فهرست مطالب

Parasitology - Volume:10 Issue: 2, 2015
  • Volume:10 Issue: 2, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/05/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 21
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  • Hossein Hooshyar, Parvin Rostamkhani, Mostafa Rezaeian Pages 146-156
    Background
    The number of valid of pathogen and non-pathogen species of Entamoeba has continuously increased in human and animals. This review is per­formed to provide an update list and some summarized information on Entamoeba species, which were identified up to the 2014.
    Methods
    We evaluated the Entamoeba genus with a broad systematic review of the literature, books and electronic databases until February 2014. The synonyms, hosts, pathogenicity and geographical distribution of valid species were considered and recorded. Repeated and unrelated cases were excluded.
    Results
    Totally 51 defined species of Entamoeba were found and arranged by the number of nuclei in mature cyst according to Levin's grouping. Seven of these spe­cies within the 4 nucleate mature cysts group and 1 species with one nucleate ma­ture cyst are pathogen. E. histolytica, E. invadence, E. rananrum and E. anatis causes lethal infection in human, reptiles, amphibians and brides respectively, four species causes non-lethal mild dysentery. The other species were non-pathogen and are important to differential diagnosis of amoebiasis.
    Conclusion
    There are some unknown true species of Entamoeba that available information on the morphology, hosts, pathogenicity and distribution of them are still very limited and more considerable investigation will be needed in order to clarify the status of them.
    Keywords: Amoebida, Entamoeba, Checklist, Species
  • Maryam Niyyati, Mostafa Rezaeian Pages 157-163
    Background
    Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regard­ing both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environ­mental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.
    Methods
    We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.
    Results
    According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 geno­type is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in sev­eral regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acan­thamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.
    Conclusion
    Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.
    Keywords: Acanthamoeba spp., Gen­otypes, Acanthamoeba keratitis, Encephalitis, Iran
  • Saloomeh Shirali, Hamidreza Haddadzadeh Haddadzadeh, Mehdi Mohebali, Bahram Kazemi, Narges Amini Pages 164-170
    Background
    There are several methods, such as vaccination, to control visceral leishmaniasis. Although there is no efficient vaccine, it seem DNA vaccination with stimulates both cellular and humoral immunity apparently is the best way. The aim of this study was cloning and expression of LACK gene, a 36kD protein, as a candi­date protein for vaccination against Iranian L. infantum.
    Methods
    Iranian strain of L. infantum [MCAN/IR/07/Moheb-gh] was used as a template for PCR to amplify LACK gene. The LACK gene was cloned in pTZ57R/T vector and after confirmation it was digested by restriction enzymes (BamH1) and cloned in pcDNA3.1 expression vector. Recombinant plasmid was extracted and analyzed by sequencing, restriction digestion analysis and PCR reac­tion. The pc- LACK recombinant plasmid was purified from transformed E.coli (DH5α) and its expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot.
    Results
    The results of sequencing, restriction digestion analysis and PCR reaction revealed that LACK gene was cloned correctly in pcDNA3.1 vector and the results of SDS PAGE and Western blot emphasized that LACK protein of Iranian L. infan­tum is a well-expressed protein.
    Conclusion
    We amplified, cloned and expressed Iranian L. infantum LACK gene successfully.
    Keywords: Visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum, LACK, Cloning, Expression
  • Qasem Asgari, Hossein Keshavarz, Mostafa Rezaeian, Hossein Sadeghpour, Ramin Miri, Mohammad Hossein Motazedian Pages 171-180
    Background
    This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability, infectivity and immunity of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites exposed to 2-(naphthalene-2-ylthio)-1H-indole.
    Methods
    Tachyzoites of RH strain were incubated in various concentrations of 2-(naphthalene-2-ylthio)-1H-indole (25-800μM) for 1.5 hours. Then, they were stained by PI and analyzed by Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To evaluate the infectivity, the tachyzoites exposed to the different concentrations of the com­pound were inoculated to 10 BALB/c mice groups. For Control, parasites exposed to DMSO (0.2% v/v) were also intraperitoneally inoculated into two groups of mice. The immunity of the exposed tachyzoites was evaluated by inoculation of the naïve parasite to the survived mice.
