فهرست مطالب

Public Health - Volume:44 Issue: 6, 2015
  • Volume:44 Issue: 6, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 25
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  • Mohammadkarim Bahadori, Hormoz Sanaeinasab, Mostafa Ghanei, Ali Mehrabi Tavana, Ramin Ravangard, Mazyar Karamali Pages 728-741
    Background
    Many studies have been conducted in Iran in order to investigate the status of social determinants of health (SDH) and their associations with health indicators. This study aimed to review the Iranian studies conducted on SDH.
    Methods
    A systematic review of all Iranian Persian and English languages articles published between 2005 and 2014 on the SDH was conducted using the search of SID, Iran Medex, Iran Doc, Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The eligibility criteria were studies describing SDH status, designed based on the WHO conceptual framework of SDH, published in Persian or English languages, and full text articles. The structured narrative approach was used to synthesize the data.
    Results
    The entire review process led to the selection of 21 papers. Most of studies had been conducted on the intermediary (38%) and structural (33%) components and determinants ​​in Iran, 4 studies (19%) on the study of all components affecting the health and health inequality and, finally, the minimum number of studies (10%) on the context components and determinants. The focus of 43% of selected studies was on the WHO conceptual framework of SDH and had evaluated this model as an appropriate conceptual framework.
    Conclusion
    In order to fill the gap in the scientific evidence of SDH and make appropriate policies and plans in Iran, it is needed to conduct studies on all SDH according to the WHO conceptual framework.
    Keywords: Social Determinants of Health (SDH), Health, Socioeconomic Factors, Systematic Review, Iran
  • Hassan Malekinejad, Aysa Rezabakhsh Pages 742-758
    Background
    The presence of hormones in milk and dairy foods was discussed decades ago but rather more concerns attended to that with respect to finding hormones as biomarkers in milk for diseases and pregnancy diagnosis. Moreover, considerable amount of studies demonstrated that existing of hormones in humans and animals milk are essential for infants growing and immunity. During the last couple of years, increasing body of evidence are indicating another property of hormones in dairy products as possible impact on human health including the role of some estrogens and insulin-like growth factor-1 in initiation and provoking of breast, prostate and endometrial tumours.
    Methods
    Data was gathered from the published articles in database such as MEDLINE, science direct, Google scholar and web of science. We put no limitation on date of published date. Moreover, our own published and conducted methods and results also are presented. In this review we concentrated on several aspects of presence of hormones in dairy foods with especial emphasize on cow’s milk as a major source of consuming milk for humans especially for children.
    Results
    The collected data from other researchers and our own data are indicating that the presence of steroid hormones in dairy products could be counted as an important risk factor for various cancers in humans.
    Conclusion
    Our gathered data in this review paper may suggest more sophisticate analytical detection methods for oestrogens determination and also could be considered as a remarkable concern for consumers, producers and public health authorities.
    Keywords: Cancer, Dairy foods, Hormones
  • Jizu Li, Yuejiao Li, Xiaoguang Liu Pages 759-771
    Background
    In China, over 80% of all work-related deaths in the mining industry occur in coal mines and human factors constitute 85% of the direct causes of coal mine accidents, which indicates that significant shortcomings currently exist in the safety behavior management of Chinese coal mine workers. We aimed to verify the impact of human psychological behavior in coal mine accidents systematically through experimental study, theoretical analysis and management application.
    Methods
    Four test instruments (Sensory and cognitive capacity test, Sixteen-Personal Factor Questionnaire, Symptom Checklist 90 Questionnaire and the supervisors’ evaluation) were employed from November 2013 to June 2014 to identify unsafe behavior factors, the self-established Questionnaire of Safety Behavior Norms (QSBN) was also used to propose the safety behavior countermeasures of coal mine employees.
    Results
    The mental health of most coal mine workers’ is relatively poor. The sensory and cognitive capacity of those in different work posts varies greatly, as does the sense of responsibility. Workers are susceptible to external influences, and score low in site management. When the 16-PF and SCL-90 sensory and cognitive assessments were combined, the psychological index predictive power was greatest for estimating sense of efficiency and degree of satisfaction in internal evaluations, while at the same time lowest for estimating control of introversion-extroversion and stress character.
    Conclusion
    The psychological indicators can predict part of employee safety behavior, and assist a coal mine enterprise to recruit staff, develop occupational safety norms and improve the working environment.
