات مذکور با اهداف و رویه های متفاوت در واکاوی روابط شکل شهر و رفتار سفر صورت گرفته و به نتایج متفاوت و غیر قابل تعمیمی دست یافته اند. تحقیق حاضر با روشی توصیفی تحلیلی ابتدا با مروری گسترده بر مطالعات تجربی به بررسی ابعاد موضوع تحقیق پرداخته سپس با استفاده از روش فراتحلیل (متاآنالیز) و محاسبه الاستیسیته وزنی میانگین (میزان حساسیت) به واکاوی، ترکیب و تعمیم نتایج مطالعات فردی صورت گرفته در زمینه شکل شهر و رفتار سفر (وسیله سفر) پرداخته است. مهم ترین یافته های تحقیق حاکی از آن است که «تراکم جمعیتی»، «فاصله تا مغازه» و «تراکم تقاطع» تاثیر (مثبت) بیشتر و تعمیم پذیرتری بر پیاده روی یا دوچرخه سواری دارد و «تراکم جمعیتی»، درصد نقاطع های چهارراه«و»فاصله تا نزدیک ترین ایستگاه«نیز تاثیر بیشتری بر استفاده از حمل و نقل همگانی دارد. همچنین می توان گفت؛»تراکم جمعیت«و دو شاخص»تراکم ناخالص مسکونی و اشتغال«و»ترکیب کاربری ها«در سطح معنی داری p<.001 بر استفاده از اتومبیل تاثیر منفی دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: شکل شهر، رفتار سفر، فراتحلیل، الاستیسیته
  • سعیده مویدفر، اصغرضرابی صفحه 409
    با توسعه روزافزون فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات و تاثیرات وسیع آن بر جنبه های مختلف زندگی، ابعاد خدمات شهری نیز دستخوش تحولات گسترده ای شده است؛ چنانکه لازمه زندگی در شهرهای امروزی به عنوان نقاط تمرکز خدمات و تعاملات، به کارگیری روش ها و فناوری های نوین خدمات رسانی می باشد. با توجه به اهداف توسعه ای نهادهای مدیریت شهری جهت نوآوری و شکوفایی در عرصه خدمات رسانی به شهروندان، انجام مطالعات راهبردی و شناسایی زمینه ها و چالش های توسعه خدمات الکترونیک شهری در سطح شهرداری ها امری ضروری می نماید. شهر یزد یکی از جمله شهرهایی است که در زمینه الکترونیکی شدن، اقدامات موثری را تجربه کرده است و گام به گام شهرهای بزرگی چون تهران و اصفهان، در جهت ایجاد شهر الکترونیک حرکت می کند. بر این مبنا این مقاله با استفاده از روش توصیفی پیمایشی، در میان جامعه آماری کارشناسان و آگاهان کلیدی در عرصه شهر الکترونیک و به منظور تدوین راهبردهای توسعه خدمات الکترونیک در شهر یزد انجام پذیرفته است که با استفاده از مدل پستل، خلاصه تجزیه و تحلیل خارجی و داخلی و تکنیک های سوات و تلفیق عوامل راهبردی، مهم ترین فرصت ها، تهدیدها، نقاط قوت و ضعف شهرداری یزد مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته، رتبه بندی شده و بر اساس آن راهبردهایی برای توسعه خدمات ارائه شده است. نتایج تحقیق حاکی از آن است که شهرداری یزد در زمینه توسعه خدمات الکترونیک، در وضعیت غلبه فرصت ها بر تهدیدات محیطی و غلبه نقاط قوت بر نقاط ضعف قرار دارد که در چنین شرایطی استفاده از راهبردهای تغییر جهت و یا حفظ وضع موجود پیشنهاد می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: خدمات الکترونیک شهری، برنامه ریزی راهبردی، راهبرد، شهرداری یزد
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  • Ayda Alehashemi Page 1
    An uncontrolled expansion of urban population in Iran has made constructing mass residential complex as an alternative for replacing traditional housing in large cities like Tehran. This changing pattern and approach in housing in spite of affecting on interior spaces of house caused more important changing in resident’s life: the deletion of private yard and their considerable roles in Iranian daily social and private life from the citizen’s life. These days open spaces in residential complex act as private yards in resident’s private life in addition to its various role in their social life and also its different potential consider in improving the quality of residents life in the various aspects and scales. Recently due to the increasing governmental construction of large scale residential complexes in order to the developing considerations, regarding to the importance of the quality of life in large cities in Iran- especially in Tehran as the capital, it’s important to research on the response rate of open spaces in these complexes through studies in Iran and Tehran, regarding to the various social, cultural, psychological and physical aspects of resident’s life. The aim of this paper is to identify the different levels of private and social function of open spaces in Tehran’s residential complexes and study on the response rate of these spaces to the various demands in resident’s life. Therefore the conclusion of this paper will be underlying consciously planning for open spaces in residential complexes in Tehran and maximum use of these spaces in improving the quality of life in the residential complexes. To achieve this goal after studying and classifying various levels and facets of the open space’s functions and its roles in the resident’s life, the current functions of open spaces in Tehran’s large scale residential complexes was studied in adaption with these library studies. With this goal the six great residential complexes in Tehran with more than70% of open spaces were studied: Mahestan residential complex, Sobhan residential complex, Atisaz residential complex, Parc de Prance residential complex, Ekbatan residential complex and Hormozan residential complex. At the end the final chart classifies the level and scales (from public to private) of different functions (from function related to sport activities to educational and commercial activities) in Tehran’s residential complexes. The achievements of this research show that, among six grand residential complexes in Tehran which were visited and acutely analyzed, the various potential of open spaces in residential complex is ignored not only by planners and designers but also by the residents; in Tehran’s residential complexes only the social- condominium resident’s functions are considered and the function of open spaces in private life of residents and also in urban life are eliminated. Besides, among the social- condominium resident’s functions in these complexes, only recreational and sports activities are considered. After that, in this scale, local commercial activities are considered and it is noticeable that cultural and educational activities are most ignored in all these residential complexes. At the end, it seems that the ornamental approaches in which open spaces of the residential complex considered as a park are caused the problems in a series of residential complexes, such as Mahestan residential complex, with high quality in designing and preserving the green and open spaces. In these groups of residential complexes in Tehran, the lack of preparation of especial functions and activities among the open spaces, beside the inappropriate locating the contemplated functions in these areas, considerably are reduced the presence of the residents in open spaces and minimized their utilizations from these green spaces and deeply affected the possibility of utilizing the various potentials of the open spaces in different scale of personal and social lives of residents. As a result, the first step in increasing the role of the residential open spaces of the grand complexes in the resident's life in Tehran is considering and defining the various domains of functions and activities for open spaces. The field query of this research revealed that the residential complexes’ open spaces in the city of Tehran have a long distance to reach the minimum standards of the field of open space's functions. Beyond all these, the survey among the large scale residential complexes in Tehran showed that mainly the flowed management in open spaces after the construction has the main role to fulfill the residences daily requirements from these spaces.
    Keywords: Open Spaces, Residential Complex, Tehran, Function of Spaces
  • Seyed Mohsen Habibi, Mohammad Hassan Khademzade Page 13
    Basically, historical classification offers a better understanding of the intended time span and its relation with the whole history. In this regard, art history is no exception. That is why certain similarities and distinctions may be found among the artistic creations not only in different eras but also within a specific era. As a result, the sensible evaluation criteria, in terms of historical classification, may be provided. There are, of course, those who reject the idea of classification as an undue act believing that classification may mislead the artists and cause a sort of confusion. Despite the existing doubts, classification seems inevitable in order to examine the art history of Persia. Of course, doing such a classification should not be made at the cost of ignoring the individual/ characteristic aspects of Persian art including historical continuity and coherence. In other words, the historical classification views may be applied within a domestic framework. Although some efforts have been made by the Iranian scholars in the field of art historiography (including architecture and urbanism), this interest has accelerated recently due to modern scientific achievements. Obviously, the whole trend has had ups and downs; various perspectives have been posed and the strong and weak points of each have become clear. Notwithstanding, it seems that there is not still a general consensus on the terms and their connotations as applied in the issue under question. The present article has aimed to elaborate an untreatable terminology, in terms of scientific and cultural aspects, in order to classify the history of Persian architecture and urbanism. Regarding to that, it has tried to answer these questions: What is/are the rationale for the classification of Persian architecture and urbanism? What are the connotations of the applied terms? To what extent such terms are capable to reflect a specific attitude? What is the best possible single or combinatory term to denote the classification of Persian Art specifically in the scope of architecture? Based on a logical interpretive methodology towards the existing historical sources, the present study has aimed to illuminate the exact concepts of commonly used terms especially in the fields of architecture and urbanism- such as technique, style, school and era. To do that, in one hand, the usage of such terms in the course of history as well as their possible changes has been studied and in the other hand, diverse views of experts and scholars have been critically examined. The main objective was to reach a better understanding of the mentioned concepts and their impacts on historiography of Persian architecture and urbanism. Regarding to that, the usage of the term era as used by orientalists and western researchers has been regarded based on central power/authority; an approach which has not been fault free for three basic reasons. Firstly, the simultaneous analysis of several approaches in one single era is a difficult task. Secondly, more than being the creators of artistic trends, dynasties are often the consumers of them. Thirdly, often, there is no a clear-cut correspondence between an artistic trend and one single dynasty, in that, there may be neatly diverse authority zones in a given land with certain cultural realms. Also, the application of the term style in Iran may be addressed in two different aspects: 1- Style, as used in visual arts such as miniature painting, calligraphy and illumination, etc. In this case, the date of creation, the place/workshop and the name(s) of the builder(s) are recognizable. 2- In the realm of architecture, despite the existence of an apprentice-master system, there aren’t academies to instruct rules formally. Secondly, the common style in a given era is not attributable to certain person(s). Thirdly, the most determining factor in making stylish shifts seems to be commonly accepted aesthetic tastes as well as technical capabilities of the intended time. Fourthly, in the course of Persian history, art has been more under the influence of mysticism than of philosophy. In art and architecture, style and technique have been, semantically, used rather interchangeably both for denoting technical characteristics of a work. The term technique implies that the artist and his/her work is a considerable extent, influenced by society. In the present study, the role of technical terminology, old and new, in compiling the historiography has been addressed. Finally, it concludes that three basic considerations should be taken into consideration in historiography of Persian architecture and urbanism: common technical features; social and geographical aspects; and the creation time of the work. Yazdian style in the 11th century and Fars style in the 13th century are two typical examples in this respect.
    Keywords: Historiography of Art, Method, Style, School, Period
  • Study of Computational Hanging Model Methods for Finding the Form of Shell Structures
    Afsaneh Zarkesh Page 23
    Shell structures are among new and reliable structural systems in contemporary architecture with special characteristics such as gaining strength through form and interconnection with architecture form. They have attracted researchers once more in the present era from different aspects including stability, the new generation of shells and modern construction techniques. Therefore, because of their complicated behavior, the problem of finding and the process of determining their form have been obviously and specifically propounded and some solutions have been presented and applied to achieve the proper and optimal form. One of important these methods is the inverted hanging model. This method has been physically applied in finding compressive structures form for a long time since 17th century which was used firstly in arches, vaults and domes; and led to a variety and complex designs and It has become one of the methods to determine proper and various forms for shell due to its appropriation to the sell. The physical hanging model has been used in construction of various and many buildings some of which has been standing after too many years. Afterward the model has been formed and continued numerically because of its benefits, specifically due to its natural. Hence, it necessary to consider and recognize these methods for application, specifically those belong to the recent decades and form most of these approaches, in order to finding form and the related optimum form characteristics and suggesting better computational methods. Therefore, the purposes of the study are to find out the way of computational methods formation, based on the physical hanging model and the process of findings form in the methods; achieving optimal computational form’s characteristics; access to numerical methods’ features and determine the more proper solutions. In this regard we used descriptive- analysis and historical research methods to recognize the way of formation of all computational methods, based on the physical model methods, aiming at answering the goals of finding structural form as well as finding more proper ways to be applied currently. Hence, the shell structure's characteristics which should be considered in designing are extracted and determined from their definitions. Then, the issue of "finding the structural form" is assessed, because its definition and application is in sell structures, and different methods of finding their forms and their being targeted determine the methods are related to the reverse hanging model. Thereafter, the problem of "physical hanging model in finding the shell form" is considered to recognize the hanging model theory, applied materials, purpose of hanging model, process and effective factors in achieving the form as well as the method and way of such model making. The main point is the computational hanging model methods in inding the shell's form that concentrates on the attempts to respond the research questions in the recent decade. Finally, we should conclude based on the reviews and analyses. Data collection instruments were library and internet sources. According to the finding of the study, the process of finding the form in computational method based on the physical methods is as following: The need for each step in physical form process is assessed during the numerical form process and their equivalents are considered through computed methods. In these methods, at the beginning of the process, also some assumptions and variables are determined in theory language, quantitatively and more precisely. The way of simulating external load, materials and bordering conditions are also revealed in the methods. The way of simulating the hanging model is also using theoretical methods and the way of converting cable into the arch remains unchanged, but it obviously differs from the physical method. The achieved form is the optimum primary form of the shell. To fix the form, some cases are tested based on a few methods including. "comparison with shells made by famous people, in reality and in real scale", "determining the allowed limits of the main parameters in the method and the relations based on the limits", "determination of the allowed limits of important variables and their situation as well as other involving variables and then comparison with the results of the physical structure of the method" in two areas of "theory or theory and practice" and "real and practical". In this way, the process of form finding is done. The characteristics of the resulted optimal shape using the numerical methods are such as having the maximum rigidity or minimum bending, membrane behavior, the minimum energy, complexity and diversity shapes, and etc. Although computational methods are more accurate but the most characters of optimal computational form are the same as physical method and some characters such as minimal total energy and optimistic displacement are added. Forms may also have such characteristics and the methods acquire new characteristics of the forms could be existed. Most of the results achieved using various methods are the same. All methods are reliable for application except methods no. 3 and 1 and half of method no. 5.
