فهرست مطالب

Women’s Health Bulletin - Volume:2 Issue:3, 2015
  • Volume:2 Issue:3, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/04/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Shayesteh Shirzadi, Parinaz Doshmangir, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi * Page 1
    Background
    The puberty as a stage of life is an important developmental process. Teen girls have numerous health care needs and their specific aspects should be considered..
    Objectives
    In this study we applied explanatory model to determine the role of health belief model constructs on physical puberty health among teen girls..
    Materials And Methods
    This correlational cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011, and attempted to determine the total, indirect and direct effects of health belief model construct on physical puberty health behaviors. The population studied included 61 girls aged from 12 to 19 years from welfare boarding centers in Iran (Tehran), and selected by convenience sampling method. Data on demographic characteristics, health belief model constructs and physical puberty health behaviors were collected using an interview-based questionnaire, and analyzed by structural equation modeling..
    Results
    The perceived variables such as susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers and cues to action showed their direct effects on physical puberty health behaviors. Also perceived benefits affected physical puberty health behaviors indirectly through perceived susceptibility. The total effect of perceived benefits on physical puberty health behaviors was 0.292. There are positive significant relationships between perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and physical puberty health behaviors as well as path coefficient. SE for each of them were, (0.27 (0.11)), (0.32 (0.09)) and (0.2 (0.06)), respectively..
    Conclusions
    Since benefits of physical puberty health behavior were the most important predictor of this puberty health behavior, it is concluded that increasing the benefits along with improving each of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and cues to action can lead to increasing physical puberty health behavior and health promotion..
    Keywords: Puberty, Teen, Impact of Health
  • Pegah Jahani, Sulmaz Ghahramani, Gholamreza Abdollahifard * Page 2
    Background
    Due to the increasing rate of cervical cancer screening, and the importance of teachers and faculties in changing the perspective of population on this issue, the present study was carried out to evaluate knowledge base, attitude and performance of teachers and faculty members in relation to cervical cancer screening test..
    Objectives
    This study attempted to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and performance of teachers and faculty members on cervical cancer screening test in Shiraz, Iran..Patients and
    Methods
    The present cross-sectional survey was conducted on a community with high education level. The study was carried out on a sample of 417 randomly selected subjects involving 206 participants from high school teachers and 211 faculty members. Stratified random sampling method was used proportionate to the size, of the main population in each group. P value 0.05 was considered for estimating sample size. Valid and reliable questionnaires were completed via face to face interview. Data were analyzed using SPSS Software version 13..
    Results
    Mean score of knowledge (4.78 ± 0.71) was higher in faculty members than female teachers (4.21 ± 1.16). There was no statistically significant difference in mean scores of knowledge (P value = 0.748) and attitude (P value = 0.704) between teachers of different age groups. Mean score of knowledge (P value = 0.001) and attitude (P value = 0.009) was significantly different among faculty members with different academic degrees. Although academics had higher Knowledge and attitude, the mean score of performance among teachers (18%) was higher than faculty members (16.6%)..
    Conclusions
    This study showed that in regard to screening of cervical cancer, there is no acceptable knowledge, attitude and performance level among faculty members and teachers in different zones of Shiraz..
    Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Cervical Cancer, Shiraz, Iran
  • Mostafa Chashmposh, Saeed Shirali *, Esmaeel Ebrahimi, Alireza Barari Page 3
    Context: Menopause is characterized by amenorrhea and increase in the level of Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH) due to the permanent cessation of ovarian function. This process causes changes in hormonal and other serum markers. Depression is the leading cause of disease-related disabilities in women..
    Objectives
    The aim of this review was to investigate the correlation between hormonal and petrochemical changes and depression with menopausal status..Data Sources: We searched in Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus, Embase, the reference lists of all related studies and major relevant review articles from 1960 to October 2014, and also abstracts from associated congresses and meetings, using terms related to hormonal and serum markers, depression and its symptoms..Study Selection: The survey included prospective, retrospective and case-control studies. The selected studies explored menopause in study population and investigated variables and different markers in depression or anxiety, as well as those measuring depression or anxiety intensity..Data Extraction: Items for which data were extracted included the date and place of publication, study design, sources, human species, age, control groups, selection and appraisal methods, outcome measurement tools, and author’s conclusions. One investigator (Mostafa Chashmposh) collected the relevant reports, whereas two other authors independently reviewed the published data and reported different hormonal markers related to depression as evaluated by different studies. Disagreements were resolved by the fourth reviewer’s decision..
    Results
    The period of menopause is mostly associated with a gradual decline of estrogen activity and increased secretion of nocturnal melatonin. During menopausal transition, overnight cortisol levels were associated with changes in estrone glucuronide, testosterone, and FSH levels. In addition, whole blood serotonin concentration is reduced during menopause. Furthermore, lipid markers including total and LDL cholesterol levels increase during perimenopause. Moreover, plasma Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) concentration decreases significantly in postmenopausal period. Based on different studies, the reduction of hormones including estrogen, serotonin and BDNF during menopause are associated with depression in women. Further studies documented the relationship between depressed mood symptoms and cortisol levels..
    Conclusions
    The available evidence suggests that transition to menopause and its changing hormonal and other serum markers are strongly associated with depressed mood among women..