    Keywords: Coal mine, Safety psychological evaluation, Safety behavior management
  • Hye-Jin Kwon, Ji-Su Kim, Yoon-Jung Kim, Su-Jin Kwon, Jin-Na Yu Pages 772-782
    Background
    Sensory impairment is a common condition that exerts negative effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the relationship between sensory impairment and HRQoL and identify sensory-specific differences in the HRQoL of elderly.
    Methods
    This study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010-2012), analyzing 5,260 subjects over 60 years of age who completed ophthalmic and otologic examinations. Vision and hearing impairment were measured and classified. HRQoL was determined according to the European QoL five dimension test (EQ-5D). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and analysis of covariance were performed to identify relationships between sensory impairment and HRQoL dimensions as well as differences in HRQoL scores.
    Results
    In the final adjusted multivariate model, there was a statistically higher proportion of those with dual sensory impairment who reported problems with mobility (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–5.03), usual activities (aOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.16–4.64), and pain/discomfort among EQ-5D subcategories (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.07–2.97). In the EQ-5D dimensions, the means and standard deviations of vision impairment (0.86 [0.01]) and dual sensory impairment (0.84 [0.02]) appeared meaningfully lower than those for no sensory impairment (0.88 [0.00]) or hearing impairment (0.88 [0.01]); P =. 02).
    Conclusion
    Sensory impairment reduces HRQoL in the elderly. Improvement of HRQoL in the elderly thus requires regular screening and appropriate management of sensory impairment.
    Keywords: Dual sensory impairment, Elderly, Hearing impairment, Quality of life, Vision impairment
  • Yuchan Chao, Jinluh Chen, Weinduo Yang, Tsunghan Ho, Fusan Yen Pages 783-790
    Background
    This research provides an insight into exposure information and particle size distributions of Bisphenol A (BPA), a common environmental hormone, at polycarbonate (PC) molding plants in southern Taiwan.
    Methods
    The inhalable dust sampler as IOM and the micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) were used for samples collection to evaluate the level and particle size distribution of BPA in PC molding plants. All collected samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for BPA concentrations.
    Results
    BPA concentrations detected from the plant using optical grade PC material ranged from 32.28 to 44.97 µg/m3, which were significantly higher than BPA concentrations (16.16 to 19.39 µg/m3) detected from the plant using food grade PC material. Under working environment, the particle size distribution showed a single mode distribution, with a MMAD of 0.84µm and a GSD of 1.97. Emission of BPA increased during heating process and most of BPA particles deposited in the nasal cavity (63.37%), following by alveolus (30.7%), and trachea-bronchus (5.93%).
    Discussion
    It is of importance that proper personal protection should be taken upon the BPA particulates released during the molding process at PC molding plants.
    Keywords: Bisphenol A, Polycarbonate, Respiratory tract, Particle size distribution
  • Elham Seyyed Kavoosi, Sarang Younessi, Dariush D. Farhud Pages 791-796
    Background
    Aneuploidy is one of the main causes of congenital anomalies, mental and physical disabilities, in newborns. The aim of this study was to determine various chromosomal aneuploidies in the first and second trimester screening of pregnant women, in Iran.
    Methods
    A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on 125,170 pregnant women referred to a major referral medical diagnostic laboratory (Niloo Laboratory, Tehran) for prenatal screening tests (2010-2013). Patients were divided into 3 groups: first trimester screening (FTS), second trimester screening (STS), and combined screening groups. In positive and borderline cases, and amniocentesis and cytogenetic analysis were carried out.
    Results
    Total prevalence of aneuploidy in 125,170 pregnant women was one in 491, (Detection Rate=82.7% for Down syndrome). The DR for DS in three groups was as follow: 87.5% for FTS (25783 women), 80.9% for STS (91345 women), and 94.7% for combined tests (8042 women). Total number of cases with Edward''s syndrome was 18, Patau''s syndrome six, Klinefelter syndrome six, triploidy three, and Cri-du-chat syndrome one.
    Conclusion
    The present study shows the frequency of aneuploidy in the first and second trimester screenings in a major medical laboratory in Tehran. The prevalence of aneuploidies grows with increased maternal age. The rate of aneuploidy in first trimester is higher than second.