    Keywords: Form Finding, Shell Structures, Hanging Model, Computational Methods
  • Zahra Sokhandan Sorkhabi, Mohammad Ali Khanmohammadi Page 39
    In this paper, a new solution for improving of cooling and ventilation function of some parts of exterior wall of buildings, like sunshades is provided with architectural passive design. In summer, Risen hot air is an important specification to enhance radiation heating, which the common passive solution for its removing is using chimney effect to conduct heat air to the out. Another way is using some windows or any kinds of under roof opening that can transfer risen hot air to out. Commonly, the old ways were associated with energy losing system. So they were in contrast with sustainable architecture and energy saving theories. In the other hand, in some regions, possibility of air leaking and removing hot air is minimum because of unfavorable prevailing winds and high relative humidity. So it is important to design a passive system which cools and ventilates the interior space without air leaking and energy losing. First step of designing this system is studying about North Arasbarans Specifications such as winds, vegetation and others, like cooling function with radiation-cooling and radiation-heating specification of different part of exterior walls especially eaves, sunshades and overhangs. In designed passive energy system, best application provided with converting solid volume of eaves from masonry to hollow one, located a central horizontal wall with a water pond on it, use the radiation specification of environment and make vegetation on it, while produce cooling and ventilation without any kind of active energies and made a passive cycle in sustainable buildings. In this research, first step is studying about some specifications such as winds and finding the unfavorable factors of them that effect on architectural design of buildings in North Arasbaran. Second step is making the green channels that can conduct the wind in suitable direction for cooling and ventilation uses. Direction of green channel should be in harmony with prevailing wind. Role of Angels of meshes of green channel is trapping the wind in green channel that plants on meshes enhance its potential. Deflection of angles of green channel increase the speed of wind in it and improve its efficiency. Rain water is used in designed system while two reciprocating pipes circulate water in system and send it back to source tank. Some drains on roof collect wasted waters and conduct them to the tank. Main parts of designed system are two ponds on sunshade that one of them is made of copper and another one from glass. Rain water conducts to glass pond and cool around of sunshade with passing wind. Copper pond radiates the cooling produced in glass pond to interior spaces with combining the physical and environmental capabilities and specifications of water, wind, plants and building parts and pipes while conduct the water to tank again. After designing the passive cooling system of sunshade, some tests is done to examine the efficiency of system partly. First test is about the effect of plants on cooling of buildings and led to selection of suitable plant species for using on green channel. Second test estimates the effect of wind on building in selected direction, 3th test insert the effect of evaporation of water in efficiency of designed system and last one review the impact of three factors on eacother and all of them on energy use of building. A house in Arasbaran is selected and some models were made. Models were created based on various stage of tests and the result of each stage was inserted to next model for another stage of test. Results of tests were analyzed and structural problems were removed from designed passive system. In general, it can be said that designed passive system is a conditioner which sunshade and any kind of active energies like AC power flaw or gas energy have not been used in it because of management of natural energy uses. It is very important to check the weather to find that the power of local winds can cool the water in glass pond or not while designed system needs to insulate against the climatic factors in some regions that have cold winter or hot summer but some regions like temperate climates do not need the thermal insulation all over the designed system. Plant on meshes of green channel is one kind of thermal and humidity insulation around the passive system. So it is better to study about the needs for insulation in different regions with various climatic factors. This research is based on “Research and Development” (R&D) which is done on the case study through analytical method. The results show economic performance and efficiency of designed system through tests, local experiences and observations in Arasbaran.
    Keywords: Ventilation, Passive System, Eave, Risen Hot Air, Plants
  • Hamid Reza Azemati, Bahram Saleh Sedghpour, Zahra Jalili, Leyla Baratpour Page 51

    Nowadays, regarding to the rapid and increasing changes in the human societies, the key role of education in training, the creative generation, the need to be able to encounter with the changes, the significance and necessity of creativity and its affecting factors have become more and more obvious in education. Therefore, creativity is one of the most influential factors affecting education which integrating it with the body and ways of designing environment plays an undeniable important role. Considering the nature of Technical-Vocational Schools (TVS), as discovering, creativity and production, either in the artistic or technical perspective, a need for an environment to provide a basis to improve the creativity and enlivenment is felt. Taking into consideration the inter-disciplinary nature of issues related to designing the environment and the lack of enough theories in the field of designing to make an educational environment, the role of behavioral science, psychology and the psychology of environment in this study seem to be undeniable. So a need to investigate educational environment in terms of its influence on growth and creativity has to be strongly considered. The present study aims at achieving the criteria for designing appropriate educational environment in Girls’ Technical-Vocational Schools (TVS) with an emphasis on the environmental capabilities affecting the mind and behaviors of the young people and the emphasis on an approach to improve their creativity as well. In the present study, the survey method is based on the related literature. Moreover, based on other conducted researches in this filed, the architectural criteria for designing educational environment to promote student`s motivation and creativity have been deduced to be implemented in a way that it can promote the power of curiosity and innovation in students. The method used in the present study was both survey and practical. The population in this study included all the Technical-Vocational Schools (TVS) students in Tehran during the 2011-2012 years. Multi–stage cluster sampling has been used to find the samples. To determine the framework for sampling, first 22 districts of Tehran were considered as 22 clusters. Among these clusters, districts 2, 6, 9, 6, 13, 16 were randomly selected. And then from the existing TVS in each district only one of them was randomly selected and then from each TVS 24 to 25 art teachers were randomly selected. Fulfilling the above mentioned procedure 124 art teachers were selected as a population. In the questionnaire, it was tried to determine the variables of this study based on its purpose and the questions of this research. To do so, before preparing a questionnaire a content-purpose table was made in which the variables of each research question were specified and the questionnaire was prepared considering all those variables. Taking into consideration the effective variables in this study namely, motivation, curiosity and innovation, a three-part questionnaire was designed in which 17 questions were about motivation. These questions can be divided into two groups. The first group of questions is about the relationship between novelty in material, color and light used in the classroom and students` motivation. The second group of questions, however, is about the relationship between utilizing the composition and continuity of open and close environment and student`s motivation in creativity. It is interesting to note that 13 questions in the questionnaire have been allocated to curiosity. This part is related to questions which investigate the relationship between functional flexibilities and student`s curiosity and creativity. The remaining six questions are about innovation which investigate the relationship between utilizing varieties in the appearance and student`s innovation for creativity. To evaluate the reliability, Cronbach`s alpha coefficient was employed and the calculated coefficient was 0.83. To determine the validity of questionnaires, both face validity and content validity were deployed. After collecting the questionnaire, the collected data was coded and then was analyzed by the SPSS statistical software. Based on the type of the variables and their interrelations by using T-Test the following results have been obtained: - Creating functional flexibility in educational environment - Creating variety in educational environments - Building relationship between inside and outside of educational environment - Creating variety in the appearance of the educational environment Considering the mentioned issues, one can come up with this conclusion that the components of the physical environment lead to promotion in curiosity, motivation and innovation. It also influences on the creativity process and a creative aptitude will be flourished in an appropriate environment. Therefore, providing a suitable atmosphere can be very influential on flourishing people creativity.

    Keywords: Architecture, Educational Environment, Creativity Promotion, Technical, Vocational School Design
  • Shahla Ghafari Jabari, Shiva Ghafari Jabari, Elham Saleh Page 59
    Relaxation and comfort are two important factors of life, but nowadays life is full of sound both good sounds and unpleasant noises. Mechanical life causes acoustical problems in cities. Urban noise and traffic noise are factors that destroy comfort. Such sounds have negative impacts on people’s lives. Use of appropriate methods to reduce noise pollution is one of the most important points that should be considered. Harmful effects of noise pollution on human health will appear in the long term as well as on the environment. Physiological and psychological effects of noise on humans often appear gradually and in the long time, it directly hurts the human nervous system, so in the design of buildings it is needed to provide acoustic comfort. Acoustic is methods of designing spaces, buildings and mechanical systems according to the need of hearing. First we have to know more about hearing the sounds, therefore here is the brief introduction about the characteristics of sound: Sound has two physical (frequency, intensity noise) and psychological (pitch, loudness) factors. These two factors are equivalent. This means that when we speak the intonation of the voice is the same as sound intensity. The human ear is structured in such a way that if the intensity remains stable but the frequency changes, one feels that the volume has changed while it is not. Noise can be classified in three cases: pure melody, melody and noise. In architecture, one purpose is to control noise. To control the noise first we must measure the volume of noise. Humans can hear 140 dB at the maximum level. If noise level gets greater than 140 dB, the human eardrum will be ruptured. The sound of silence is below 40 dB. Acoustic science is important although there are just a few projects and papers presented about this subject. Many students are unfamiliar with this topic and designer might not notice to this matter. Therefore, an article that includes a simple method for acoustic status check is necessary. Some researches have done on the harmful effects of noise pollution on humans (Movafagh, 2009; Hedayati.1994). In this articles background noise has been obtained in some examples such as Alghadir hospital and Ecbatan apartments by using Sound meter. Then some strategies for reducing noise pollution will be expressed. This paper is done for complete the process of previous projects. In this paper, the sample is selected among common apartment because Acoustic comfort in the building should be considered for all construction. This is particularly important in buildings bordering the highway. The acoustics of the building should consider the following terms: 1. Noise Criterion 2. Sound Rated Walls 3. Silent Installation Systems 4. Building Form 5. Sound Level. Noise criterion for buildings with different user codes is in section 18 of the national regulations. Regarding to the external environment, including voice traffic noise, sounds of the space must be well control. This is especially important in the halls or conference halls and cinemas. For this purpose, we first calculated the amount of background noise and the sound reduction index for façade and then the amount of noise in the unit. Using the guidelines, the volume was brought to an optimal level and comparison of the performance is done. In this paper, the effect of echoed in the interior of the apartment was not evaluated. The results show that in the three mentioned cases, the best method is to use double- glazed windows. This method can be used indoors to create the desired sound level. Using simple windows and double walls had minimum impact. In this case, the noise reduction was about 20 dB. This amount is very low. We will have a better effect when we use double glazed windows and double walls together. Due to the high costs that this method, by using only the double window, we can reach the level desired. Therefore, the proposed solution is use of the double glazed windows. At the end, with a proper design and use of appropriate materials, we can create sound insulation against noise. Studying on samples, wall modification will improve voice.
    Keywords: Acoustic, Airborne Sound, Noise, Loss of Voice, Highway Construction
  • Shadi Foroughi, Sayeedeh Jafari Page 67
    In the planning and management process of sustainable tourism development, recognizing the ability and proportion of attractions and applying quantitative methods for estimating the amounts of using available resources in them, have important roles in a specific place and time limits. Today, with the increase of cultural tourism, many tourists travel to an area to visit historical monuments of the area. But attendance of a large number of tourists in the monuments could result in irreparable damages, due to their specific structures and properties. Therefore, it is necessary to be aware of the capacity of historical places for tourism in the country to prevent their destruction and to carry out programs in accordance with existing conditions. Determination of carrying capacity is one of the effective methods to protect from tourism attractions. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) proposes the following definition of the carrying capacity “The maximum number of people that may visit a tourist destination at the same time, without causing destruction of the physical, economic, socio-cultural environment and an unacceptable decrease in the quality of visitors’ satisfaction.” In fallowing the definitions of different sorts of carrying capacity referred to in tourism have been noted: • Economic carrying capacity This relates to a level of acceptable change within the local economy of tourist destination, it is the extent to which a tourist destination is able to accommodate tourist functions without the loss of local activities. Economic carrying capacity can also be used to describe the point at which the increased revenue brought by tourism development is overtaken by the inflation caused by tourism. • Social Carrying Capacity This relates to the negative socio-cultural affects related to tourism development. When the social carrying capacity has been exceeded, the indicators are a reduced local tolerance for tourism. Reduced visitor enjoyment and increased crime are also indicators of when the social carrying capacity has been exceeded. • Biophysical Carrying Capacity This deals with the extent to which the natural environment is able to tolerate interference from tourists. This is made more complicated by the fact that because it deals with ecology which is able to regenerate to some extent, so in this case the carrying capacity is when the damage exceeds the habitat’s ability to regenerate. Environmental carrying capacity is also used with reference to ecological and physical parameters, capacity of resources, ecosystems and infrastructure. In this study, after determining the effective indices for estimating the capacity of the building, using quantitative methods, TCC, the number of tourists which can be physically and actually attend the mosque of Sheikh Lotfollah, has been calculated. Physical carrying capacity and real carrying capacity of this historical monument have been calculated by these formulas: • Physical Carrying Capacity (Pcc) The maximum number of users that can physically fit into a defined place, over a particular time: Formula: PCC = A x U/a x Rf A = available area for public use Ref = Open period / [Average time of utilization/visit] • Real Carrying Capacity (RCC) The maximum permissible number of users, once the corrective factors (Cf) derived from the particular characteristics of the site have been applied to the PCC. Formula: RCC = PCC – Cf1 – Cf2 -…Cfn Cf = a corrective factor expressed as a percentage RCC = PCC x (100 – Cf1)% x (100 – Cf2)% x … (100 – Cfn)% Cf: the corrective factors are obtained by considering the environmental, ecological, social and management variables; -That a group of corrective factors is not necessarily the same for each historical monument. -Corrective factors are closely linked to the specific conditions and characteristics of each site or activity; -Corrective factors are expressed in percentage terms using the following formula: Cf = [M1 / Mt] x 100 Cf = corrective factor M1 = limiting magnitude of variable Mt = total magnitude of variable The calculation of Sheikh Lotfollah mosque’s physical carrying capacity by above formula shows that this monument’s physical carrying capacity is 3455 viewers per a day and 103650 viewers per a month. So based on the calculated physical carrying capacity and calculated CF, the Sheikh Lotfollah mosque’s real carrying capacity is 3386 viewers per a day and 101580 viewers per a month. According to available statistics, the results show that the number of the visitors of the mosque of Sheikh Lotfollah, only in Nowrooz is higher than the daily real carrying capacity of the building and it is much lower than the monthly amount of real carrying capacity in other months of the year. Also statistics clarify that the number of the visitors decreases in winter strongly. Therefore, we should perform limited politics in high seasons and persuasive politics in low seasons. In this manner, we will able to protect this historical monument and utilize it correctly.
