فهرست مطالب

نامه فرهنگستان - سال چهاردهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 53، پاییز و زمستان 1393)
  • سال چهاردهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 53، پاییز و زمستان 1393)
  • ویژه نامه شبه قاره (3)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/10/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 22
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  • Vāsūxt style in the Persian poetry (The pioneer of Vāsūxt is Mohtašam not Vahšī)
    Mahmoud Fotouhi Roud Macjani Pages 7-34
    This article shows that the lyric style of Vāsūxt، which is a famous branch of the school of Voqūc، was devised and developed to its zenith by Mohtašam-e Kāšānī in Kāšān in the mid 10th c، A. D.. Literary historians and experts in stylistics have frequently stated that Vāhšī-ye Bāfqī has devised this style، and is the most prominent poet of this style and that he is the last poet to use this style. This article rejects this famous claim on the basis of historical and literary documents. At first the verbal meaning of the term Vāsūxt is defined and frequent pieces of evidence is presented for it. Then the article explores the historical background of the term in memoirs and divans of poets، and subsequently the process of “Sūxtan” (burning) and “Vāsūxtan” in the fourpeople square of love in the poetry of Vāsūxt are analyzed. The reasons of Vāsūxt are derived from the words of poets and seven types of Vāsūxt Ġazals (lyrics) are introduced on the basis of Mohtašam Kāšānī’s views. Based on the findings of this article، it was Mohtašam who devised the term Vāsūxt and developed this style. Vahšī was merely an imitator of this style. Tarz-e Vāsūxt was popular in Iran up to the end of the 11th c. A. H. and then it became popular in Urdu.
    Keywords: Persian poetry of the 10th c. A. H., Voqūc School, Vāsūxt, Mohtašam Kāšānī Vāhšī ye Bāfqī Urdu poetry
  • Alireza Emami Pages 35-52
    This article studies the life and biography of Heydarī-ye Tabrīzī, the contemporary poet of Šāh Tahmasb Safavi and Akbar Šāh Gorkani of India. The relevant sources will be used and commented upon to resolve certain ambiguities pertinent to his life. One of the important points mentioned in this article is his manāqebxānī (lauding). His only existing Divan is reviewed to explore his worldview to some extent. Heydarī-ye Tabrīzī used to travel to India frequently. The outcome of one of these visits is the Mathnavi (coupletpoems) of Fathnāme-ye Gojarāt. This article edits the Mathnavi, comments on some of its features and compares it with its original model, namely Šāhnāmeh (the epic of the kings). Moreover the alleged plagiarism related to this poet is considered.
    Keywords: Heydarī ye Tabrīzī Fathnāme, ye Gojarāt, correcting manuscript, critical comparison, eulogy
  • Javad Neyestani Pages 53-72
    The cĀsef Xān Mausoleum is one of the most famous tombs in the Subcontinent and is located in the building complex of Jahāngīr in the historical structure of Lahore. The design of the building and the four-gardens and tile-work decorations are influenced by the Iranian art of the Safavid era. The octagon plan of the building with its double-cover parabolic dome is the continuation of the central Asia tradition of tomb building in the era of Timur and in Grand Xorāsān. However this tomb is no longer similar to its original shape in its mainland due to the modifications made on the geometrical relations and careless measurements pertaining to the tomb, and sometimes lack of skill in implementation during the last years of the Safvid era. The yard of the tomb is in the form of four gardens, one of the distinguishing features of the Iranian garden model that were popular in the Subcontinent. The first objective of this research is an analysis of the architecture of this tomb and its comparison with the samples in the central Asia and in different areas of Iran, in terms of constructional techniques and aesthetic qualities of the shape, and studying the geometrical relations of the dome. The other objective is the identification of the architectural elements and ornaments borrowed at the tomb of cĀsef- Xān from the arts and architecture of Iran at the Safavid era, which implies blending of the arts of the Subcontinent and Iran, particularly in terms of ornaments. The present article has been written with respect to the theoretical approach of the cultural history.
    Keywords: cĀsef Xān Mausoleum, dome, Subcontinent, Safavid
  • Hoda Seyyed Hosseynzadeh Pages 73-84
    Despite its significance, the monarchy of Āq-Qūyūnlūs in Iran has been neglected by researchers. This article reveals that despite the obstacles like geographical remoteness, shortness of Āq-Qūyūnlūs’ monarchy in Iran, internal and external conflicts that the two monarchs were faced with, they were interested in establishing political and diplomatic links with their counterparts, namely Muslim Bahmani Monarchs in Dakan. For this reason they used to exchange letters, ambassadors and gifts. Meanwhile the commercial background between Iran and India through the Persian Gulf should not be underestimated. Apparently one of the reasons of the Āq- Qūyūnlūs’ interest in having relations with the monarchs of India was that water route.