    Keywords: Menopause, Depression, Hormonal Changes, Neurochemical Changes
  • Sayyede Marzieh Ketabipoor, Maryam Koushkie Jahromi * Page 4
    Background
    Menopause is associated with increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease, and different exercise regimens can variously affect different cardiovascular risk factors..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an aerobic exercise in water on serum estrogen, C-reactive protein (CRP) and body mass index (BMI) levels in obese and normal weight postmenopausal women..Patients and
    Methods
    This quasi-experimental study comprised 29 volunteer non-athletic postmenopausal women with mean age 57.04 ± 4.68 years. The study subjects were divided into two groups of obese (n = 15; BMI = 30.21 ± 3.89) and normal weight (n = 14; BMI = 22.43 ± 2.45) according to their BMI. The subjects of both groups participated in aquatic exercise training for 8 weeks, 3 sessions a week, with progressive intensity of 50 to 70 percent of maximum heart rate for 45 minutes between 10-11 am. The blood samples were taken the day before and two days after the exercise sessions through the left brachial vein. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney test were used for data analysis..
    Results
    In the obese and normal weight groups exercise caused significant increase in estrogen (P=0.001, P = 0.001, respectively) and decreased the BMI (P = 0.009, P = 0.003, respectively); however, CRP decreased significantly when compared to pre exercise in the normal weight group (P = 0.005), No statistically significant change was observed in the obese group (P = 0.084). There was no significant difference in estrogen (P = 0.32), BMI (P = 0.62) and CRP (P = 0.35) changes following exercise between obese and normal weight groups..
    Conclusions
    In the present study, aquatic aerobic exercise caused similar reduction in some cardiovascular risk factors among obese and normal weight postmenopausal women. However, future studies are recommended for more clarification..
    Keywords: Aerobic exercise, C, reactive protein, Estrogen, Body Mass Index, Post menopause
  • Aliyar Ahmadi *, Fatemeh Roosta Page 5
    Background
    Health promotion is receiving an ever increasing attention regarding its prominent role in health of population. Health promoting lifestyle could be due, in some part, to enhancing knowledge about healthy behaviors..
    Objectives
    Due to the importance of healthy lifestyle in current situation of chronic diseases in Iranian society, the aim of this study was to determine the correlates of health promoting life style with a special emphasis on the role of health knowledge among women of reproductive age..Patients and
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 392 women of child bearing age (15 - 49 years) in 2013 in the city of Shiraz, southern Iran. The participants were selected through random cluster sampling. The scale for health promotion lifestyle was Walker’s Health Promoting lifestyle Profile (HPLP), which encompasses six healthy lifestyle dimensions including health self-responsibility, nutrition, physical activity, stress management, interpersonal relationships and spiritual growth..
    Results
    The results of the study indicated a significant association between health knowledge (r = 0.225, P = 0.000), rate of study in health matters (r = 0.341, P = 0.000), women’s education (r = 0.109, P = 0.035), husbands’ education (r = 0.182, P = 0.005), and socio-economic class (Spearman’ rho = 0.154, P = 0.000) and Health Promoting lifestyle (HPLS). In addition, age and education affected HPLS through health knowledge. There was no significant association between age, age at marriage, family size, marital status, experience of abortion and occupation with Health Promoting lifestyle..
    Conclusions
    Knowledge automatically creates the desired changes in behavior. Health professionals and health education programs have to increase awareness of healthy lifestyle behaviors that enables people to apply this knowledge in their everyday lives. Therefore, the goal of health policy should be promoting the health knowledge of the population.
    Keywords: Health Promotion, Lifestyle, Health Behavior, Women
  • Ahmad Kalateh Sadati *, Farnaz Rahnavard, Najmeh Ebrahimzadeh, Najmeh Maharloei Page 6
    Background
    Breast cancer is closely linked with the quality of passage of time by the patient..
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of the passage of time in narratives of women with breast cancer..Patients and
    Methods
    Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 8 women after mastectomy. A thematic method based on the qualitative research was used to explore the meaningful themes..
    Results
    The results obtained revealed that the story of passing of time involved two fluctuation modes. At the primary stages of encountering breast cancer the patients experience a chaotic time in which the first reaction was denying and disavowing the fact that they were plagued by an unexpected threat. Following this stage, the patients begin to progressively base their experience on creativity and religious coping strategies called the calmness period..
    Conclusions
    Passing of time is of fluctuation type. Creativity and religious context have main roles in resolving the psychological problems of women with breast cancer. Therefore, policy makers must consider planning to enrich religious beliefs in women with breast cancer..
    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Passage of Time, Fluctuation, Chaotic Experience
  • Thomas Theodore Samaras * Page 7
    Background
    For over 100 years, the medical community has assumed that promoting higher birth weight, faster growth, early maturation and taller height assures better health and longevity. In 2005, this assumption was challenged and a hypothesis was proposed that the obesity epidemic is driven by higher birth weight, rapid growth rate, early sexual maturity and excessive height. Over the last 10 years, much research has evolved that supports this alternative hypothesis..
    Objectives
    To provide additional evidence to support the hypothesis that the obesity epidemic and various health problems are due to increasing birth weight, rapid growth, early sexual maturation and excessive height growth..
    Materials And Methods
    A collection of over 5000 papers, reports and books provided a variety of findings for this report. Publications dealing with the issues discussed in the original 2005 paper were obtained from this collection of documents. Additional material was obtained from internet sources, such as on-line journals and reports..
    Results
    Scores of research and review papers provide substantial support for an alternative hypothesis on obesity and human health. The research supports the dangers of the modern diet that promotes greater birth weight and accelerated childhood growth. Evidence is also presented that early sexual maturity and bigger body size promote health problems and reduce longevity. In addition, data based on millions of deaths, indicates that taller height is related to reduced longevity under similar nutrition and lifestyle conditions..
    Conclusions
    It is recommended that traditional assumptions be re-evaluated on the risks related to higher birth weight, rapid growth, early maturity and increased height and weight..
    Keywords: Birth Weight, Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor, Sexual Maturation, Chronic Disease, Longevity, Nutrition, Obesity Epidemic, Height
  • Mehran Karimi *, Nader Cohan, Shirin Parand Page 8