    Keywords: Physical Carrying Capacity, Real Carrying Capacity, Sustainable Development, Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque
  • Hamzeh Gholamalizadeh, Naghmeh Mokhberi Page 81

    Over the past two decades, in the inefficacy of the educational sector, many efforts have been made to improve the quality of architecture education, more effective learning and realizing the maximum of student’s talent. But most of them tried to focus on the reorganization of educational content, presentation of Professors, competence of students and flexible studio for free education while having less points to the physical environment as a factor in promoting the education of architecture students. Realizing the potential architecture students, in addition to such general curiosity, gaining knowledge, learning the realm of architecture, depends on experience and professional skills in the aesthetic. To achieve the above, we have to know how they meet their basic needs. Regarding to that, in spite of their social relations of architectural education programs, the impact of the physical environment of architecture (because of facilitating Behaviors related to basic needs and also their motivation to perception, cognition and their learning) has a special importance. In fact for occurrence of any act, it is necessary to have a special place, also consider that performing any actions taken by the concepts and meanings, such the meanings related to the physical environment, will be in the context of physical environment. In other words, the architectural education place can significantly effect on quality of learning and training talent students. The purpose of this paper is to identify students’ needs and appropriate conditions of the physical environment of architectural to meet their needs and placing students in the process of growth of potential. Regarding to that, it is necessary to take into consideration the fundamental concepts such as values, attitudes, needs, and also factors such as perception, are important to find their effects on behaviors, therefore, we have to study description, analysis, expression and statement of administrative theory; the theoretical concepts of needs. In this regard Maslow presented a hierarchy of needs that customized: basic needs and self-actualization needs. Basic needs include parts such as Physiological needs, safety and security needs, social needs, love and belongingness needs and self-esteem needs. Also self-actualization needs include problem solving, creative activities, Aesthetics, learning Perception, experiment and etc. Maslow believed that prosperity of real potential is dependent on the satisfaction of basic needs. In this regard, however, it cannot be considered an immediate physical environment as a factor in shaping behavior, especially behavior of learning, but it is obvious that the physical environment can be due to the physical structure and spatial relationships, facilitating or hindering the quality of people’s obvious and hidden behavior. These effects on the behavior associated with the needs and aesthetic and in academic activities such as art and architecture that based on practice and empirical knowledge, are very important. In fact, it impacts on behavior related to cognitive and aesthetic needs of students who spend much time in educational space while they are unconsciously modeling the environment. So the learning will be linked to the needs of architecture students. By this result, the designs of the architecture school to promote learning and growth process are important in which the architecture students in the acquisition of professional skills attend to the social and cultural values and features of the physical environment. So utilizing the sciences such as psychology, psychology of learning and behavioral sciences and descriptive data analysis method through logical reasoning, the present article has been divided to the three parts: At the first, the concepts of learning in architecture were identified, then students’ needs were considered, and finally, the features and functionality of the environment that facilitate the needs and behaviors were examined. In order to meet the requirements, firstly, wrong habits of routines that can be relegated to the promotion of architecture should be removed from the minds of the students; secondly, the architectural scheme for improvement should be obtained. In this regard, practical rules, such as convenient access to service spaces, considering private space for different groups, lack of official oversight on student’s activity, possibility of changing in some places for students, designing various place in addition to the educational spaces, creating collective space, rich and meaningful details, and also values and concepts of environmental quality as well as original and new and use of visual appeal, related to their indigenous and cultural patterns in that environment can be considered as typical cases which can be used for designing educational spaces by designers and educational planners.

    Keywords: Architecture Student Needs, Physical Environment of Education, Potential Talents
  • Farhang Mozaffar, Seyedeh Somayeh Mirmoradi Page 93
    Learning spaces are one of the most important spaces that greatly influence the children’s learning process as they spend considerable amount of their daily time inside these spaces. Among different types of learning spaces, both open and closed are of significant importance; in addition, the connection between these two complementary spaces is also an important factor. Connection between these two spaces depends on internal occupancy, different activities that take place inside the space and the level of dynamism and liveliness in these spaces. How the closed and open spaces in a school are connected to each other determines the arrangement of learning spaces. One of the most important spaces in a school are its classrooms; thus, since there are typically great number of classrooms in a school, therefore how the classrooms are connected to open spaces and also their overall arrangement plays a major role in designing spaces at schools. Design of learning spaces with emphasis on space arrangement is one of the approaches used in the design of learning space. Due to prevalence of two models (linear model and central yard model) during the evolution of Iranian school architecture, these two models have been investigated in this study among many other arrangements applied to school’s spaces. Furthermore, accomplishing the design principles for these models which determine connection type of classrooms with the open spaces has also been examined. Finally, efficient design models were proposed for these two arrangements. In order to obtain the principles relating to the efficient space connections and to study different space arrangements, rational reasoning method was employed. There are many types of exterior spaces in schools with different kinds of occupancy. Previous studies have only focused on importance of presence of exterior spaces beside internal leaning spaces in schools as well as importance of connection between internal and external spaces; however, no studies have ever mentioned the different types of internal and external spaces, their arrangements in relation to each other and their connection types with respect to each other. Also, no model has ever been developed for designing the space connection type, and its limits and boundaries. Since there are many possible ways to connect two spaces, a spectrum can be defined for different types of space connection which starts from perfect connection and ends with total disconnection. Connections between internal and external spaces in a school can also result in arrangement of learning spaces. Spatial school arrangement is one of the approaches for designing learning spaces and also various models have been proposed for spatial arrangement in schools. This article is an attempt to introduce an efficient model for connections between classroom and other external spaces in a school and make some suggestions for conventional spatial arrangements for Iranian schools. According to previous studies, external spaces in schools were classified into three spaces: external natural space, external learning space, external sport and social space. Based on design principles for learning spaces and arrangement of active and non-active (passive) spaces close to one another in schools, following three principals were introduced: 1) connection between school’s internal spaces and external natural spaces, 2) disconnection (separation) between internal space and external space with different function in terms of level of activity, such as connection between classroom and external sport and social spaces, 3) a state between total connection and disconnection (separation) between internal and external spaces with small difference in terms of crowdedness and activity as well as functional similarity between two spaces such as connection between classrooms and external learning spaces. Based on different existing space arrangements in schools and connection types between internal and external spaces in schools, two most common types of arrangement formed during the evolution of Iranian architecture were investigated according to the above mentioned connection principles in order to propose an efficient model for spatial arrangement based on these two models and take into account the three aforementioned principles. Therefore, these three connection principles can be applied to both arrangement models through devising an exterior green band around boundaries of the classrooms, placing learning balconies between the classrooms and external learning spaces, designing two separated yards (learning yard and sport and social activity yard) located at two opposite extremes of the school, and also providing access to external sport and social activity spaces via corridors behind the classrooms. Moreover, positive features of Iranian school architecture regarding to the connection between open and closed spaces, have been explained in the article as direct access from classrooms to learning yard, designing three types of closed and covered spaces within spatial arrangement, providing internal learning yards, importance of including porch in school plan and importance of yards as the heart of school’s activities have all been included into both of the arrangements.
    Keywords: Connection, Classroom, Educational Spaces Design, Spatial Configuration, Iranian Schools
  • Saeid Mirriahi Page 107
    Architectural education is one of the key issues in the growth and actualization of Iranian architecture as well as determination of future layout of architecture in Iran and all over the world. Higher education as the highest stage of the educational system is an important part of a dynamic community which has a direct impact on social norms and behaviors and explains the political-economic as well as valuable-cultural process of a society. It seems that Higher Education of Iran cannot meet specialized and professional job needs of society while the structure of fields of study is incompatible with our culture which causes low quality of working in most of graduates who are attracted to the professional job market. This could be due to the weakness in teaching, teaching methods and evaluation methods. Training creativity and critical behaviors in architecture students in order to present architectural plans and well evaluation of them, is complicated and lack of attention to these effective and efficient elements face the education system with challenges. Professional abilities which are resulted from educational process make some concerns about the lack of effective cohesion and communication between the various theoretical and practical courses, which cause current big gap between architecture classes and workshops. By analyzing the performance of architecture faculties and students, increasing the quality of higher education and meeting society needs can be possible. Variety of teaching methods in architecture classroom can cause different results, but nowadays most common architecture method is team based learning. In this method, the teacher divides students into some groups which required a different approach during training and evaluation. Team-based learning is a new training approach with the aims of improving learning, increasing problem solving skills, being sure of previous studying by students and creating a high energy class. Optimization of this method for using in educational architecture classes is discussed in the part of this study. The purpose of this approach is to learn based on the creation of an active and participated environment. There are some comparative evaluations which help teachers to compare the results of this method of teaching with others to gain the strength and weakness of this method. The evaluation of teaching methods should promote the scientific and practical ability of students. The evaluation should be based on educational goals and the ability to organize the training courses and also the methods of training. Overall, the finding of the evaluation is based on its finding and requires a judgment about effectiveness, social effectiveness and desirability of a process or program, and finally an outcome based on the goals and values. Evaluation of the projects should be done without challenging elements such as social, political and managerial relations by focusing on scientific and practical and professional criteria. Different nature of architecture makes the criteria for judging not one hundred percent fixed and unchanged. Besides the undeniable role of human factors in judging, makes the constant percentage of deviations from the standards. In order to this element, in other part of the paper, the peer evaluation method as an optimum approach in evaluation of architecture plans, will be discussed as a proper method of evaluation in team-based learning. Peer evaluation method has a lot of advantages such as increasing student’s learning, encouraging student to be responsible, engaging in training process through discussion and improving discussing skills, wide thinking, well judging in a situation, encouraging student to learn deeply and increasing their self-confidence. During implementing peer evaluation method, the teacher should try to make an environment in which the students feel that he/she evaluate his/her work while evaluating others. This issue leads to decrease negative attitudes while the student feels that he/she will be evaluated by others as well as evaluates them.
    Keywords: Architecture Training, Training Evaluation, Team Base Learning, Peer Evaluation
  • Abdolhamid Noghrehkar, Mahdi Hamzenejad, Sedighe Moeinmehr Page 119

    Islam has proposed the transcendent value in human life and environment which today, with the emergence of a new culture and negligence of the spiritual levels of human, has been ignored. For revival these values in contemporary urbanism, It is necessary that these values change from the general form to the special issue of urbanism. This issue begins by introducing each Islamic principle and describing their various levels and possible conflicts that occur today. Finding a fairly logical and comprehensive ultimate answer can only be possible with a detailed understanding of Islamic priorities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the issues of urbanization and extraction of relevant principles for urban designers and designs. The method of this paper refers to Islamic resources and logical reasoning. By studying principles of religious literature compared with traditional and historical construction on one hand and construction of new requirements on the other hand, this paper attempts to conclude general values and principles discussed in Islam for human transcendence. The most important values to be considered in the whole city are in the areas such as value for preparation for employment, gaining knowledge, thinking, recreation and physical health, public oversight, attention to religious rituals such as the ritual and symbolic aspects of Islamic thought in the city. In the neighborhood mosque as a neighborhood center, by encouraging people to participate in, with market and shopping centers (not gathering and recreation center) are discussed. Totality of neighborhoods in terms of cultural and religious dignity have different reputation. For choose the Islamic neighborhood studying this validity is required. In the choice of the Muslim neighborhood, relationship and social organization of a neighborhood is the most important principles of Islamic urbanism. And yet houses are the most of the private places of families and their respect and independence should not be affected by any interference from neighbors. This study investigates the impact of human interaction on implementing strategies to strengthen the religion community pays. Finally, the above principles regarding to the issues have been considered. Also, we have Islamic homes, neighborhood and city created by architects and urban planners with sufficient knowledge of theoretical and practical wisdom of Islam in the area of environmental planning and design for human. Obviously, the other elements of the City, such as laws, managers and citizens should follow the Islamic principles. Although the present study and the strengthening of social interaction issues prevalent in today’s research world and Iran, but it’s so far that theoretical foundations of Islam - Iranian will be investigated. This study aims to study religious rulings and interpretations of Quran and traditions (Citing sources and interpret the Shiite thinkers according to historical Islamic documents– Iran), investigate special architecture and urbanism and find principles and practical methods for them. This article was done in order to identify the principles, because in the field of religious studies, (have on the diversity and multiplicity of methods) to answer the question the model of interdisciplinary studies should be used. Type of the prevailing methodology of the research is analytical logical. In this regard among the traditional cities the same order of social, cultural and religious diversity are significant. Human social life forms one of the important aspects of Islamic values, which has been neglected by the emergence of a new culture of human communities. To restore these values in the contemporary urban, they may need to regenerate to become the expert in urban science, with a statement of each principle and the description of its different aspects and realizing the potential contradictions that today occur begins. As stated, the purpose of this paper is the issues of Islamic urbanism and obtaining the principles for urban designers. As stated, the method used in this paper is referred to Islam and deduced and logical reasoning. By study the foundations of Religious texts in compared with the traditional and historical construction in one side and the new requirements in another side, the general values and principles in Islam will be achieved for excellence of human in city, neighborhood and house. The most important fundamentals and principles have derived from the visible structure in the Islamic living environment of these values in the whole city, such as: attention the religious rituals, the need to promote public participation in strengthening interactions, to consider religious rituals, respect the rights of other citizens, in every type of construction, prohibition the construction of detriment to others.