    Keywords: foreign relations, Iran, Indian Subcontinent, Hasan Beyg, Yacqūb, Āq, Qūyūnlūs, Bahmani, Dakan, Persian Gulf
  • Hamid Rezaei, Ferdows Moradi Pages 85-114
    Today studying and reviewing ancient poetry without referring to biographies and collection of poems (jongs) is an incomplete task. The value and significance of such works is not merely in the existence of newly found poems in them, but in their adding names of anonymous poets in the index of the history of literature. Latāyefol- xīyāl is one of the most important jongs of the epoch of the Safavids. This work has a special place among other jongs in terms of the number of poets and poems included in it. This article introduces the above jong and presents the biography of its compiler. Then the article elaborates on the life and poetry of the Iranian poets who resided in India and whose sample poems are included in the above work.
    Keywords: Latāyef, ol, xīyāl, Epoch of the Safavids, Jong, e Šheer, Iranian poets residing in India
  • Mohammad Reza Torki, Ali Asghar Eskandari Pages 115-132
    Anvarī, as one of the three messengers of the Persion poetry, has always caught the interest of commentators and people interested in poetry. Mohammad Ibn Dāvūd-e cAlavī-ye Šādīābādī, who lived in Malveh (Mando) in the second half of the 9th c. A. H. and the first half of the 10th c.A. H., was the first person to write a description on Dīvān-e Anvarī. In his work, he has described over 600 couplets of Dīvān-e Anvarī, sometimes employing Indian equivalents for Persian words. This article describes the name and ancestors and works of Shaddi Abbaddi, the distinguishing features of his description of the Dīvān-e Anvarī as well as certain remarks and probable criticism.
    Keywords: sadiabadi, description on Divane Anvari, Indian words, description of couplet, word meaning
  • Roghayeh Bayram Haghighi Pages 133-144
    The school of Voqūc was the dominant poetical trend in the late 10th c. A. H. and the early 11th c. A. H. The aim was to create change and present innovation in the stale atmosphere of poetry of the time. There are different views about the features and the pioneers of this school. The author has attempted to consider the views of the memoir writers of India and other researchers to identify the pioneers of this school and to review the trend and historical development of his theory, particularly the formation of the term ‘Voqūc’, with respect to the initial appearance of the term in literary texts.
    Keywords: Voquc, Tazeh, Lesani, ye sirazi, aaraf Jahan, e Qazvini
  • Karim Najafi Barzegar Pages 145-166
    The Epoch of Safavids is a period of vast migration of Iranian poets to the domains of the Indian Gorkanis and Dakan. This was followed by the popularity of Persian poetry and Iranian culture in India. The migration began during the dynasty of Šāh Tāhmāsb Safavi I and reached its peak during the dynasty of Jalālodīn Mohammad Akbar.The Gorkanis’ court support of Iranian artists and poets resulted in the advent of new schools of arts and literature in India. Homāyūn and Akbar Šāh as well as statesmen like Xān-e Xānān cAbdorrahīm and Navvāb Zafar Xān were always in touch with artists and poets and supported them. Among these migrants, there were a number of Esfahānī poets. The present article provides biographical details of these poets.
    Keywords: Akbar, poets, India, Iran, Safavid
  • Sima Salur Pages 167-180
    India was one of the first bases of thinking revolution in the trend of modernity thinking and a familiarizing agent of Iranian people. Iranian thinkers, who familiarized themselves with new political and social institutions of the rule of law among foreign countries in India, assisted in the trend of modernity through their travel accounts. This article discusses novel views of Iranian scholars in India and aims at indicating that Iranian thinkers were seeking enlightenment in their travel accounts. Initially the familiarity of Iranian scholars with foreign civilization and scientific achievements and its reflection in the Iranian society will be discussed. Then the demand felt by the Iranian elite in India to be exposed to the manifestations of modernity in the period of the Qājār dynasty will be elaborated.