    Keywords: Prenatal diagnosis, Chromosomal aberration, Aneuploidy, First, second trimester screening, Iran
  • Farzad Shidfar, Shima Jazayeri, Seyedeh Neda Mousavi, Mojtaba Malek, Agha Fateme Hosseini, Basmeh Khoshpey Pages 797-803
    Background
    Animal studies have shown antioxidant effects of Royal Jelly (RJ) and its effect on insulin resistance as the most common complication of Type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to determine the effect of RJ intake on serum total antioxidant capacity, Malondialdehyde and insulin resistance in T2DM.
    Methods
    In this randomized controlled trial, forty-six type 2 diabetic patients, aged 25-65 years, with BMI of 20-30 kg/m2, and HbA1c of 6-8% were included. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 1000 mg of RJ supplement or placebo, 3 times daily for 8 weeks. HOMA-IR, anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde level were measured.
    Results
    In comparison with placebo, HOMA-IR decreased (P=0.015) while serum total antioxidant capacity increased significantly in RJ group (P=0.016). No significant difference was detected for serum insulin and MDA in two groups.
    Conclusions
    RJ intake may have favorable effects on serum TAC and HOMA-IR in diabetic patients.
    Keywords: Royal Jelly_Type 2 diabetes mellitus_Insulin resistance_Total antioxidant capacity
  • Yasmin Khan, Muhammad Hussain Taghdisi, Keramat Nourijelyani Pages 804-813
    Background
    Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB.
    Methods
    A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12-18) from grade 6th-10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adolescents PA (PAQ-A). Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates.
    Results
    Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275), 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the majority (43.4%) of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2%) revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005) for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004) than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001) decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls.
    Conclusion
    The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents.
    Keywords: Adolescents, Students, Psychological well, being, Health, Physical activity
  • Saeedeh Salimi, Alireza Nakhaee, Mehdi Jafari, Danial Jahantigh, Mahnaz Sandooghi, Zahra Zakeri, Mahnaz Shahrakipour, Anoosh Naghavi, Farzaneh Farajian- Mashhadi Pages 814-821
    Background
    Progression of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) could be due to oxidative stress especially through reactive oxygen species (ROS). Detoxification of ROS is largely performed by Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), therefore polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes which decrease enzymes activity could affect SLE susceptibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GSTM1 (deletion), GSTT1 (deletion) and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) polymorphisms on SLE susceptibility.
    Methods
    Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 163 SLE patients and 180 age, sex and ethnically matched controls. GSTs genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-multiplex procedure or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis.
    Results
    GSTT1 null genotype frequency was higher in SLE patients than controls. NO association observed between GSTM1 null genotype or GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism with SLE. Nevertheless combination of GSTT1 null/ GSTM1 null genotypes showed 2.8-fold increase in risk of SLE. Moreover the combination of GSTT1 null/ GSTM1 null/GSTP1 Ile/Val and Val/Val genotypes increased the SLE risk about 8 fold.
    Conclusion
    Present data suggest that GSTT1 null/ GSTM1 null/GSTP1 Ile/Val and Val/Val genotypes might largely contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.
    Keywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus, Glutathione S, transferase, Gene, Polymorphism
  • Soghra Aliasgharzadeh, Reza Mahdavi, Mohammad Asghari Jafara­Badi, Nazli Namazi Pages 822-829
    Background
    Underweight as a public health problem in young women is associated with nutritional deficiencies, menstrual irregularity, eating disorders, reduced fertility, etc. Since resting metabolic rate (RMR) is a necessary component in the development of nutrition support therapy, therefore we determined the accuracy of commonly used predictive equations against RMR measured by indirect calorimetry among healthy young underweight females.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 104 underweight females aged 18-30 years old with body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2 in 2013. After collecting anthropometric data, body composition was measured by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). RMR was measured by using indirect calorimetry (FitMate™) and was estimated by 10 commonly used predictive equations. Comparisons were conducted using paired t-test. The accuracy of the RMR equations was evaluated on the basis of the percentage of subjects’ predicted RMR within 10% of measured RMR.
    Results
    The mean BMI of subjects was 17.3±1.3 kg/m2. The measured RMR ranged 736-1490 kcal/day (mean 1084.7±175 kcal/day). Findings indicated that except Muller and Abbreviation, other equations significantly over estimated RMR, compared to measured value (P<0.05). As an individual prediction accuracy, these predictive equations showed poor performance with the highest accuracy rate of 54.8% for Muller equation (22.1% under and 23.1% over-prediction) and 43.3% for Abbreviation equation (31.7% under and 25% over-prediction), the percentage bias was 1.8% and 0.63% and RMSE was 162 and 173 kcal/d, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Although Muller equation gave fairly acceptable prediction, more suitable new equations are needed to be developed to help better management of nutritional plans in young underweight people.