    Keywords: The Priorities of Residency, Islam, City, Neighborhood, House
  • Ladan Vojdanzadeh Page 137
    At the beginning of the third millennium, Nano-technology causes another industrial revolution. Nanotechnology, the science of manufacturing materials at a tiny scale, creates new possibilities to make dramatic improvements in our lives. Nanotechnology is an exciting area of scientific development which promises “more for less”. It offers ways to create smaller, cheaper, lighter and faster devices that can do more and cleverer functions, use less raw materials and consume less energy. It represents a whole new method of manufacturing, which achieves control at the atomic scale. It is better described as a collection of technologies which are genuinely “disruptive” – that is, they will render many existing technologies and processes obsolete and create entirely new types of products. Today, there are more than 450 manufacturer-identified nanotechnology-enabled products in the commercial market and “over 600 raw materials, intermediate components and industrial equipment items” used by Nano manufacturers and many more are sure to be followed, given the large investments in research, development, and commercialization. Many researchers believe that over the coming years and decades, nanotechnologies are set to make an enormous impact on manufacturing and service industries, on electronics, information technology, and on many other areas of life, from medicine to energy conservation. All objects are going to make on base of Nano scale and their properties form in this scale in future. Construction materials and manufacturing technology change soon, so we have to examine its impact on architecture. Applications of nanotechnology: - Environmental Protection - Sea Industries - Medicine - Electronics and Computer - Biotechnology Nano architecture combines Nano technology with architecture and its versatile effects. For the architecture profession, nanotechnology will greatly impact construction materials and their properties. Materials will behave in many different ways as we are able to precisely control their properties at the Nano-scale. The biggest ideas in today architecture are coming out of the science of the small. Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter at the molecular scale, promises to transform architecture in ways we can hardly imagine today. The nanotech revolution can bring dramatic improvements in building performance, energy efficiency and sustainability to building projects. By building construction and operation estimated to be a trillion dollar per year for a worldwide industry, it is to be expected that Nano material and nanotechnology will play an increasing role in the construction industry. According to Nanowerk “dozens of building materials incorporate nanotechnology, from self-cleaning windows to flexible solar panels to Wi-Fi blocking paint,” and “many more are in development, including self-healing concrete, materials to block ultraviolet and infrared radiation, smog-eating coatings and light-emitting walls and ceilings.” Nanotechnology and Architecture/Functions and Applications: - Self-cleaning/ Easy-to-clean - Air-purifying - Anti-fogging - Thermal Insulation - Temperature Regulation - UV Protection - Solar Protection - Fire-proof - Anti-graffiti - Anti-reflective - Antibacterial - Anti-fingerprints - Scratchproof and Abrasion Resistant However, if the researchers in this field put together with an ethical set of guidelines, then we can develop nanotechnology safely while still reaping its promised benefits. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of this technology in architecture. In this essay, descriptive method has chosen as a research method. So we present a definition of nanotechnology and its scientific aspects, study of nanotechnology materials applications in construction industry and case study, and also natural structures in architecture. Also, we emphasise on the advantage and side effect of this technology to use it carefully. It would be difficult to deny the potential benefits of nanotechnology and stop development of research related to it, since it has already begun to penetrate many different fields of research. Thus, Nano materials should replace with traditional materials as they will cause huge changes in construction. The architectural design based on Nano contracture offers an antidote to today’s form-driven practice. However, nanotechnology can be developed using guidelines to insure that the technology does not become too potentially harmful. As any new technology, it is impossible to stop every well-funded organization which may seek to develop the technology for harmful purposes. Effects of Nano architecture application: - Reducing Construction Waste (in Comparison with Traditional System) - Reducing Buildings Materials - Improving the Quality of Materials - Reduce the Consumption of Fossil Energy - Reduce Maintenance Costs - Preservation and Conservation - Economical - Design Ideally Space - Compatibility with Nature - Create Stable Structures.
    Keywords: Nanotechnology, Architecture, Nano, material, Bionic, Sustainable Architecture
  • Seyed Hossien Bahrayni, Maliheh Ali Ghaleh Babakhani, Reza Sameh Page 151
    Theory is a tool for descriptions, interpretations, predictions and recommendations so it is inevitable in the field of urban design. In other words, urban design can’t be done without any theory; whether there is any awareness about the existence of this theory or not. There are several reasons for clarifying the importance of theories in urban studies. Friedman stated three basic requirements for urban theories: prediction, prescription, evaluation and judgment in the action. Also Lang stated that theory in “chaotic situations helps understanding” and “saves the ideas and knowledge”. Variety of theories in the field of urban studies and particularly in urban design indicates that the typology of theories is important. Typology helps to classify and organize topics in the mind. Yiftachel and Tiryakian classify three basic principles for typology which are: correcting ambiguities and missing concepts, organized by definition of parameters of a topic, and facilitating the creation theory by defining the characteristics of the main components for further research. Development of urban design theories on the one hand and the need to understand and analyze their content to use on the other hand, explain the need to identify the nature of new approaches in typology of urban design theories. Among all the existing issues of urban design studies what has the greatest impact on the nature of cities is urban quality of life that is rooted in the people’s lives and fulfilling the demands and needs of its residents. Quality of life is one of topics in many fields. It began on 1930s and continued through researchers’ efforts to define, evaluate and measure quality of life from different perspectives. Nevertheless the beginning application of this approach in urban studies referred to 1980s. Although the quality of life has attractiveness and common sense but there isn’t yet an accepted definition. Experts and organizations in different disciplines have provided different definitions for quality of life. Considering different definitions for quality of life, it can be used as an attractiveness of a location and the degree of compliance and expectations which is received by individuals. In other words, it is affected by objective and subjective aspects. The aim of this study is to explain a conceptual framework in order to investigate the nature of the urban quality of life approach in urban design theories to understand the main issues and different aspects in this field. Process of research is based on typology of urban design theories. It also has developed a framework and some parameters for doing research. This framework is provided based on library studies and scientific resources. The nature of this approach is explained by comparative and analytic method. Arguments and analysis are done by complaining the properties of urban quality of life with different types of urban design theories. Parameters that considered in this study to explain the nature of quality of life in urban design theories include: philosophical orientation, topic, foundations of studies, the relationship between human and environment, environmentalfactors, epistemic and scale application. Based on this analysis, the nature of urban quality of life approach in urban design theories is: This approach is based on understanding and interpretation of objective and subjective factors of existing conditions. On the other hand it provides general and specific values for the desired future conditions which can be categorized in positive-normative theories. Quality of life identifies and interprets the economic, social and environmental current status of the city and provides processes in urban planning and urban design for the improvement of urban life values so we can categorize it in substantive and procedural theories. This approach considers both environmental and human domains. In other words, it does not only focus on objective or subjective domains, it tries to improve residents’ subjective perceptions based on physical changes so classify in probability environmental theories. Quality of life is classified in three-component theories because it considers physical, activate and mental thinking domains. Residents and subjective aspects have a significant role in urban quality of life approach and it’s possible based on negotiation with them and participation of them in planning process, so this approach is close to experience-oriented approaches. This approach is applicable at different geographical scales, from over-city to neighborhood scale, however, indicators, components and concepts are different in every scale.
    Keywords: Urban Quality of Life, Urban Design, Typology, Normative Theories, Objective Aspects, Subjective Aspects
  • Ali Pourjafar, Mohammad Reza Pourjafar Page 169
    Although some experts and specialists in urban planning and design relate the subject of urban design and its products to the west, but the history of valuable urban design, existence of various great products and comparison of them with those in the west reveals that urban design in both subject and practice has a deep root in the history of Iran. In this paper, through descriptive analytical methodology, Iranian “Timcheh” and French Passages as semi-public urban spaces have been studied and compared. “Timcheh” is a part of Bazaar complex which works as a node and can be known as a semi-public urban space. It is called semi-public because of its private or lessee hold land ownership. These urban spaces can be classified into uncovered and covered sections. They are also used for socio-cultural activities in particular situations like ritual ceremonies of “Moharram”. These urban spaces and such related activities highly developed in Qajar era and a little ago. Design and construction of these sophisticated urban structures are the result of strong cooperation of merchants and also people participation in traditional Iranian cities. European passages with their longitudinal proportion (their length is much more than their width) look like short commercial urban corridors. The comparison of these cases shows that design characters of “Timcheh” are very great. In this regard, to understand various aspects of “Timcheh” in Iran and passage in Europe, the cases of Amin-od-dowleh Timcheh in Kashan & Grand Timcheh of Qom together with des Panoramas and Joufgha in Paris as semi-public urban spaces have been chosen to study on. The des Panoramas Passage is a roofed commercial passageway. The passage was built in 1799 on the former site of the Montmorency-Luxembourg private hotel. It is one of the earliest venues of the Parisian philatelic trade and also the first covered, airy commercial passageways in the world. Bazaars and souks in the Orient had roofed commercial passageways in previous centuries but the passage of Panoramas is innovated in having glazed roofing and, later on, gas lights for illumination. It is thus the pioneer of all city gallerias of the 19th century and covered suburban and city shopping. The Jouffroy Passage is also a covered walkway in the south of 9th arrondissement of Paris, on the border with the second arrondissement. It begins in the south between 10 and 12 boulevards Montmartre, and ends in the north at 9 rue de la Grange-Batelière. In this paper, in general, two of the most important covered Timcheh have been studied and analyzed. Then “Timcheh” and “Passage” have been studied through descriptive- comparative and analytical methods. Then Grand Timcheh of Qom, Amin-od DowlehmTimcheh of Kashan, des Panoramas Passage and Jouffroy Passage are analyzed in detail, describing their various main components of designing. Existing “Timchehes” like: Grand Timcheh of Qom and Amin-od-Dowleh Timcheh of Kashan are proper examples of such urban complexes in all over the vast land of Iran. The interior design of these urban spaces is magnificent. They have highly ornamented cells. The local merchants usually helped for designing and constructing such grand urban spaces. The processes of implementation of such urban design projects were good examples of social participation as a tradition among Iranian business men. The result of the research indicates that most of “Timchehes” like Grand Timcheh of Qom and Amin-od-Dowleh Timcheh of Kashan are well designed multifunction of urban spaces. The change of land use and activity pattern from commercial to socio-cultural and religious activities during “Moharram” and “Safar” months, as a spontaneous movement, without governmental interference, is a good reason to study more on these spaces. These covered urban spaces such as Grand Timcheh of Qom and Amin-od-Dowleh Timcheh have been designed in Qajar era. Figur one shows the evolution of Timcheh during various dynasties. Fig. 1: The evolution of Timcheh during various dynasties In conclusion, the various specific features of Grand Timcheh of Qom and Amin-od- Dowleh Timcheh of Kashan are determined. Regarding to the general classification of establishment of “Timcheh” design, concept and constructions, most articles have mentioned that “Timchehes” belong to Qajar dynasty, but according to the documents presented in this paper, it can be stated that the establishment, planning, design and construction of non-covered “Timcheh” has started in Safavid era and continued to Qajar periods, respectively. It is concluded that the processes and products of urban design (as far as design of commercial urban spaces) in Iran is much more sophisticated than those passages in the west.
    Keywords: Iranian, Islamic Urban Space, Timcheh, Passage
  • Arash Saghafi Asl, Esfandiar Zebardast, Hamid Majedi Page 183
    In parallel with the growing trend of urban design in the planning system of Iran, it is very important to note its implementation process. Along with the rest of the world, recently, some projects named “urban design projects” has been provided and ran in different parts of Iran, especially in Tehran. These projects aim to improve the quality of our urban environment and urban spaces. In the early 80s of HejriShamsi, city managers and citizens expressed more interest in these projects. In fact, our approach is changing to concentrate more on quality than quantity in urban projects. Urban design involves the arrangement and design of buildings, public spaces, transport systems, services, and amenities. On the other hand, Urban design is about making connections between people and places, movement and urban form, nature and the built fabric. Urban design draws together the many strands of place-making, environmental stewardship, social equity and economic viability into the creation of places with distinct beauty and identity. An urban design plan consists of schemes for the integration of social, economic and spatialaspects in urban development. Urban design plan is usually prepared for a distinct urban block; however, urban areas should be planned in an integrated way so that the whole and the parts forma unified architecture: the architecture of the city. Urban design aims to plan the city without designing individual buildings. Each block and each neighbourhood should have an urban designplan prior to plan approval for the development of projects. However, the process of urban design cannot solve complex social, economical, and environmental problems. But the process of urban design can help a community visualize a desired future in which social, economic, and environmental needs are balanced and met. In the urban design process, implementation phase is very important. Implementation is the carrying out, execution, or practice of a plan, a method, or any design for doing something. Implementation is the action that must follow any preliminary thinking in order for something to actually happen. The planning process is incomplete without plans being implemented. Each provision in the planning policy should have a corresponding means of implementation. The institution which prepared the plan does not need to be an implementer nor to become the monitor of implementation. However, there should be a body that facilitates the implementation and a means to realize plans. Monitoring of plan implementation is a mean for the collection of time-series data for the next round of planning. Development control departments involved in plan implementation should have a section that deals with monitoring of plan implementation. The implementing body should have a clear vision of implementation. It is not enough to define the vision at plan preparation stage if it is not an influence plan implementation. Having a clear vision implies focusing on potentials and exploiting opportunities. Councils and urban managers are expected to have clear vision for the urban area and constantly inform the public as achieving their visions by implementing plans. On the other hand, Implementation has different end points for the different products of urban design. If the urban design product is a rule, implementation means enactment and enforcement. If the product is a pilot project, then implementation means construction. Implementation is rarely in the hands of the urban designers if he ir she is acting as a designer. Rather, implementation in the urban design process relies on the factors of politics and finance. A plan requires some political cajoling for adoption, but in the end, it is just a plan. No one needs to stick it. However, a rule requires a much bigger political lift. If implemented, it wins the legal power of enforcement and gains the weight of the governing organization behind it. The present study attempted to identify and prioritize the criteria and effective indicators in the urban design implementation process. Therefore, we reviewed several documents and relevant literature to initially develop a theoretical framework and then, identify primary criteria and indicators using analytical- comparative method accompanied by review of documents and related opinions of other scholars. These criteria and indicators were elaorated and fulfilled through an interview with experts so as to localize and conform to Iran’s context. Finally, the significance of each criterion and indicator was determined via a questionnaire by the main actors of urban design projects in Iran; afterwards, prioritization was carried out. The findings of this study indicated that in the current circumstance of urban design in Iran, employer eligibility criterion, project management, public participation and relevant indicators are the most important and the level of legal interaction criterion, scientific-academic support and its relevant indicators are the least important factors from the main actors’ viewpoint.