    Keywords: India, Modernity, travel account, Qajar, Iranian scholars
  • Abdollah Cataei Pages 181-198
    Seyed Jamāloddin Asadābādī has been one of the most prestigious initiators of reform movement in the last 100 years. He believed that the reasons for Muslims backwardness were local despotism and foreign colonialism. He thought that political awareness and active participation of Muslims in politics were needed for fighting against those two inflicting factors. To him Muslims would have the glory days of the past provided they would refer to the original Islam. At the same time, Sir Seyyed Ahmad Xān has begun its reform movement in India. He believed that the principal solutions to the problems of the Islamic community were the development of India, fighting against superstitions and beliefs that had been impediments to progress, and learning the new sciences and technologies. These two thinkers had common grounds while having fundamental differences. Their approaches to science and technology, correcting people beliefs and foreign colonialism were considerably different. The present research is an effort to explore the commonalities and differences in the reform thoughts of these two Muslim scholars.
    Keywords: Seyyed Jamaloddin, e Asadabadi, Sir Seyyed Ahmad Xan, science, technology, English colonialism, Muslims unity
  • Javad Bashari Pages 199-210
    "Eršād" was written by Abūmohammad cAbdollāh Ibn Mohammad Qalānesī, probably, in the early 6th C. A. H. It is an ethical-mystical work that was written in Persian by the author in one of the cities neighboring Mesopotamia. The manuscripts of this work are dispersed in the vast domains of the Islamic world, from the East to the West, among the Hanafites. Such a dispersion and dissemination of the manuscripts point to their popularity among the followers of the above sect. Recently a manuscript of Qalānesī's work was identified in Iran. It closely resembles the one that is kept in Pakistan. This manuscript is kept at the library of Parliament of Iran among other Indian manuscripts as an anonymous work. After checking this work, it was found that it has been copied from Eršād. The present manuscript, which is considered Indian in terms of handwriting, was written at a time very much close to that of the Indian manuscript, and it is even possible that both have been written by the same scribe. It may belong to the time of the original work. This manuscript has not been published yet. The present article deals with different aspects of the significance of this work.
    Keywords: Ersad, Qalanesi, mysticism
  • Mohammad Ragheb Pages 211-234
    Researchers have briefly dealt with the similarities of Tārīx-e Beyhaqī (written in 448-451 A. H.) and Tārīx-e Fīrūzšāhī (written in 758 A. H.). Some scholars refer to Zīyāßddīn-e Baranī as "Indian Beyhaqī". However, they have not provided any details in this respect. Tārīx-e Fīrūzšāhī is similar to Tārīx-e Beyhaqī from different aspects. Baranī himself has referred to Beyhaqī as master in the introduction of his work. Yet there are delicate differences in their apparently similar approach. The major similarities are relevant to narrative approaches that both authors employ in order to create a story-like history. This article is comparative and contrastive study of these two works.
    Keywords: Tarix, e Fīruzsahi, Tarix, e Beyhaqi, analytical history, narration, time, narrator
  • Ali (Pedram) Mirzaei Pages 235-256
    Moštāq-ot-Tālebīn is one of the precious mystic treasures in Persian. Its manuscript is held at the Ganjbakhsh Library. This work is on theoretical and practical mysticism and is written by Mohammad Sāber-e Boxārī, and is a part of the collection of his work that is available in the above library. The manuscript contains invaluable linguistic and mystical information and is worth publishing. This article reviews the manuscript and presents the necessary points.
    Keywords: Mostaq, ot, Talebin, manuscript, Ganjbakhsh Library, mysticism
  • Razieh Abadian Pages 257-272
    There is a great demand for editing the poems of Amīr Xosrow as there are numerous errors in them pertaining to rhythm, rhyme, syntax and semantics. As long as such editing has not been accomplished, it is possible to take some steps for the achievement of this aim while considering certain principles of researching in dealing with Persian poetry. In the present article, some couplets of Amīr Xosraw, which are improperly cited in certain editions, are properly edited by the author.
    Keywords: editing the text, Persian poetry, principle of verse, Amir Xosrow Dehlavi
  • Hamid Reza Azimi Pages 273-282
    Abūbakr Mohammad Ibn Mūsa al Vāsetī is one of the famous mystics of the second half of the 3rd and the first quarter of the 4th C. A. H. There exists little authentic information about this mystic. Dārāšokūh, the learned Prince with good mystic's taste of the subcontinent admired Vāsetī, and has given an account about him in this work, "Hasanāt-ol-cĀrefīn". This article reviews those accounts.