    Results
    The LD50 of 2-(naphthalene-2-ylthio)-1H-indole was 57 μmol. The longev­ity of mice was dose dependent. Five mice out of group 400μmol and 3 out of group 800μmol showed immunization to the parasite.
    Conclusion
    Our findings demonstrated the toxoplasmocidal activity of the com­pound. The presence of a well-organized transporter mechanism for indole com­pounds within the parasite in conjunction with several effective mechanisms of these compounds on Toxoplasma viability would open a window for production of new drugs and vaccines.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, 2, (naphthalene, 2, ylthio), 1H, indole, Viability, Infectivity, Immunity
  • Maryam Niyyati, Mahyar Mafi, Ali Haghighi, Mojdeh Hakemi Vala Pages 181-188
    Background
    Acanthamoeba- bacteria interactions enable pathogenic bacteria to tolerate harsh conditions and lead to transmission to the susceptible host. The present study was aimed to address the presence of bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba isolated from recreational water sources of Tehran, Iran. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study regarding occurrence of bacteria in environmental Acanthamoeba spp. in Iran.
    Methods
    A total of 75 samples of recreational water sources were collected. Samples were cultured on non- nutrient agar 1.5% plates. Positive Acanthamoeba spp. were axenically grown. DNA extraction and PCR reaction was performed using JDP1-2 primers. All positive samples of Acanthamoeba were examined for the presence of endosymbionts using staining and molecular methods. The PCR products were then sequenced in order to determine the genotypes of Acan­thamoeba and bacteria genera.
    Results
    Out of 75 samples, 16 (21.3%) plates were positive for Acanthamoeba according to the morphological criteria. Molecular analysis revealed that Acan­thamoeba belonged to T4 and T5 genotypes. Five isolates (35.7%) were positive for bacterial endosymbionts using staining method and PCR test. Sequencing of PCR products confirmed the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefasiens.
    Conclusion
    The presence of Acanthamoeba bearing pathogenic endosymbionts in water sources leads us to public health issues including improved sanitation and decontamination measures in recreational water sources in order to prevent amoebae-related infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report regarding the isolation of A. tumefasiens from Acanthamoeba in Iran and world­wide.
    Keywords: Acanthamoeba, Endosymbionts, Recreational waters, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Agrobacterium tumefasiens
  • Behnam Meshgi, Fatemeh Jalousian, Zahra Masih Pages 189-196
    Background
    Haemonchosis has a negative effect on the farming industry through­out the world, especially in the tropic and sub-tropic countries. The present study was carried out to differentiate Haemonchus species from its main hosts in Iran, including sheep, goat and camel.
    Methods
    The identification took place based on the morphometrics of the spic­ules and molecular characters. Two hundred seventy adult male nematodes were collected from the abomasums of different ruminants (90 samples from each ani­mal) at the slaughterhouses from different localities in Iran. Samples were morphologi­cally identified according to the spicules’ morphometric measurements. In the section on molecular study, 10 samples of each Haemonchus isolates were genet­ically examined. A simple PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay of the second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) were described to confirm the PCR results.
    Results
    PCR-RFLP profile obtained from the restriction enzyme HPa1 in H. contor­tus and H. longistipes indicated 1 (278 bp) and 2 (113 and 135 bp) different frag­ments, respectively. The morphological parameters clearly distinguish H. contortus from H. longistipes. Moreover, regarding the ITS2-rDNA, sequences of 295 bp and 314 bp were obtained from H. contortus and H. longistipes, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The genotypic results are in agreement with the phenotypic findings of both species.