    Keywords: Criterion, Indicator, Implementation, Process, Urban Design Projects
  • Farah Habib, Toktam Hanaee Page 199
    Routing in the urban area is possible by having environmental information. Information such as current location, destination and connections between them, facilitates the route selection process. Environment perception and data storage in mind would be impossible without this information. So the spectator would be disoriented in way- finding if he doesn’t have access to clear environmental information. To have an accurate way- finding behavior, explicit environmental information is necessary. Environment should be designed for men as users of space such a way they find their path to success. The results of such studies can have a significant impact on urban planning and design. The combination of environmental information in the process of identifying the environment and accessible way-finding aids are both lead to ease the way-finding process. All the accessible tools and aids are valuable for individuals. Getting lost in an environment is not an appropriate feeling. When a person can find his/her way with no difficulties, she/he can have a comfortable feeling and is eager to find out more about the environment. In contrast, having difficulty in finding one’s way around can lead to anxiety and stress. Familiarity with the environment can lead to peace in mind, ease in navigation, and would reduce the mistakes along the path also in selecting the path. Repeating the same path can increase the familiarity of a path and this is particularly valuable for the complicated environments and paths. When people are familiar with the path, they tend to use their cognitive map in their way-finding process. In contrast, when the environment is new for individuals, they tend to ask others along the route or utilizing way-finding aids in their way-finding. Unfamiliar people would select their path based on environmental information or their previous knowledge of that place. Information (or knowledge???? which one do you mean?) people get from the environment result from their perception of different parts of the city. The way-finding aids that people are using differ depending on the familiarity of them with the environment. Most of the way-finding aids such as maps, street signs, and other signage are utilized among people who are less familiar with the environment. The combination of environmental information in the process of identifying the environment and accessible way-finding aids are both lead to ease the way-finding process. All the accessible tools and aids are of value and have unique value for individuals. Searching in the environment and asking passengers were the examples of way-finding aids. Normally men were searching for their way through following the clues and the tendency in way-finding. The purpose of this study is to determine the relation between environmental information, environmental perception and behavioral patterns of men in way- finding process. The data collection in this study is based on the qualitative methods such as questionnaire, observation, interview and simulation. This study includes 150 randomly selected individuals in Imam Reza, Daneshgah and Imam Khomeiny streets in Mashhad downtown. Data analyzed by chi-square analysis and the v-test crammers’ done. The results of this study show the importance of physical factors and Routing Guide for Men choosing a different path. The men in the urban area are associated with the selected route. There are signs in the third priority is to reach the destination. In the men’s final of the signs and directional signs will help. The presence of men in urban areas is associated with the selection of their routing practices. On the other hand, men prefer to search through the use of principal directions in the environment and to identify its direction. Visual guide to male factors, the location at the junction, distinctive architectural style and distinction in routing performance are considered. Also, buildings with high levels of visibility from a distance with white color can guide men better as well as guidance to be used in reaching the correct destination. There is a correlation between way-finding aids and the aim of the travel among the male participants. Men with the aim of working in the area were mostly utilized coordinate system, land makrs and visual features of the built environment in their navigation. In comparison, those who were travelling to the area with the aims of working or worshiping were looking for clues in their way-finding. Men because of the tendency of using clues were mostly used coordinate systems and environmental features. Men were trying to utilize environmental and visual features of the environment in order to find their way. In some cases they were not tended to utilize oral aids like asking others.
    Keywords: Environmental Perception, Men, Guiding Factor, Way, Finding Behavior, Urban Planning, Design
  • Sina Razzaghi, Asl Page 211
    Environmental designers and planners deal with some aspects and themes used in trans-disciplinary era. Today, the scale of objects and furniture to regional and urban design, environmental design is in the fall. So many professions and specialties including urban design, landscape design, architecture, urban planning and industrial design are considered as environmental design. These subjects and matters are very important in developing limits and borders of disciplines. This area varies from medical sciences to human sciences and technology. This approach causes professionals and researchers to make an especial attention. The recognition of mechanisms, procedures and principles of usage concepts in designing outdoor places and spaces is very essential for professionals and environmental experts. Transdisciplinary approach to research and design has been proposed in recent years. Beyond issues, replacing the logical structure of subject forms the recent cases in which the branch is located. Today, a variety of professionals in environmental design have been created. In the design schools, students are faced with different professional roles. Landscape architecture, urban design and environmental review processes and natural spaces and environments that are pristine and outer city. City planners design and organize the urban areas, mainly in the tissues and structures. Having its traditional role as architects design buildings is to design spaces, construction of buildings, public and private, and some of their urban spaces. Urban planners in conjunction with other land use planning and urban planners to determine the density and per capita levels are involved. But as deduced from the nature and function of these disciplines, all of which are favorable environmental design and planning. Today, more than 15 universities across the country implement the environmental design disciplines. Some of these universities are adjacent to existing environmental design disciplines and interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary looks almost there. As a study of a small number of publications, including articles and theses of the university professors and students, we can follow the development of transdisciplinary approaches to a range of urban issues. Informal settlements, planning, landscape, location, economic values, health, Iranian-Islamic culture, heritage, environment and other issues, have been among the concerns of these publications. Focusing on publications in the areas of environmental design issues, we will find that this holistic perspective is directly related to the topic of this article which is not observed, yet. This paper with the aim of emphasizing on trans-disciplinary approach to the environmental design knowledge and paradigms explains professor’s comments and attitudes to very most important themes and subjects in Iran. The research method is survey study on environmental design professors in Iran. The primary method of data collection for this study was using archives and libraries, through questionnaire survey: in-depth and structured. In this way, the questionnaire was answered by twenty professors of urban design, architecture and landscape architecture at the University of Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran University of Science and Technology in July to September 2013. To analyze the research data Constant comparative analysis method was used. The collection and analysis of data can be done simultaneously. Data on capital account and open a twostage selection is done. For this purpose, data is read line by line and opening arguments, the same words are direct, without interpretation, participants were extracted. Open ID identifier concept, involving a company in the words of common understanding, comparison, and identifiers that are conceptually similar to each other, they were one. Categories were compared and, if need be merged. The final issues of the comparative method and understand the content, analyzed and finally selected categories appear. The findings of this paper show that Environmental issues, health, Iranian model, globalization, cultural background, social cohesion, Iranian tradition, participation, management, education, ecology and energy among the most common and also cover the fields of environmental design are covered. In the view of the importance of environmental and cultural approaches in national and international documents and declarations, most experts believe that the trans-disciplinary themes and topics related to cultural, environmental, social and environmental design requirements. Thus, for guidance and clarification on these issues, and interactions with other specialized fields such as medicine, ecology, sociology, theology, economics and energy professionals in the fields of urban design, architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning is necessary. The role of inter-disciplinary thinking in this article is meant to take advantage of multiple approaches. Emphasis on Iranian identity issues, ecology, environment, globalization and education in science and transdisciplinary academic and professional knowledge and advance the frontiers of knowledge, it can track the production of designed environment to pave the coming years.
    Keywords: Trans, Disciplinary, Environmental Design, Boundary Concepts, Interdisciplinary
  • Narges Soltani, Najme Sadat Mostafavi, Sahar Amani Kelarijani Page 221
    Rapid growth of cities and their physical development cause different crises in urban life like the drop in the quality of environment. Following this the necessity of paying attention to the concept of quality and its promotion in urban environments along with the attention towards quantitative problems is more felt. Considering to the social, livelihood and identity values of citizens and urban aesthetic measures such as the main criteria for enhancing the quality of urban environment, especially the urban public space as a heart of the city and in addition to positive psychological results, and also considering the common interests of citizens can be improved satisfaction of citizens in urban public space and encouraged the presence of more space. Therefore, considering to the environmental quality values from the viewpoint of the citizens is one of the most important issues in urban planning. Planning to improve the quality of urban public space is important and necessary. Urban public spaces plans and projects include the variety of types of economic, social and environmental interests. This is despite the fact that a significant proportion of annual income were spent on urban projects that real benefits were not included, such as urban public spaces programs and planning. In fact, a careful study of the costs and benefits would not be in urban plans and projects. The benefits of environment values that play the important role in improving the environmental quality of urban public spaces are examples of such these benefits and in fact, the accurate quantifying of the environmental values is one of the current issues in analysis of obtained impacts of urban projects. Soffeh park of Isfahan, is one of the urban spaces of this city which is regarded as an effective public space for the citizens in the recent years. Yet to be considering this space because of physical characteristics, historical, social, cultural, and recreational services it is a public space with high quality urban upgrading to find. The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of the environment and to rank the willingness of users to pay and to improve the quality of each environmental value from the perspective of people who go to this park. Methodology of this study is based on Choice Experiment Method (CEM) and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). These methods used for evaluating environmental values and information which are received from answers to the hypothetical questions. In this research by using these methods, environmental quality values were chosen based on the review of the theoretical literature. Willingness levels of the urban space users to pay and its prioritization were studied by questionnaire. By using contingent valuation method, it can be estimated the willingness to pay for environmental values and can be stated the amount of monetary of those willingness in Rials. Moreover, the willing to pay for environmental goods and services that have not been used (but there is a chance to use them in the future) can be measured. The willingness to pay is quantitatively expressed by Choice Experiment Method. Despite of contingent valuation method, it does not examine the scale of money directly. It could value each features of affecting the willingness to pay, also determine the ranking of each of the features compared with others and measure the relationship between different factors affecting the choice of users (perceived correlation) eventually. In these methods, environmental quality values were chosen based on the review of the theoretical literature. The analysis results showed that the quality of environment in the Soffeh park is at low threshold (3> 1 / 83> 1) and fairly satisfaction. The results of CEM showed that all value variants had a high relation to choose their urban space. (0 / 05> P) Access variant had the highest priority from the user viewpoints (with number 1 / 25), and also the results of CVM showed that people tend to pay 1500 Rials for entering to the Soffeh park and none of the Social - Economic user features is affected on this tendency.
    Keywords: Choice Experience Method (CEM), Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Quality of the Environment, Sofeh Park of Isfahan
  • Ali Kazemi Page 233
    Approach to cognition of meaning in built environment, especially in historical contexts, has been discussed in several researches. Recognition of historical meanings in these contexts (in past periods and the time that they were composing) can be useful and necessary, because they help to have correct awareness of methods and situations of composing such places. It also is effective for evaluating of environmental changes in different terms, so it gives perfect perception of reasons of differences that often can see in environmental meanings. Browsing of prior researches about environmental meaning shows that there are many cultural, phenomenological and perceptual approaches in cognition and explaining of effective parameters on forming environmental meaning, but minority of them try to study this subject based on a methodological approach. These contexts usually had some special architectural and urban elements and complexes (in different scales) which were symbolic and reflected individual and social values in built environment in historical terms. In a simple definition, “meaning” is all of the subjects that an object causes to be for an observer. There are two levels of meanings in built environments: sensible meanings which are the result of person- form visual relations, and symbolic, cultural and historical meanings that notice to none-spatial concepts in built environments. Perceptions of symbolic meanings need to recognize the society that form these built environments. It is possible that these meanings change in different terms which can fundamentally transform social norms and individual and public visions. This research looks for possible and logical methods to give historical environmental meanings in old and historic contexts and uses interpretive- historical and logical argument research methods to reach these aims. Based on formal and conceptual differentiations of historical contexts with contemporary urban environments, recognition of meaning in the primary terms that contexts were been forming, it has to be done through a special methodology, because there is not accessibility to their builders or users. Data collecting has done through field study (observation and interview) and archive. Base on these factors, this research has used structuralism and semiotics approaches in architecture and urbanism and focused on Seyghalan neighborhood in Rasht as a historical context. Research area (case study) was a part of main structure of Rasht in its historic terms that had some urban functions like religious school, bathes, Khahar Emam holy shrine and Bazar that was connected to main Bazar of city. Structuralism believes that “meaning” in built environment is achieved by functional and symbolic correlation between different parts of environment when they are perceive by people’s mind. This specific relationship between elements of space (or place) is named structure. This structure is a place that includes many of sings, symbols and elements that have symbolic relationships and many of its meanings can be interpreted and perceived by semiotic methods. Semiotics is used as a method that can reveal environmental meaning by signs and symbols. In this method, meaning is a result of relation between sign and person which relates a signifier to a specific signified, base on the hermeneutic method. This approach believes that form of architectural elements and the ways of composition with larger complexes in urban contexts have such principles and rules that notice to none-material concepts and it’s possible to recognize its meanings. As conclusion, this research suggests 3 different methods to reach to expected
    Aims
    1- Method of cognition of space’s properties in historic terms with focusing on structure and then perception of meaning that is closed and unexposed in this structure. In this method, understanding main role of structural elements of historical spaces is important and necessary. 2- Perception of the relationship between physical and spatial context of historical environment and changes that has taken place in world-view and ideology of people. Based on this method, changes in religious, social and materialistic values cause different meanings in people’s perceptions. 3- Cognition of transformations that have occurred in articulate frameworks related to environment and often is subjective. This method does base on semiotics approach and recognition of differences that are in symbolic levels in buildings and complexes in different terms.