    Keywords: Resting metabolic rate, Predictive equation, Indirect calorimetry, Underweight
  • Rouhullah Dehghani, Masoud Yunesian, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Ha­Mid Reza Gilasi, Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam Pages 830-838
    Background
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease with unknown factor. The prevalence and incidence rate of this disease had an upward trend in many regions in the world such as Middle east and consequently in Iran over the recent years. As the risk factors of this increased trend and high-prevalence is unknown in Iran, the current study has been designed to evaluate the correlation between MS dispersal with urbanization, life style and industry, as an ecological research.
    Methods
    This retrospective study was designed as an ecological approach in 2011. Data were collected from three databases by high precision (CI95%) from national registry plans. The subjects of study were provinces of Iran (n=31). The linear regression was used to perform statistical analyses.
    Results
    The obtained results indicated an ascendant trend of MS during the recent years, as the incidence of this disease reached from 26.24/100000 (CI95%) people in 2006 to 44.53/100000 (CI95%) in 2011. There is a direct correlation (P<0.05) between the percentage of urbanization and the percentage of male smokers with the prevalence of MS in provinces.
    Conclusion
    The role of smoking was more highlighted in this study as a probable factor in increasing risk and causing MS disease. Urbanization could be introduced as an augmentative factor, but this is a combination of several complex factors that this effect must be appraised with smaller scale in other researches.
    Keywords: Ecological study, Industry, Life style, Multiple sclerosis, Urbanization
  • Shabnam Pooreh, Zahra Hosseini Nodeh Pages 839-847
    Background
    Since risk factors of hypertension are formed during adolescent period and regarding that attitudes change occurs more easily in these ages, the present paper aimed to evaluate the impact of education based on the theory of planned behavior in hypertension prevention behaviors in female adolescent students.
    Methods
    In this quasi-experimental study, 160 girls of 12-16 yr old (80 in each case and control group), who had not been educated in prevention of hypertension over the recent three months, participated. Four schools in Tehran were selected based on cluster sampling method during two stages. The education was provided based on the theory of planned behavior in two sections (nutrition and physical activity) in four sessions. Data gathered before and after education through a two-part valid and reliable questionnaire. The results were analyzed based on SPSS software, version 17.
    Results
    The results of independent t-test showed in the nutrition section, attitude (P=0.000), subjective norm (P=0.025), perceived control (P=0.016) and behavioral intention (P=0.025); significantly increased. About physical activity, except subjective norm (P=0.219), the mean score of the attitude (P=0.001), perceived control (P=0.000) and behavioral intention (P=0.000) revealed a significant difference between two groups.
    Conclusion
    Education based on the theory of planned behavior affects the intention of preventive behaviors of hypertension in female adolescents.
    Keywords: Health education, adolescent behavior, Hypertension, Theory of planned behavior
  • Ali Akbari Sari, Satar Rezaei, Enayatollah Homaie Rad, Nasim Dehgha­Nian, Yousef Chavehpour Pages 848-854
    Background
    One of the major health policy issues, in the both developed and developing countries, is the equality in the distribution of health resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the disparity in the distribution of health physical resources across the provinces of Iran in 2001 and 2011.
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional retrospective study which investigated inequality in the distribution of health physical resources by three indexes of Gini Coefficient, Gaswirth index and Index of Dissimilarity. The data on provinces were obtained from the yearbook statistics and Ministry of Health, and Medical Education. The Excel software was used to calculated indexes.
    Results
    The finding showed the mean Gini Coefficient for all variables was 0.178 in 2001 and 0.158 in 2011. Besides, the mean Gaswirth index and index of dissimilarity were 11.5 and 1.5% in 2001 and 11 and 1.4% in 2011, respectively.
    Conclusion
    There was slightly inequality in distribution of physical health resources in Iran. According to the results of three indexes, this study showed when Tehran province excluding from total sample, the inequality was decreased.