    Keywords: Haemonchus species, Morphology, ITS2, PCR, RFLP
  • Hadi Mirahmadi, Adel Spotin, Shirzad Fallahi, Niloofar Taghipour, Habibollah Turki, Seyyed Javad Seyyed Tabaei Pages 197-205
    Background
    Carboxy-terminal 42 kDa region of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 is considered as an important antigen in blood stage. Since, this region has been observed to be polymorphic among isolates of P. vivax, it is signifi­cant to survey on different regions of this antigen in various areas of the world.
    Methods
    In the present study, the genetic diversity of cloned PvMSP-142 kDa gene from an Iranian patient is analyzed. Parasite DNA was extracted from a P. vivax - infected patient in Iran. The region of PvMSP-142 kDa was amplified by PCR, cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and then sequenced.
    Results
    Sequencing of cloned PvMSP-142 kDa gene clearly has a high degree of homology (95%) with reference Sal-I sequence and also with the homogeneous sequences from some studied countries (97%). 38 SNPs (single nucleotide polymor­phism) were identified in cloned PvMSP-142 kDa gene which the muta­tions had localized in the 33 kDa fragment (PvMSP-133 kDa), while there was nearly no variation in the 19 kDa fragment (PvMSP-119 kDa). 2 out of 38 muta­tions were found as to be novel haplotypes.
    Conclusion
    High similarity of cloned PvMSP-142 kDa gene in comparison to reference sequence and other sequences could be beneficial as a remarkable molecu­lar marker for serological diagnostic kits of P. vivax in malarious neighbor­ing countries of Iran and around the world.
    Keywords: Plasmodium vivax, Recombinant MSP, 1 42 kDa, Sequencing, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Lashkarizadeh, Keivan Asgaripour, Ebrahim Saedi Dezaki, Majid Fasihi Harandi Pages 206-212
    Background
    Surgery is the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococ­cosis, CE). At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactiva­tion of protoscoleces during surgery, but they are associated with adverse side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scolicidal effects of amphotricin B, Silver nano particles, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, essential oil and hyper­tonic saline against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst on an in vitro model.
    Methods
    Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from the naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of AmB (2.5-20 mg/ml), Ag-NPs (0.5-4 mg/ml), F. vulgare essential oil (0.125- 1 mg/ml) and hypertonic saline (10-20%) were used for 5-60 min. Eosin exclusion test was used to determine the viabil­ity of protoscoleces.
    Results
    Maximum protoscolicidal effect of AmB and Ag-NPs was found at concen­trations of 20 and 4 mg/mL, resulting in only 82.3% and 71.6% of the proto­scoleces after 60 min of incubation, respectively. In contrast, F. vul­gare essential oil at concentration of 1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline 20% killed 100% protoscoleces after 5 and 10 min of exposure, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The results indicated weak scolicidal activity of AmB and Ag-NPs; whereas F. vulgare essential oil had potent scolicidal activity against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst that revealed the potential of F. vulgare as a natural source for the produc­tion of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, fur­ther studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in the in vivo model.
    Keywords: Fungizone, Ag, Nps, Fennel, Hypertonic saline, Cystic echinococcosis
  • Entsar Saheb, Wendy Trzyna, Katherine Maringer, John Bush Pages 213-230
    Background
    Acanthamoeba castellanii forms a resistant cyst that protects the para­site against the host’s immune response. Acanthamoeba Type-I metacaspase (Acmcp) is a caspase-like protein that has been found to be expressed during the encysta­tions. Dictyostelium discoideum is an organism closely related to Acanthamoeba useful for studying the molecular function of this protozoan caspase-like protein.
    Methods
    The full length of Acmcp and a mutated version of the same gene, which lacks the proline rich N-terminal region (Acmcp-dpr), were cloned into the pDneo2a-GFP vector separately. The pDneo2a-GFP-Acmcp and pDneo2a-GFP-Acmcp-dpr were electro-transfected into wild type D. discoideum cells to create cell lines that over-expressed Acmcp or Acmcp-dpr.