    Keywords: Meaning, Historical Environments, Methodology, Structuralism, Semiotics
  • Bahram Aminzadeh, Mina Roshan Page 243
    Due to their complicated multidimensional nature, cities are linked to some principles and fundamentals from different human sciences. City’s confrontation with critical and idealistic concept of Social Equity, obtained from political and social sciences while forms a multi-dimensional concept known as Spatial Equity. The necessity for justice in urban facilities distribution is something reasonable, yet how to measure it is a big question. In this research, evaluating spatial justice measurement methods and their appropriate applications is considered as the main objective and measuring the amount of spatial justice in neighborhood facilities distribution in Qazvin, as a following one. In this regard, three methods of Cumulative Opportunities, Competition Factors in Accessibility and Place Rank are introduced as efficient methods in this subject. In addition, their practical application in a case study, neighborhood facilities of Qazvin, is evaluated comparatively. Research results show a relatively high imbalance in neighborhood facilities distribution of Qazvin (primary school and green space) but regarding to the details and amount of such imbalance, meaningful differences are found in results of presented methods. Comparison of these findings, with two independent approaches, ended in some results showing appropriate and efficient applications for each of these methods. Through first approach, after identifying areas with highest accessibility ranking in each method, the difference among those ranks is analyzed comparatively. In second one, the amount of conformability between results obtained using each method and citizen’s imagination about facilities accessibility is considered. Accordingly, choosing a suitable evaluation method is completely bound to the nature of study, its goals and characteristics of case study. Research findings show that place- rank method will be useful just when land-use and transportation analyses are considered simultaneously. According to findings from comparisons of methods, cumulative opportunities method can be considered as an efficient method for measuring spatial equity level if urban areas are monotonous from population distribution point of view and the capacity of service units is relatively similar and homogenous. On the other side, due to its easiness, this method seems to be the best one for a quick and short investigation. In competition method, considering the capacity of facilities supply in service units and the level of demand for each unit, two limitations of the former method were eliminated. It seems that the only issue which will possibly cause errors for applying this method is developing and forming areas of the city. Moreover, if the facilities exist, due to low resident population, the ratio of supply to demand will show a high value. Some northern parts of Qazvin face such condition and considering rank of access to facilities by using competition method, they are falsely considered in appropriate access to facilities. Finally, results of comparative assessment of methods show that, based on kinds of factors and their correlation, each method considers equitable accessibility from a different points of view. Therefore, selecting an appropriate method is dependent on planners’ goals and characteristics of the place being studied. Regarding to this, considering current case study, place’s ranking will be applicable just in investigations related to integrated plan of land- use and transportation, where their effects on access level is considered. In addition, it seems that if our goal is to investigate areas separately, due to relative uniformity of physical and social conditions in each area, cumulative opportunities method is appropriate as a simple short method. Besides, if accessibility measurement is simultaneously considered in all areas- as it is in current research- with a little overlook and omitting northern part of the city which includes the areas being formed, competition factors method seems to be more appropriate for measuring spatial equity level. In addition, results of investigating the conformity of objective values obtained from methods to citizens’ idea about accessing show the highest conformity between objective and subjective access in competition factor, then in a short distance from it, there exists cumulative opportunities method. Place-rank method is in a farther distance from two other ones, in this regard. In this manner, based on the values obtained from competition factors method, the level of access to schools throughout Qazvin’s zones, according to its actual values is from 0 to 222, with an average of 22.68, and standard deviation of 0.0191. These actual values are between 0 to 2000 for local green space with an average of 151.17 and standard deviation of 0.043, where a severe imbalance is explicitly seen; particularly in acquiring facilities (especially local green space). This can be occurred due to lack of an integrated land-use and transportation planning which despite of its increasing importance and proved efficiency is still neglected in cities like Qazvin. So, to improve the equity in distribution of local facilities of this city, integration of these two fields will be the first step. It also seems that in future studies, considering economic potential and social conditions of inhabitants in spatial equity measurement factors can help to improve equitable landuse distribution.
    Keywords: Land Use Distribution, Spatial Justice, Cumulative Opportunities, Competition Factors, Place Rank
  • Mehdi Haji Hosseini, Pooyan Shahabian Page 259
    One of the reasons for bringing up the science of urban planning is to improve the citizens’ life quality. Nowadays, because of the expansion of communications; civil society has been familiar with other cultures and thus provided some changes in attitude of people. These changes affected on culture and life style as “changing needs” of the citizens is manifest. It seems to affect the satisfaction of residents about their location and has caused of their perspectives on environmental quality. In this study the affecting factors in environmental quality and residential satisfaction that has been presented by theorists in this field, indicators of housing satisfaction, consider in three levels: residential units (the size of spaces in residential units, the housing unit design, Infrastructure of building, environmental Health and General issues of building), neighbourhood (Relationship with neighbours and their coherence, Social participation and a sense of belonging and responsibility) and district (General services and urban facilities, Cultural services and social security, Ecology level and welfare atmosphere). Then the questionnaire tool has been used to collect information in which questions of “residential satisfaction” derived from the theoretical framework of this research. The Measure of Sampling Adequacy of questions is tested by KMO and Bartlett test, and the result was 0.638 (more than 0.4 is acceptable). In housing components, the size and design of the interior spaces, buildings and infrastructure, health and building management was discussed. In the neighborhood, the neighborhood relations and the participation and responsibility of residents and in the district level components, such as services and facilities (physical and cultural), safety and the environment were examined. Then, by using the SPSS19 software, the study analyzed the questionnaires with multiple linear regression analysis, affecting factors in the satisfaction of residents of Soheil district, has been identified. Soheil district is a part of region 1 in Tehran municipality which has educated residents with high income. There are various educational centers and a shopping center which providing different daily and weekly needs. According to surveys, about 37 percent of the respondents said that satisfaction was low or very low. The average satisfaction level is around 36 percent and 26 percent of them have announced they were satisfied enough or so much. Finally the residential satisfaction of residents in 3 mentioned levels and effectiveness of each of the factors is provided. Some of these effects have only direct effects and others are direct and indirect effects simultaneously. For example, the direct effect of neighbourhood quality is (0.046) and because of the quality of housing (0.506) and social participation (0.193) resident satisfaction it is increased. It can be expressed by the quality of construction and the social fabric of the neighbourhood. The housing indicators and how to design and construct housing units in building infrastructure, is the most influential factors in residential satisfaction. At the neighbourhood level, one of the most considerable points that have been achieved in this research is changing in residents’ interest to participate and their attitude of neighbourhood relations. Despite the low level of relations between the neighbours, neighbourhood satisfaction is high. At the district level, local environmental quality is the most important indicator of the Soheil residential satisfaction. Factors such as appropriate weather (because of its placement in Shemiran), various public services, access to services in surrounding neighborhoods, public transportation and... has caused to improve the quality of living environment. Overall, the ratio of Satisfaction levels in Soheil district is high. Important issues expressed by residents are neighborhood security and climate. In the southern parts of district, the rate of services, open green spaces are high, whereas in the northern parts, the residential density is high and there is no open and green space. In contrast, the northern part is completely residential, quiet neighborhood has provided. But in the southern part, residents are dissatisfied with congestion caused by the business units, the highway and its noise and pollution. Finally, according to the strengths and limits, the following suggestions can be expressed: - Better design of buildings and landscapes (enjoying the local topography) - Establish some cultural and sports center - Improving urban infrastructure commensurate with the increase in population - Planning for The elderly, the disabled and the steep streets of the neighborhood - Establish children’s play centers in neighboring units (northern area) - Establish neighborhood service centers (northern area) - Establish a suitable parking spaces in the shopping district (southern area) - Implementation of plans to reduce pollution caused by highway (especially the noise in Southern district).
    Keywords: Quality of Accommodation, Residential Satisfaction, Residential Units, Neighborhood, District
  • Ahmad Khalili, Ehsan Heidarzadeh, Saeed Sedaghatnia Page 275
    The final goal in the development of city neighborhoods is a sustainable development. Some of the indicators related to the neighborhood sustainability are indicators of new urbanism approach can be mentioned. Following the compilation of an appropriate theoretical framework, this research attempts to analyze the component factors of New Urbanism in the neighborhood of Babolsar’s coastal township through the factor analysis, to explain the condition of this neighborhood in the relation with these factors, to rank these factors based on their importance in the explanation of New Urbanism in the neighborhood plan and finally to suggest the priorities of the intervention in this neighborhood in the direction of New Urbanism development though the multivariate regression model. New Urbanism was formalized in the late 1980s as an alternative response to sprawl. The theories of New Urbanism attempt to reconnect the physically designed environment with the social environment through standard design such as street patterns that connect residential dwellings with commercial uses and to allow one to easily access various elements of the neighborhood. In other words, these theories provide a choice among the sprawl dominated landscape to developers, to home buyers, as well as to urban planners. New Urbanism attempts to reintegrate traditional elements of neighborhoods with contemporary neighborhoods. The mixing of traditional and contemporary planning philosophies occurs when structured street patterns are preferred over cul-du-sacs and when pedestrian as well as the automobile or other modes of transportation are integrated into the neighborhood design rather than isolated, thus encouraging connectivity rather than isolation, and sustainability rather than environmental degradation. It has been less discussed to use to this approach for the presentation of an appropriate analysis method for the measuring of new urbanism in the neighborhoods and for the presentation of interfering strategies. This goal-based and practical aimed study presents a method for achieving the sustainability development of the neighborhoods. To do so, the neighborhood of Babolsar’s coastal township was considered as the sample case. This neighborhood is located in the northwest of Babolsar city and characteristics of this neighborhood are as follows: being near to the coast of sea, different types of dwelling, mixed land uses, different ethnic groups and people with average and high income level. To investigate the New Urbanism in this neighborhood through 22 variables and through the factor analysis, 7 explaining factors of New Urbanism were identified: access to the public services in the neighborhood scale, focusing on walking, condition of the traffic in the neighborhood, residential and cultural variety, condition of the public transportation, attachment to the neighborhood, cooperation and mixed use; and then the degree of these factors and the total point were specified in each neighborhood units of this neighborhood. In the next step of the study, through regression analysis these factors were ranked based on their importance in explaining the dependent variable, neighborhood’s degree of score from the new urbanism. According to the results, sense of place in neighborhood and participation had the most effect in explaining the dependent variable. Then, the priority of intervention in the indicators was specified in the three neighborhood units and the priority of these units emphasized (first the lack of interest in self-managing among the people of the neighborhood and then the nearness of the most service stores to the public transportation stations). Considering what were mentioned above, at the first steps of intervention, strategies of developing interactions between the urban management and people, paying attention to the role of town council, and establishing an easy and fast connection between the most service stores and public transportation stations should be considered. In this direction, through the policies of encouragement, the grounds related to the attraction of the cooperation of the temporary population should be considered. To boost the inclination of the permanent population to the self-managing of the neighborhood, the general strategy of the decentralization from the governmental organizations and the transfer of the authorities mostly to the local institutions such as neighborhood councils in issues like executing the plans, supervising the presentation of the urban services, attracting and justifying the people’s satisfaction and informing the people of the activities of the municipality can be useful. Furthermore, in the local planning of the new use, the issues such as paying attention to the policies for making special paths for the walkers and bicycles between the stores and the public transportation stations, making public transportation stations in the path near the coast and in appropriate distance from the activity centers and paying attention to the standards of mixed use have been recommended.