    Keywords: Vaseti, Darasokuh, Hasanat, ol, cArefīn
  • Mascud Jacfari Jazi, Leyla Showghi Pages 283-310
    Macdan-ol-macānī is a mystical text of the 8th C. A. H., and it is considered to be the most important collection of the Malfoozat of Ahmad Ibn Yahyā Menyarī, the great mystic of the subcontinent. This manuscript has been compiled by one of his disciples, Zeyn Badr-e cArabī, and is based on his master's views. This article reviews the biography of Ahmad Ibn Yahyā Menyarī, and briefly introduces Macdan-ol-macānī, and certain words and current interpretations among teaching circles dialogs of Sūfīs in certain parts of the subcontinent. In this way, a new horizon is provided for those who are studying the expanse of Persian language in the subcontinent. The article also elaborates on the language of communication in cultural domains of these regions.
    Keywords: Macdan, ol, macani, Ahmad Ibn YahyaMenyari, Prersian prose in India, Malfuzat
  • Sharam Azadian, Nassim Mohammadi Pages 311-338
    Despite its significance and profound impact on the history of the literature of Iran and the Subcontinent, the Indian style has been ignored and has not been studied. The authors believe that there are three reasons for such negligence: 1. The profound impact of the memoirs of Ātaškade-ye Ādar and Majmacol-fosahā by Reżā Xān-e Hedāyat, as the last comprehensive memoirs of the Persian language and their influence on the manner of thinking of contemporary thinkers; 2. The great interest of contemporary men of letters and researchers in the eloquence and firmness of words in the poems composed in Xorāsānī and cArāqī styles and judging the poetry in Indian style on this basis, and as a consequence, finding frequent grammatical errors and lack of eloquence in them and ignoring all of them; 3. Disparity of the published and accomplished works and researches has resulted in the lack of presentation of a comprehensive and exact portrait of the composed poems in Indian style. This article aims at elaborating on the accomplished research on this style and its poets in Iran and other parts of the world in the first half of the 4th century A. H.. The concluding part of the article gives an overall image of the research in that period and provides answers to a few questions.
    Keywords: Indian style, Tarz, e Tāze, stylistics, literature of the Indian Subcontinent
  • Majid Khosravi Pages 330-350
    Hakīm Sanāßī-ye Ġaznavī is one of distinguished poets of the 6th c. A. H. whose works have been imitated by his successors. Frequent reproduction of his works, his peculiar vocabulary and difficulty in understanding the meaning of some of the words used by him are among the factors that have resulted in misinterpretation of his work and distortion. Hadīqat-ol-Haqīqa va Šarīcat-ol-Tarīqa is the first mystic Mathnavi and is the production of the creative mind of this outstanding poet. In this work, like his other works, there are some errors. Ancillary sources like old sources containing parts of the relevant text may pave the way for editing. This article uses Farhang-e Jahāngīrī, as one of the major old references, to study and criticize a number of the couplets of Hadighe Sanāßi.
    Keywords: Sanaßi, ye Ġaznavi, Hadiqat, ol, Haqiqa va saricat, ol, Tariqa, Mīr Jamaloddin, e Anjavi sirazi, Farhang, e Jahangiri, distortion
  • Mahdi Firouzian Pages 351-370
    Faxrī-ye Heravī was a poet, memoir writer and translator of the Subcontinent in the 10th c. A. H. He spent many years of his life in Send and India. This article studies how Faxri has been influenced by Hafez. Firstly Faxrī’s Ġazals (lyrics) that are similar to those of Hafez in terms of rhyme, rhythm and row are presented. Then we explore verbal and spiritual similarities of the poetries of these two poets to check the veracity of the idea that Faxrī has been indeed influenced by Hafez poetry. In the other part of the article some tażmīns (a lyric in which a couplet of a Ġazal of a poet is added to one’s Ġazal) of Faxrī’s from Hafezpoetry are presented to prove unconditional influence of Hafez’s poetry on Faxrī’s Ġazals.
    Keywords: Hafez, Faxri, ye Heravi, parody, Tażmīn, similarity
  • Seyyedeh Kowsar Rohban, Ahmad Amin Pages 371-390
    The “word” is a principal element of the artist for the creation of a work in prose or verse. Hence the creator of a work should consider the process of word formation (derivation and combination). In this regard familiarity with grammatical and lingual capacities of words and affixes of the language in terms of collocation and combining with each other are all needed. On this basis, the present article studies one of the important, generative and frequently used affixes in Persian language and its combination form and collocation with other words. Despite its high expressive capacity, this suffix has been misrepresented by many grammarians and researchers and its derivative domain has been limited to a few meanings. This brief article concentrates on the particular expressive application, structure and types of allocation of this suffix with other words in the works of prominent poets of the Indian style.
    Keywords: derivation, Indian style, the suffix var, similarity, degree