    Results
    Both cell lines that over-expressed Acmcp and Acmcp-dpr showed a significant increase in the fluid phase internalization and phagocytosis rate com­pared to the control cells. Additionally, the cells expressing the Acmcp-dpr mutant were unable to initiate early development and failed to aggregate or form fruiting bodies under starvation conditions, whereas Acmcp over-expressing cells showed the opposite phenomena. Quantitative cell death analysis provided additional sup­port for these findings.
    Conclusion
    Acmcp is involved in the processes of endocytosis and phagocytosis. In addition, the proline rich region in Acmcp is important for cellular development in Dictyostelium. Given its important role in the development process, metacaspase protein is proposed as a candidate drug target against infections caused by A. castel­lanii.
    Keywords: Acanthamoeba, Metacaspase, Dictyostelium, Phagocytosis, Development
  • Li Wang, Xiang Yu Tian, Ge Ge Sun, Ruo Dan Liu, Li Na Liu, Xi Zhang, Peng Jiang, Zhong Quan Wang, Jing Cui Pages 230-237
    Background
    We have previously reported that a 31 kDa protein was screened from the excretory-secretory (ES) proteins of Tichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) by immunoproteomics using early infection sera, and the gene encoding a 31 kDa protein from T. spiralis was cloned and expressed in an E. coli expression system. In this study, the recombinant 31 kDa antigens were used for detection of anti-Trichinella antibodies in serum of experimentally infected mice by ELISA.
    Methods
    Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in sera of mice infected with Trichinella were assayed by ELISA with recombinant 31 kDa antigens, and its sensitivity and specificity were compared with ELISA with ES antigen.
    Results
    The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA with recombinant antigens was 96.67% (29/30) and 96.87% (62/64), compared with 100% (30/30) and 98.44% (63/64) of ELISA with ES antigens was (P>0.05). In heavily, moderately and lightly infected mice (500, 300 and 100 larvae/mouse), anti-Trichinella antibodies were firstly detected by ELISA with recombinant antigens at 8, 12 and 14 dpi, respec­tively; then increased rapidly with a detection rate of 100% respectively at 28, 22 and 30 dpi. While the antibodies were firstly detected by ELISA with ES anti­gens at 10, 8 and 10 dpi, respectively, the antibody positive rate reached 100% at 14, 12 and 22 dpi, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The recombinant 31 kDa antigens of T. spirali had a good sensitivity and specificity for detecting anti-Trichinella antibodies and might be the potential diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis.
    Keywords: Trichinella spiralis, Trichinellosis, Serodiagnosis
  • Jebreil Shamseddin, Lame Akhlaghi, Elham Razmjou, Saeedeh Shojaee, Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari, Nader Tajik, Soltan Ahmed Ebrahimi, Ahmad Reza Meamar Pages 238-244
    Background
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated lino­leic acid (CLA) on apoptosis of tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain (type I) and the cyst-forming Tehran strain (type II) in vitro.
    Methods
    Toxoplasma strains were injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice. The Tehran strain forms cysts in the brain of mice. Bradyzoites within the cysts are reactivated to proliferative tachyzoites, by dexamethasone. Tachyzoites were aspirated from the peritoneum of infected mice, and the percentage of viable parasites was estimated with trypan blue staining. Tachyzoites were inoculated into HeLa cells cultivated in DMEM medium. Different concentrations of CLA were evaluated on T. gondii in HeLa cells by the tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. Differentiation between apoptosis and cell death was determined by flow cytome­try using Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double staining. The statistical analy­sis performed by GraphPad Prism version 6.00.
    Results
    CLA induces apoptosis in virulent (RH) and avirulent (Tehran) strains of T. gondii. The results of MTT indicated that CLA could decrease the proliferation of tachyzoites of both strains in HeLa cells.
    Conclusion
    Conjugated linoleic acid has anti-toxoplasmacidal activity on tachyzo­ites of T. gondii. Therefore, we recommended further studies on this component in order to achieve a new drug against the parasite.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Apoptosis, RH strain
  • Gholamreza Mowlavi, Mahsasadat Makki, Zahra Heidari, Mostafa Rezaeian, Mehdi Mohebali, Adauto Araujo, Nicole Boenke, Abolfazl Aali, Thomas Stollner, Iraj Mobedi Pages 245-249
    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4th/5th century CE).In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP re-hydration technique. Eggs of Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M.hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine. The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran.