    Keywords: Sustainability, New Urbanism, Neighborhood, Factor Analysis, Regression Analysis
  • Hashem Dadashpoor, Mohammad Javadi, Mojtaba Rafieian Page 293
    Fundamental changes in social, economical, and political institutions have caused rapid increase in urban population in recent decades. Unprecedented urbanization and prolonged growth of population not only have created large cities, but also they led to the formation of cities, changes in the size of them and their development in different sizes and shaping of informal settlements, advancing towards existing environmental spaces, natural resources, farmlands, and gardens surrounding them. Therefore, this trend has caused a lot of problems in different dimensions such as housing, unemployment, informal settlements; and inability of urban environments to make the problems due to rapid change such as inharmonious growth of city suburbs and influx of urban land use within that. The population of settlements in Tehran boundary has grown about 200 percent from 1986 to 2006 in Tehran metropolitan region, while in this period Tehran’s population has merely experienced 30 percent growth. As a consequent of these changes on the population, physical transformations have been much more in suburb of the city. This transition caused this area to face with many challenges which show the necessity of planning for Tehran limit line. In this paper, given the fact that urban greenbelt policies has successfully been implemented in different cities around the world, as a kind of planning for the suburbia and the restriction policy of urban growth, greenbelt policy with conservational development approach has considered for this limit boundary. With this in mind, the main aim of this article is to guide and control the growth of Tehran and other cities within its limit line through studying how to create greenbelt and defining a range of permissible operations in this area. Permissible operations in suggested greenbelt are generated through an integrated approach including four factors of conservation, facilities and infrastructures, agriculture and urban. For this aim, two questions are put forth in this research: 1) how can greenbelt be created in the fringe of Tehran metropolis? 2). whether the suggested greenbelt would be effective in guiding and managing the city growth or not? This study methodologically is a descriptive- analytical one. The used method in this research is Delphi together with overlaying spatial layers. In this process, first indicators of permitted functions were rated by Delphi method, then indicators were relocated in spaces and finally spatial layers were over-laid based on the coefficient of importance of indicators, in ARC GIS environment to reveal the zone of the performance in the limit situated in the greenbelt of Tehran metropolis. Analytical model in this research is in fact procedural definition for achieving to a zone entitled greenbelt with four functions including urban, conservation, agriculture, and infrastructure areas in Tehran limit line with the aim of management of urban development. The findings of analysis indicate that north and east zones of Tehran’s limit line, although agricultural acts and gardening are practiced there sporadically, are prior to the conservational and the agricultural functions since they are environmentally qualified; but south part of suburbia in addition to main farming function is suitable for urban and infrastructural developments. In this sense, combination of four performances can be seen in that part. Regarding to that, in suggested greenbelt, prioritization of zoning was based on preservation in conservation and development of agricultural activities. Moreover, suggested areas for urban development do not interfere with the other two and have completely taken into account environmental observations. Also, the degree of changes in the four performances levels in suggested greenbelt and the existing situation were compared. The difference was about 65 and 100 percent growth in the conservation and agriculture levels; while the increase of the level of urban and infrastructure zones was about 25 percent (with preference of the conservation of agricultural and other lands). Therefore, it can be concluded that greenbelt policy is an effective one among the polices of guiding and control of cities growth for Tehran urban growth management and protection of valuable lands of this area, based on integrated approach and intended functions in this approach. Under these circumstances, it is suggested to develop an organizational structure for guide and control the growth management in Tehran limit line in one hand and to codify the zoning rules and monitor its implementation by the intended institutions on the other hand. In addition, it is strongly recommended to do more researches on Tehran limit line at existing pathology and optimum management. It is also suggested to do more study on evaluation of the effects of the creation of green belt in the Tehran limit line by other authors.
    Keywords: Tehran Limit Line, Greenbelt, Urban Growth Management, Integrated Approach, GIS
  • Saeid Rashidi, Mohammad Taleai, Ahid Naeimi Page 305
    Facility location is an important problem in all kinds of businesses, including service and manufacturing efforts. The suitable selection of business location is a crucial component in the eventual success or failure of the firm. Proper facility location can be a strategic tool that can significantly improve market share growth and increase customer profitability. Facility location involves much more than just selecting a location with good visibility and access. Effective research on competition and market demand are also required. Each of the above mentioned business types have different location requirements that need to be considered when settling upon a location for starting or relocating a business. The most of decision making issues in the real-world are affected by various parameters and objectives. Due to the increasing urban population, providing every citizen with adequate municipal services is highly important. this study deals with optimal locating of municipal services and particularly shopping center and also I considered several criteria, such as the citizens demand, access to shopping centers, opponent shopping centers, the applicant’s access to welfare facilities like public car parks parking and main roads and etc. Optimization is the process of searching for feasible solutions in a problem until no other superior solution can be found. Much of the current focus is on single objective optimization, even though most real-world problems require the simultaneous optimization of more than one objective function. In general, such problems consist of two or more conflicting objective functions with a set of constraints taken into consideration. At this point, it is not possible to obtain a single solution that optimizes simultaneously all the objective functions. Therefore, we need to find out a set of solutions that tradeoff the different objectives called Pareto front thus the concept of optimality in single objective optimization problems is replaced by the concept of Pareto front in multi-objective optimization problems. This set helps the decision maker to identify the best compromise solutions by elimination of inferior ones. The choice of one solution over the other entails an additional knowledge of the problem such as the relative importance of different objectives. As mentioned, the definition of the effective objectives for facility location, requiring the use of multi objective methods for problem solving. There are two general approaches to solving multi objective problems; classic and metaheuristic approach. Classical methods do not provide all the Pareto optimal solutions so to achieve an objective they must be weighted. In addition to the weighting objectives, and considering experts opinions, the methods do not show good performance for multi objective problems. Therefore, in recent research the metaheuristic methods are preferred. Among the metaheuristic methods, we use an improved method of Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), called Fast Pareto genetic algorithm (FPGA), for implementation and solving shopping center location problem. This method is able to find optimal solutions for multi objective problems in objective space. FPGA uses a new ranking strategy for the simultaneous optimization of multiple objectives. New genetic operators are employed to enhance the algorithm’s performance in terms of convergence behavior and computational effort. Computational results indicate that FPGA is a promising approach and it outperforms the improved NSGA-II. Study area, part of the city of Karaj, is including the North of Freeway Karaj – Qazvin. Data of this area for demand capture objective, obtained from Demographic information of the Statistical Center of Iran from the 1385 census. For other information layers, data of Bavand Consulting Engineers database used. The base map of database is of 1:10000 scales. These maps were used as the main source of information. This data layers used to achieving criteria of demand capture and accessibility objectives. For implementation and solving shopping center location problem, after identifying potential sites in the city of Karaj, with considering competitive conditions and defining two objectives; accessibility and demand capture then with using FPGA, multiple combinations of shopping centers were identified. The number of shopping centers is proposed as input and determined according to user needs and its purpose is to find suitable location as objectives of problem. Outputs of the algorithm are Pareto optimum solutions that show the trade-off between the objectives. By the Given input, we can see that the solutions of the algorithm, proposed locations away from existing shopping centers, and it cover a greater demand and have suitable accessibility. In order to validate the results of the FPGA-based approach, Results are compared with outputs of index overlay method. This comparison shows that 90 percent of optimum results in genetic algorithm method stand in two categories with high utility rates. This means that the results of FPGA are in areas with high utility rates.
    Keywords: Shopping Center Location, Competitive Condition, Multi Objective Optimizing, Fast Pareto Genetic Algorithm
  • Razieh Rezazadeh, Laleh Latifi Oskouei Page 321

    Walking is the oldest way of human and natural right of urban space users especially in the neighborhood scale. After industrial revolution and advent of technology, “walking” lost its importance in the everyday activities of humankind. This tendency, in turn, resulted in decrease of physical interaction of people and consequently the quality of physical environment. The cities were filled with cars and noises. Accordingly, air and noise pollution was increased and the citizens were confronting with reduction in safety, security, physical health as well as social interactions. Simultaneously with this condition, the life quality and residential satisfactory were declined. While at the same time the cities are seeking for improvement of the environmental and life quality, reduction of fossil fuel consumption, improvement of physical and mental health of human, increase of social mutual relations and humanizing urban spaces, further approaches for formation of neighborhoods and pedestrian-oriented cities seem inevitable. Definition of the walk-able neighborhood extends beyond pedestrian concerns, as the ability to walk in a neighborhood indicates not only a type of mobility and means of travel, but also a type of sociability between neighbors. These trends together with each other likely affect the physical, mental, and spiritual health of people in the community. That is to say, measuring the pedestrian-orientation capacity of neighborhood can be considered as one of the principle components of desirable and satisfied environments. As well recognized, the mentioned factors can be assumed as the pre-requisite condition for residential satisfactory. What is the specific objective of current research is to understand the effective elements on neighborhood walk-ability from the viewpoint of residents and the rate of its effect on their residential satisfaction level, so that in this way their capacities and weak points are realized. Therefore, the possibility will be increased for more conscious programming for improving the quality of city and increase in the residential satisfaction while cognition of the existing quality. In this way, the objective of the current research is to detect effective elements via measuring walking frequency during the weak and during of walking (quantitative aspects) and its pleasantness (qualitative aspect) as components for measuring walk-ability of neighborhood and to investigate their relation with individual and environmental specifications (independent variable). In the next step, the relation of walk-ability capacity with residential satisfaction is investigated. Comprehension of these relations has been performed by survey using a questionnaire filled by residents of a neighborhood. During these studies, individual and environmental specifications were investigated from the viewpoint of 200 residents of Chizar neighborhood. Investigation and excavation of effective indicators were performed by use of correlation tests, Factorial analysis and multi-variable linear regression. In this study, the relationship between the frequency, duration and desirability of walking with the residential satisfaction in the neighborhood of residents have been studied. The overall deduction with regard to the analysis of the research hypothesis shows that despite the suitability of frequency of inhabitants’ weekly walk (3.46 times), they experience a lower desirability for walking. The obtained results reveal that the average duration of their walking time is 30 minutes per time which certainly cannot be done except to walk as a mandatory activity. The main results indicate that there is no significant relationship between the frequency of walking in the neighborhood and the residential satisfaction. In other words, the number of presence in the neighborhood is not necessarily related to the quality of environment and residential satisfaction of residents. Therefore, the frequency of walking of the people is certainly mandatory and it is not because of the perception of people about the quality of the environment and residential satisfaction. On the other hand, there is a direct relationship between ‘satisfaction’ and ‘duration of walking’ in the neighborhood, regardless of the reason of walking (whether it is mandatory or optional). Therefore, it can be concluded that programming and providing strategies for increasing walking pleasantness lead to higher levels of residential satisfaction. Further development and use of the questionnaire and analyses of the gathered data from the instrument can help clarify what factors contribute to the resident satisfaction, if there are common factors, and if the factors have a theoretical order based on importance. This would contribute to the development of a theory of residential satisfaction. Demographic differences as well as similarities should also be explored in future research on walk-ability of neighborhood and residential satisfaction. Variables as age, gender, physical and mental abilities, and socio-economic levels need to be understood in relationship between neighborhood walkability and residential satisfaction.

    Keywords: Walkability, Residential satisfaction, Subjective Measurement, Chizar Neighborhood
  • Ali Soltani, Ali Dashti, Ehsan Babaei, Mohammad Ghazaie Page 333
    The importance of tourism in modern times is highly dependent on the economic cycle. The importance of tourism in developing of economic activities is in a such way that some economists has called it invisible exports. The positive aspect of tourism are: increasing desirability of a region or place, increasing national and local pride and identity, providing new job opportunity, increasing the durability and stability of communities and etc. The negative aspects are: environmental and social conflicts, the increase of living cost for local people, the pollution of environment and etc. due to these features tourism topic has attracted many researchers recently. For increasing the tourist satisfaction, it is really important to provide a service package which is included in supply and demand for tourism services. Studying the trend of tourism in Mashhad, shows that this industry in Mashhad is faced with some leaps and bounds which is rooted in household economic and serving tourism services. This study is going to study the urban tourism with a systematic approach and wants to find the factors which are important in tourists’ satisfaction. The goals of this study are: understanding the socioeconomic characteristics of tourists, studying their satisfaction from tourism services and understanding the quality of tourists’ spatial knowledge and the impact of satisfaction on it. The research method is descriptive-analytical and data collection has been documentary. The sample size was calculated at 5 percent estimation by Cochran formula. The 400 calculated sample size were selected randomly among the tourists which were visiting Mashhad. The indexes of this study which studying the satisfaction of tourists are: the satisfaction of citizens’ behavior, buying daily needs, parking, availability of drinking water, the cleanliness of environment, availability of public urban bus and taxi, accommodation rent, the safety of holy shrine’s environment. Moreover, for studying the quality of mental map, they were asked to name the 5 best tourism resorts of Mashhad and then rank them based on their services. For analyzing the data ANOVA test and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. 60 percent of tourists were men and 40percent were women. The highest number of tourists (40%) were at the age range of 25 to 35. Du to this statistic it can be said that most of the visitors are young. About 34.5% of visitors had under diploma education. About 19.5 percent of visitors which were the biggest group were from Tehran and the second highest visitors were from Isfahan. The average satisfaction of tourists is about 320.46. The highest level of satisfaction is related to the citizens’ behavior and the least satisfaction is related to the parking situation. Due to the ANOVA test (p=0, F=11.25) there is a significant relation between satisfaction and accommodation place. Pearson correlation coefficient shows that there is a positive relation between the age of the visitors and their level of satisfaction. Moreover, the results indicate that the behavior of Mashhadi people has a positive impact on the visitors’ tendency to spend their money. The results of Spearman test for understanding the relation between quality of mental map and the services which are served by these places, indicate that the more places serve services, the more the quality of their mental map is. Results indicate that age and sex are influenced on the amount of travel. Most of the visitors were satisfied by citizens’ behavior and the least satisfactions were about parking situation and the price of accommodation. Generally, it can be said that firstly, there is a significant relation between the satisfaction of tourists and the services which are served by tourism resorts. Secondly, there is a linear correlation relation between the age of visitors and their level of satisfaction. Thirdly, the better citizens behave with the tourists, the more they spend their money and finally there is a significant relation between the quality of services which are served in the tourism resorts and the visitors’ quality of mental map; also based on this fact they are more likely to visit that place again. Therefore it is really important for urban managers to boost the quality services which are served to visitors. They should also manage the price of accommodation in different parts of Mashhad and try to increase the public transportation in order to encourage the visitors to use public transport instead of their private car. They should also try to boost parking lots in the center of city but they must be careful because if they increase the parking lots without planning always there is this possibility that they may encourage people to use their private car.