    Keywords: Regional disparity, Physical resources, Health sector, Iran
  • Hassan Hashemi, Farhad Rezvan, Abbasali Yekta, Hadi Ostadimoghad­Dam, Sara Soroush, Nooshin Dadbin, Mehdi Khabazkhoob Pages 855-864
    Background
    Visual impairment is a very important public health problem. In Iran, reports of visual impairment and blindness have been published from the urban population while the prevalence of visual impairment in the rural population has not been reported. The purpose of this study to determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment, in a rural population in district of based on age and sex
    Methods
    In a cross-sectional population-based study, using random cluster sampling, 13 of the 83 villages of Khaf County in the north east of Iran were selected. Eye examinations were performed in a Mobile Eye Clinic (Nooravaran Salamat, 2011) and included optometric examinations such as measuring uncorrected and corrected visual acuity along with non-cycloplegic refraction.
    Results
    The prevalence of visual impairment, low vision, and blindness was 6.3% (95% CI 5.3-7.3), 3.4% (95% CI 2.6-4.1), and 3.0% (95% CI 2.3-3.6), respectively. The prevalence of visual impairment ranged from 1.8% in the participant younger than 20 years of age to 28% in the subjects aged 60 and over (P<0.001). After matching for age, the prevalence of visual impairment and low vision was significantly higher in women. The most prevalent causes of visual impairment were uncorrected refractory error (54.5%) and cataract (17.6%).
    Conclusion
    The prevalence of visual impairment was significantly higher in the rural population of this study when compared to previous reports from Iran. It seems that provision of therapeutic facilities like cataract surgery and availability of eyeglasses in villages can considerably reduce the prevalence of visual impairment.
    Keywords: Visual impairment, Low vision, Blindness, Cross, sectional study, Iran
  • Khadijeh Khanaliha, Mehdi Mohebali, Setareh Davoudi, Omid Reza Hos­Seini, Fatemeh Tarighi, Tahereh Rezaeian, Mostafa Rezaeian Pages 865-868
    Coccidian protozoa of Cyclospora cayetanensis are obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites that infect the mucosal epithelium of the small intestine of immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. A 25- years old woman from around, Tehran with complaint of faintness and fatigue with HIV positive/AIDS confirmed eight months ago was admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2014. The patient suffered from intestinal and lung symptoms like watery diarrhea, flu-like symptoms. The stool was examined by direct preparation and concentration technique, stained with modified acid-fast staining method, and observed with light and then Immunofluorescence microscope. The stool cultivation was made in dichromate potassium medium and diagnosis of Cyclospora infection was finally made according to observation of Cyclospora oocysts almost 10 µm in acid-fast staining method and autofluorescence of Cyclospora under Immunofluorescence microscope. The patient was initially treated with azithromycin, tazocin and fluconazol because of lung lesions and diarrhea and relative remission was observed. Cyclospora sp. causes an intestinal infection particularly in immunocompromised patients.
    Keywords: Cyclospora cayetanensis, HIV, Diarrhea, Coccidian protozoa
  • Hasanreza Mohammadi, Sohrab Sadeghi, Shokrollah Zandi Pages 869-872
    Intracranial aspergilloma is extremely rare. The diagnosis and treatment of invasive CNS aspergillosis is very difficult. Early diagnosis is important for a successful treatment. Here, we report a case of intracranial aspergilloma in an 11-year-old boy in 2013. Good outcome was achieved by treatment with a combination of neurosurgical resection and antifungal administration, which we suggest is a good quality management plan.
    Keywords: Aspergillus, Immunocompetent patient, Central nervous system
  • So-Hyung Kang, Jong-Hyuck Kim, Jong-Bok Lee, Wi-Young So, Dong Jun Sung Pages 873-874
  • Shao-Hsi Chang, I-Yao Fang, Ming-Chun Hsueh, Yung Liao Pages 875-876
  • Mustafa Akcam, Nagehan Aslan Pages 877-878
  • Rashid Menhas, Shumaila Umer Pages 879-880
  • Thorakkal Shamim Pages 881-882
  • Nebojsa Kavaric, Aleksandra Klisic, Ivan Soldatovic, Bojko Bjelakovic Pages 883-884
  • Anna Kierklo, Ewa Rodakowska, Ewa Ostasiewicz-Szuba, Ewa Stokowska Pages 887-889
  • Jamshid Jamali, Narges Roustaei, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi, Erfan Sadeghi Pages 890-891