    Keywords: Paleoparasitology, Acanthocephalan eggs, Sasanian Era, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Mahmoudi, Bahram Kazemi, Ali Haghighi, Panagiotis Karanis Pages 250-257
    Background
    Free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoeba species may act as carriers of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma oocysts, thus, may play an important role in the water-borne transmissionof these parasites. In the present study, a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of Toxoplasma and a PCR assay were developed for investigation of Acanthamoeba in environmental water samples.
    Methods
    A total of 34 samples were collected from the surface water in Guilan Province. Water samples were filtrated with membrane filters and followed by DNA extraction. PCR and LAMP methods used for detection of the protozoan parasites Acanthamoeba and Toxoplasma respectively.
    Results
    Totally 30 and 2 of 34 samples were positive for Acanthamoeba and Toxo­plasma oocysts respectively. Two samples were positive for both investigated para­sites.
    Conclusion
    The investigated water supplies, are contaminated by Toxoplasma and Acanthamoeba(oo)cystes. Acanthamoeba may play an important role in water-borne transmis­sion of Toxoplasmain the study area. For the first time in Iran, protocol of LAMP method was used effectively for the detection of Toxoplasma in surface water samples in Iran.
    Keywords: Acanthamoeba, Toxoplasma, PCR, LAMP, Iran
  • Fatemeh Ghaffarifar, Farzad Esavand Heydari, Abdolhosein Dalimi, Zuhair M. Hassan, Mahdi Delavari, Hajar Mikaeiloo Pages 258-267
    Background
    In leishmaniasis, some drugs prescribed for treatment have toxic ef­fects and there are reports about drug resistance in some countries. Due to this fact, using herbal drugs such as artemisinin with good efficacy and low toxic effect might be suitable.
    Methods
    We evaluated the apoptotic effect of artemisinin on Leishmania major in vitro and the antileishmanial activities of artemisinin on leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice and at the end INF-γ and IL-4 cytokines levels were detected by ELISA in spleen cell culture supernatants. During treatment the lesion size and survival rate were measured each four and ten days, respectively.
    Results
    Percentage of early and late apoptosis in promastigotes of control group and promastigotes treated with 10, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml of artemisinin after 48 h were 0.13, 16.04, 41.23, 49.03 and 81.83, respectively. The IFN-γ in ointment treated group were higher than those of other groups (P<0.05). The in vivo results showed that ointment compounds healed the lesions more effectively rather than intraperito­neal injection method (P<0.05). The survival rate of mice 150 days after challenge in treated group with ointment of artemisinin was 66% while all mice in control groups were died.
    Conclusion
    All of in vitro results represented that this drug had antileishmanial ef­fects and these results were confirmed by evaluation effects in vivo condition of leish­maniasis. Interestingly, according to these results it can be concluded that this drug have antileishmanial effects in vitro and in vivo conditions. Artemisinin induces cytotoxic effect on L. major via apoptosis-related mechanism.
    Keywords: Artemisinin, Leishmania major, Apoptosis, In, vivo, Cytokine assay
  • Javad Khedri, Mohammad Hossein Radfar, Hassan Borji, Mohammad Mirzaei Pages 268-272
    Background
    Parasitological investigations on paramphistomosis were carried out over a 12-month period in the southeast of Iran to determine the prevalence and intensity of this disease.
    Methods
    A total of 1000 cattle, Sistani breed (n= 450) and Brahman breed (n= 550) of all sex and age groups were inspected at random for the presence of paramphis­tomidae flukes in Zabol slaughterhouse from December 2012 to Octo­ber 2013.