    Keywords: Religious Tourism, Service, Mental Map, Place, Metropolitan Mashhad
  • Mohammad Mehdi Azizi, Mostafa Dehghan Page 343
    Rapid developments of metropolitans have caused rapid changes in pattern of land uses around these cities. These changes which are most of times irreversible, cause environmental, social and economic problems in many marginal areas of these cities such as disturbance in land uses, lack of services and infrastructure, pollution, etc. One of such problems can be seen in district no. 22 of Tehran, in which the pattern of urban development in the last 2 decades is in the form of scattered urban land uses development, in spite of discrepancy of this type of comprehensive development with fast continuing of detailed policies. Continuation of this trend will cause a number of problems such as: reduced green space, degradation of environment quality, increased trend of non-normative changes in vegetation of area and ignoring limitations and ecological carrying capacity of natural resources in the region. Also, increased rate of these changes has increased social, economic and political problems in Tehran. Therefore, developing a framework for understanding rapid land uses changes in metropolitans and its factors in the past can be of great importance for efficient management of these changes. The present study seeks to identify the main factors and drivers of land use changes in the development trend of metropolitans in order to control and manage these changes. At global level, comprehensive studies have been conducted on these factors and the way they affect changes in land use through an extensive range of economic, social and natural factors. However, in Iran, these factors have never been seriously studied. To this end, for understanding the effective factors on changes in land use of metropolitan cities of Iran, indicators of land use changes (adopted from global experiences and studies and adapted to specific conditions of Iran’s metropolitans) were used which include 12 criteria: access to industrial centers (employment), access to commercial centers, access to urban services centers, ownership, topography and land slop, access to main street, distribution of built urban environment, land uses, and building density. These indicators in conceptual framework of cellular automata (CA) and in the range of district 22 of Tehran have been studied and the contribution of each of these indicators in change of wasteland uses and non-urban land uses in 1996 and urban land uses in 2006 have been calculated. This study has a explanatory- descriptive and quantitative approach with six sections which are: theoretical background; factors and drivers of land use change in the trend of metropolitan development, theoretical framework and research method, introduction of study area, calculation of the score of land use changes indicators, measurement of land use changes indicators in the urban development trend of the area under study with the help of factor analysis and finally concluding section. In this study we tried to select the indicators of land use changes patterns in a proper way regarding to the studies and the existing information in reviewing theories, experiences and existing studies in the field of land use changes factors. With the help of cellular automata logic (CA) and factor analysis method and with the established indicators of land use changes, we tried to identify main factors of land use changes. Research findings indicate that the main factors of land use changes can be categorized in 5 main factors including: access to social service, access to urban centers, proposals of details project, natural location, and incentives for residential construction. Also the results indicate that 53% of the changes in private garden lands and 9% of changes in green spaces lands have been changed into industrial land use that this should be considered as an environmental alerting issue. Most of the changes in land use are from wastelands and non-built lands with private ownership and low residential density lands. Indicators of proximity to commercial centers, proximity to main roads and proposed land use in detailed project have the highest effect on changes of land use. And contrary to what might be imagined at first look, the more near a cell is to industrial use, the probability of urbanization is less. Therefore, in land use plans and urban development plans, the role of the above mentioned factors in creating land use changes should be given serious attention.
    Keywords: Land Use Changes, Cellular Automata (CA), Factor Analysis, District 22 of Municipality of Tehran
  • Hoshmand Alizadeh, Mohammadhamed Abdi Page 361
    The overlap between neo-traditional neighborhoods and the provision of transit services became an incentive for Peter Calthorpe to codify the concept of Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) in the late 1980’s. As a new approach, it has been developed in direction of sustainable urban development in recent decades. It aims to integrate land use and transportation planning system through the construction or extension of a rapid transit system along with the creation of compact, and walk-able neighborhoods (mixeduse communities) around transit stations will encourage people to live near transit station areas and use it to reduce the use of individual car and creates more safe, dynamic and friendly communities. This means that “TOD” developed as a new approach based on sustainable development principles. Since transit systems promote more efficient resource usage, cities are increasingly applying transit-based strategies to solve urban sprawl and urban planning dilemma. Considering this background and the existing challenges of Iranian cities including car-dependency, traffic congestion and hence the traffic-related pollution problems, and particularly the pattern of urban sprawl which is extending due to the wave of urban and rural migration, it is necessary to use such new approaches to reduce such challenges and create a driving force for sustainability of urban areas. In this regard, Sanandaj has been selected as case study of the research to pursue some aspects of TOD regarding its mixed-use corridor type for Pasdaran Boulevard. Sanandaj is situated in west of Iran and according to the 2011 Iranian census; the total population of Sanandaj is 375280. As the capital of Kurdistan province, it contains a wide range of industrial and institutional services. The same as other Iranian cities, Sanandaj also experienced the pattern of sprawl development mainly due to the topographic features of the city’s natural context, the wave of migration from rural areas and inadequate and unaffordable housing provision within the city. Residents of sprawl areas are commuting cross- suburbs to city and vice versa each day to reach urban services and homes. This daily movement which\ increases the number of trips by private cars is also worsening the Sanandaj’s urban challenges. Within this context, the study location is a 6.4 km corridor on Pasdaran Blvd which formed the main north-south corridor in Sanandaj. This corridor begins in downtown Sanandaj at Azadi sq., and runs across the Blvd through Deedgah Park to Jahad Sq. at the gateway to Kermanshah. This corridor serves as the primary gateway to Kermanshah and between the city and Baharan district and as an important principal corridor to move traffic north-south across the whole city of Sanandaj. Considering the above points, the study has been adopted a kind of Descriptive-Analytical method regarding the results of records and field survey conducted in spring 2012 to cover the following
    Aims
    1. Creating a comprehensive development approaches for the Pasdaran corridor that Takes advantage of its location and public transportation resources. 2. Creating an interconnected system of opportunities for transit station areas within the corridor 3. Intensifying development in proximity to the transit stations along Pasdaran corridor Regarding to the questions such as: the capabilities and limitations of land use, density of urban texture, characteristics of public transport such as traffic problems, accessibility and mobility, pedestrian and bicycle issues, bus services and parking facilities has been studied along the Pasdaran corridor. For more details, the Pasdaran corridor has been divided into two sections based on common physical, functional and traffic characteristics. For strategies and prioritizing them, a multi-criteria decision-making method including AHP has been used regarding to the certain aims including increasing sustainability and creation of people-friendly and dynamic environment, accessibility and providing sustainable transport options and reducing environmental challenges. The following strategies have got highest priority regarding each section to maximize TOD potential and benefits to the boulevard: Section one: Reducing car dependency, Pedestrianization along with development of public transport, Beautification of the public buildings sustainable architecture and paying more attention to the quality of public places Section two: increasing access to public transport, connectivity of main roads, improving pedestrian movement and access and more mixed-uses and transferring Incompatible functions Due to the proximity of first section to the city centre, its strategies are mainly in relation to the identity and sense of place preservation along with pedestrian-oriented development approach. On the contrary, the strategies of second section focus on the accessibility to public transport and car-dependency reduction. To achieve such strategies, it is necessary to create a legal framework for city’s spatial planning. Also, it is essential to integrate various sectors including private, public and government to pave the way for implementation of such strategies.
    Keywords: Transit, Oriented Development, Corridor Pattern of TOD, Land Use, Bus Transit Line, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Pasdaran Boulevard, Sanandaj
  • Mahmoud Mohammadi, Mahmoud Ghalenoee, Enayat Mirzaei Page 383
    Modern world faces a multitude of challenges regarding to displacement including high fuel consumption, air pollution, congestion in streets, decrease in physical activities, insecurity of passers-by and etc. Most of them are resulted by automobiles and vehicle-stricken urban forms. Planners and public health officials try more to develop land planning and urban designing for reducing automobile use and social-environmental costs. A growing number of empirical studies have investigated the relationship between the built environment and pedestrian behaviors. Most of them are based on the assumption that travel is a derived demand, or that the travel demand is derived from the demand for activities and movements. In other words, they assume that individuals travel in order to reach a destination or participate in an activity; they do not travel simply for the sake of travel. According to derived demand theory, these studies provided evidence of a correlation between the built environment and pedestrian behaviors. Many studies found that residents living in traditional neighborhoods (characterized as high density, high accessibility, mixed land use, rectilinear street network, and so on) would drive less and walk more than those living in suburban neighborhoods. Also, several studies showed that there are not significant relationship between urban form and travel behavior. The results of such studies on travel demand have been summarized in recent years. Many individual studies have been carried out in various countries with different objectives and methods in order to analyze urban relationships and travel behavior (type of vehicle), which have achieved various results and which are not generalizable. This paper aims to generalize the result of previous studies using meta-analysis approach. The present study has initially analyzed the dimensions of the study with a detailed review of empirical studies using a descriptive-analytical method to organize a summary of any literature to change them into a typology, but there is no best rationale for doing, yet. These studies can be usefully organized in any number of ways, for example, by travel purpose (joumey-to-work travel vs. shopping vs. trip chains, etc.), by analytical method (simulations vs. regressions, etc.), by the characterization and measures of urban form (trip ease vs. street layout vs. composite measures of density, accessibility, or pedestrian features, etc.), by the choice of other explanatory variables (travel costs vs. travel opportunities vs. characteristics of the built environment or of travelers, etc.), or by the nature and level of detail in the data. This process would be useful to choose appropriate studies as sample case. In fact, in order to combine the result of studies, these studies should have several things in common. As they analyze effects of the built environment on travel choices, all these studies are controlled statistically for confounding influences on travel behavior and sociodemographic influences in particular. They use different statistical methods because the outcome variables differ from study to study. Almost all them are based on sizeable samples and have been carried out with a disaggregate approach. After choosing the study analysis model, composition and generalization of the results of study has been conducted in the area of city form and travel behavior by using a meta-analysis method and by calculating Elasticities (amount of sensitivity). Elasticities were obtained from the individual studies in our sample case in different ways including copping them from published studies where they were reported explicitly, calculating them from regression coefficients and the mean dependent and independent values. Most commonly, they were obtained directly from the studies of Ewing and Cervero (2001, 2010). Elasticities have been computed for individual studies and pooled them to produce weighted averages. In addition; in the studies which Elasticity was not available, significant sign of regression has been used. The most important findings of the study indicate that there are variety relationships between urban form variable and mode choice. As mentioned, density, diversity and design are three components of urban form. For every component some indicators have been defined. Among different indicators, “population density”, “distance to shopping centers” and “intersection density” have more positive and generalizable effects on walking or cycling. Distance to shopping centers has the strongest relationship. Also block size has a negative effect on walking or cycling. “Population density”, “percentage of intersections on crossroads” and also “distance to nearest station” have more effects on using public transportation. Percentage of intersections on crossroads has different effect on walking or cycling and using public transportation. It influences on walking or cycling negatively but influences positively on using public transportation. Moreover, it can be said that “population density”, “gross residential and employment density” and “land use mix” have significantly negative effects on using automobiles (p<.001).
    Keywords: Urban Form, Travel Behavior, Meta, Analysis, Elasticity
  • Saeedeh Moayedfar, Asghar Zarrabi Page 409
    Nowadays Cities, as the manifestation of a new form of life in the age of communication and the fourth wave and also the center of maximum concentration of social and economic services, require the highest level of service methods and technologies. On the other hand, congestion and population density, urban transport problems associated with environmental pollution and waste of time are origin of finding ways to alleviate the pain of living in cities. The dimensions of urban services have changed regarding to the increasing information and communications technology and its impact on different aspects of life; as a necessary tool to live in modern cities. Municipality as the beating heart of the city has to enter to the world of electronics and develop electronic commerce organization that utilizes ICT services in the field of municipal functions with fast, available and secure features. In order to achieve this goal using a long-term strategic planning can be effective. Strategic planning was born in the heart of the strategic management. The basic principle of strategic management is that organizations need to take advantage of external opportunities and avoid or reduce the effects of external threats, therefore they have to develop appropriate strategies to meet their needs. The other essential activities of strategic management are to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the organization and its departments and units. The identification and evaluation of strategic internal and external factors help company to gain the success. Implementation and development of electronic public services will influence on economic, social, cultural, and political aspects of city as well as city administration and its citizens. Providing online services to citizens, wherever and whenever, will cause satisfaction among citizens, develop easy access to public and private sector, creation of online communities, online voting, and fair distribution of resources among citizens in urban management. Actualizing the desired image of city in international communications as an intelligence community will develop political image of city and citizens. This study is a descriptive research. By describing the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, this survey will explain the matrix of coefficients and rate obtained external and internal factors. The population of this research is stakeholders and key informants in this field who operate as scientist and practitioner. The theoretical framework is based on the theoretical foundations of strategic planning and formulating strategies in standardized and validated models. For better utilization of information, the procedure is done in cooperation with experts at Yazd Information Technology. Yazd, in terms of economic and social indicators in various areas of development, has significant growth in recent years and it is located among the developed cities in the field of electronics such as Tehran, Isfahan and Tabriz. The strategic studies and recognition of grounds and challenges of Electronic urban-services in municipalities are essential affairs to develop urban management in innovation and growth of serving to citizens. For identification of environment in the set of strategies and their implementations and also opportunities and external threats of the organization, in the first phase, this study used the Pestel (Pest) analysis pattern. According to this model, the external environment of the organization is divided to six parts including: political, economical, socio-cultural, technological, environmental and legal. By making effective use of Pestel Analysis, the organization can be ensure that what it is doing is aligned positively with the forces of change that are affecting its world. By taking advantage of change, it is much more likely to be successful than if its activities oppose it. In order to assess the strategic factors, the effects and relative importance of the factors in the relevant areas, as well as a range of factors, have been measured through IFAS and EFAS. In the next stage, for Strategic Positioning of organization and suggesting strategies SWOT is used. A SWOT analysis (SWOT matrix) is a structured planning method used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in a organization. Identification of SWOTs is important because they can inform later steps in planning to achieve the organization’s objective. This research has evaluated the most important opportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses of Yazd municipality by using Pestel, EFAS, IFAS, IE matrix and TOWS model. Finally the strategies have been presented for developing services in Yazd. The results show that Yazd municipality in the field of e-services is located in the position of opportunities prevailing on the external threats and strengths on weakness that in this conditions, it is suggested to use change direction and preserve available strategy status.
    Keywords: Electronic Urban, Services, Strategic Planning, Strategy, Yazd Municipality