    Results
    Paramphistomes were found in 369 of 1000 necropsied cows (36.9%; 95% CI: 30.1-41.9%), with significant higher prevalence of infection in Brahman breed than in Sistani breed (51% vs 19.3%). No significant correlation between prevalence, intensity of infection, sex and age of cattle was noted. Despite the differ­ence in the seasonal variations of prevalence, and the relation between the intensity of infection and season, these were not statistically significant. The mean intensity of infection in Brahman breed was higher (652.66 ± 281.5) than Sistani breed (123.32 ± 32.2). The identification of stained trematodes to the species re­vealed 40, 20, 20, 15 and 5% Gastrothylax crumenifer, Cotylophoron cotylophorom, Paramphisto­mum cervi, Carmyerius spatiosus, Explanatum explanatum, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The present results will contribute to our understanding of the epidemi­ology of paramphistomumosis in southeastern Iran.
    Keywords: Paramphistomidae flukes, Prevalence, Cattle, Iran
  • Zahra Eslamirad, Parvin, Dokht Bayat, Saeid Babaei Pages 273-279
    Background
    Congenital toxoplasmosis is one cause of abortion. Infection can disrupt ovarian cycles and because toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease may have a similar effect on the ovaries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patho­logical changes in the ovaries due to toxoplasmosis.
    Methods
    Tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii were harvested from peritoneal fluid of mice, experimentally infected. Two females and one male mouse were housed per cage for mating in the overnight. The pregnant mice were divided into experi­mental and control groups. Experimental group were infected by parasite but the control group received the normal saline. The experimental and control mice were euthanized. Ovaries and uterine horns of animals were removed and prepared for light microscopy.
    Results
    Ovaries of infected pregnant mice presented gross morphological differ­ences compared to the control groups. In ovaries of experimental groups, changes of corpus luteum were observed. The comparison of experimental and control groups revealed that the number of primary follicles, secondary follicle, atretic pri­mary follicles and atretic secondary follicles had significant differences (P≤0.001).
    Conclusion
    Toxoplasma gondii alters ovarian follicular growth and development in mice. In addition, it alters number of different phases of follicles and corpus lu­teum in ovaries of mice.
    Keywords: Corpus luteum, Histology, Ovarian follicles, Toxoplasma gondii
  • Ahmet Carhan, Ozcan Ozkan, Ethem Ozkaya Pages 280-285
    Background
    As a zoonotic pathogen, Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a cause of serious disease in animals and people. The present study was to evaluate the health status examination of this seropositive animal care worker in our previ­ous study.
    Methods
    Blood samples were taken from five workers. CIA test was ap­plied to detect antibodies against E. cuniculi in blood serum. The indirect immu­nofluorescence antibody test was used as confirmation test. Seroposi­tive worker had a complete medical examination.
    Results
    Only one worker was found to be seropositive according to the results of the serological test. Sera positive to E.cuniculi was confirmed with IFAT and spores were detected in the urine sample of the worker. The worker was treated with albendazole.
    Conclusion
    Rabbits should be examined routinely for the presence of anti-E.cuniculi antibody. People working with laboratory animal should avoid contact with urine and faeces of infected or pay attention to personal hygiene.
    Keywords: Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Animal care worker
  • Fariba Berenji, Abdul Ghayoum Movahedi Rudy, Abdolmajid Fata, Mousa Tavassoli, Mojtaba Mousavi Bazaz, Ghodratolah Salehi Sangani Pages 286-289
    Background
    Toxocariasis is an important disease caused by the larvae of parasitic worms such as Toxocara canis and T. cati. Public parks can be the source of toxocaria­sis for small children. This survey was conducted to deter­mine the preva­lence of Toxocara spp. ova in parks of Mashhad and Khaf northeastern Iran.
    Methods
    In this descriptive cross-sectional study, performed in November 2011 to June 2012, overall, 340 soil samples were collected from 39 parks of Mash­had and 29 parks in Khaf city. Flotation method and direct smear were used, and the samples were evaluated using a light microscope. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 19 and Chi-square test.
    Results
    In the evaluation of 195 and 145 soil samples, 18 (9.2%) and 16 cases (11.3%) of contamina­tion with Toxocara spp. eggs were detected, respec­tively.
    Conclusion
    Although the preva­lence of Toxocara eggs in soil samples was low, parks can be a source of Toxo­cara infection of children in these areas.
    Keywords: Toxocara, Toxocariasis, Soil contamination, Park, Iran
  • Yaoqian Pan, Shuai Wang, Xingyou Liu, Ruizhen Li, Yuqian Sun, Javaid Ali Gadahi Pages 290-295
    Background
    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite commonly found in rabbitsthat can infect humans, causing encephalitozoonosis.Our objective in this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasite in rabbits and humans in China
    Methods
    Overall, 300 serum samples each from clinically healthy rabbit and hu­man werecollected from three regions of China (Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Jilin Province) from January to September 2013 and tested for anti- E. Cuniculi antibodies using an ELISA.
    Results
    An overall seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was recorded as 56/300 (18.76%) and 29/300 (9.76%) in rabbit and human sera, respectively. The seropositivity of rabbit samples collected from Jilin province was 41%, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than Sichuan Province (9%) and Chongqing Municipality (6%). Three breeds of rabbit were used in the present study and antibody detection in Rex Rabbit was significantly (P<0.01) higher than Japanese White and New Zea­land Rabbit. In human, Jilin province was more prevalent (18%) followed by Si­chuan Province (6%) and Chongqing Municipality (5%).
    Conclusions
    The E. cuniculi was present and widespread among healthy rabbits and humans in China.
    Keywords: Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Rabbit, Human, ELISA, China
  • Hossein Mortazavi, Mehdi Mohebali, Yasaman Taslimi, Pardis Sadeghipour, Mahsa Ansari, Kambiz Kamyab, Marjan Talebi, Ali Khamesipour Pages 296-300
    Herein, a 28-year-old man with hoarseness, skin and oral lesions is presented. At the time of admission, the patient had an erythematous plaque on his chin near his lower lip and an erythematous-violaceous plaque on his palate near the open­ing of the pharynx and 20 kg weight lost in last one year. The biopsy of his skin lesions by hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed an infiltration of the dermis by lymphoplasma and histiocytic cells with a loose granuloma formation sugges­tive of leishmaniasis. Biopsy of mucosal lesions revealed Leishman bodies in dermis. PCR was performed on the specimens of skin, bone marrow, mucosa, and saliva, the results were positive. The pathogenic agent was identified as Leishmania major by the nested PCR. Serologic tests including direct agglutination test (DAT) and indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT) were positive with high titers of anti-L. infantum antibodies (1:102400 versus 1:800, respectively), indicative of visceral involvement. The patient responded to a combination of miltefosine and meglu­mine antimoniate (Glucantime®). Visceral involvement due to L. major is rarely reported. To the best of our knowledge, probably hoarseness due to L. major has not been previously reported from Iran.
    Keywords: Leishmaniasis, Leishmania major, Hoarseness, Visceral, PCR
  • Evi Ioannidou, Dimitra Psalla, Elias Papadopoulos, Anastasia Diakou, Vasiliki Papanikolopoulou, Harilaos Karatzias, Zoe S. Polizopoulou, Nektarios D. Giadinis Pages 301-305
    Coenurosis is a disease of the central nervous system in sheep, caused by Coenurus cerebralis, the larval stage of Multiceps multiceps, which inhabits the small intestine of Canidae. A case of regurgitations in a 2.5 month old lamb with acute coenurosis is being reported. The lamb was presented with a sudden onset of ataxia and regurgi­tations for 10 days. The post-mortem examination revealed 4 immature C. cerebralis cysts between 0.5 and 1.5 cm in diameter located in the brainstem and cerebellum, and histopathological examination revealed multifocal pyogranuloma­tous meningoencephalitis, so a diagnosis of acute coenurosis was established. Thus, acute coenurosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of regurgita­tions in lambs.
    Keywords: Sheep, Acute coenurosis, Regurgitation, Coenurus cerebralis, Neurological disease