فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:5 Issue:4, 2015
  • Volume:5 Issue:4, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/04/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Peyman Rezaie, Mohsen Mazidi, Mohsen Nematy Pages 271-281
    A kind of growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), ghrelin, was first isolated from the rat stomach and plays a major role in the activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) resulting the release of growth hormone (GH). The preproghrelin gene is placed on chromosome 3, at locus 3p25 –2 in humans and constitutes five exons and three introns. Ghrelin is most plentifully expressed in particular cells in the oxyntic glands of the gastric epithelium, initially named X/A-like cells. Almost 60-70% of circulating ghrelin is secreted by the stomach. Plasma ghrelin concentration alters throughout the day. Ghrelin has been suggested to act as a meal initiator because of its appetite-stimulating influences in free feeding rats in short period. In addition to ghrelin’s function as a meal motivator, it seems to contribute in long-term energy balance and nutritional status. In addition, many studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effects of natural and medicinal plants and botanical extracts on appetite, food intake, energy hemostasis, and the level of related hormones including ghrelin. Due to the importance of ghrelin in nutritional and medical sciences, this review was performed to understand new aspects of this hormone’s function.
    Keywords: Ghrelin, Food intake, Botanical extracts, Appetite
  • Raj Chanchal, A. Balasubramaniam, Raj Navin, Sayyed Nadeem Pages 282-287
    Objective
    Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD) from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice.
    Materials And Methods
    Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o.) of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg). Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus.
    Results
    TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity.
    Conclusion
    The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior.
    Keywords: Tabernaemontana divaricate, Fluoxetine, Burying behavior
  • Maryam Hajimoradi, Mohammad Fazilati, Mohammad Kazem Gharib, Naseri, Alireza Sarkaki Pages 288-297
    Objective
    The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA) for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush.
    Materials And Methods
    Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1) Control (Cont), 2) Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh), 3-5) Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA) (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally), 6) Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe), and 7) Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200) for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and p<0.05 has assigned as the significant difference.
    Results
    Pain threshold was increased significantly in untreated crushed rats while motor function and SNCV were decreased in all groups with nerve crush (p<0.05, p<0.01, p
    Conclusion
    GA, dose-dependently, may have therapeutic potential to improve the peripheral nerve degeneration, which is most likely related, at least in part, to its antioxidant and therapeutic properties.
    Keywords: Sciatic nerve crush, Gallic acid, Exercise, Pain, Motor, SNCV, Rat
  • Mandana Tavakkoli, Kakhki, Saeid Eslami, Malihe Motavasselian Pages 298-308
    Objectives
    Considering the positive effects of certain nutrients on depression, increasingly prevalent in the contemporary societies, we investigated the nutritional content of prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients in Iranian Traditional Medicine resources.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to conduct the study, credible sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were primarily reviewed for the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. USDA database, as a well-known and valuable source, was then visited to determine the amount of effective nutrients in each foodstuff. Finally, the obtained amounts were compared with each other in three food groups, namely vegetables, fruits and nuts and also high protein products.
    Results
    In Iranian Traditional Medicine texts, the following are prescribed for depression management: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, chard, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, and trout; cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, and beef, meanwhile, are prohibited. In this regard, the effective nutritional content of these foodstuffs was obtained and then compared in the three food­­ groups.
    Conclusions
    This study revealed that spinach, lettuce, chicory, and squash (vegetables), pomegranate and almond (fruits and nuts) and ultimately trout (high protein products) are the best effective foodstuffs on depressed patients from nutritional content aspect.
    Keywords: Medicine, Traditional, Depression, Food
  • Zinab Mohsenipour, Mehdi Hassanshahian Pages 309-318
    Objective
    Microorganisms are responsible for many problems in industry and medicine because of biofilm formation. Therefore, this study was aimed to examine the effect of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts on the planktonic form and biofilm structures of six pathogenic bacteria.
    Materials And Methods
    Antimicrobial activities of the plant extracts against the planktonic form of the bacteria were determined using the disc diffusion method. MIC and MBC values were evaluated using macrobroth dilution technique. Anti-biofilm effects were assessed by microtiter plate method.
    Results
    According to disc diffusion test (MIC and MBC), the ability of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts for inhibition of bacteria in planktonic form was confirmed. In dealing with biofilm structures, the inhibitory effect of the extracts was directly correlated to their concentration. Except for the inhibition of biofilm formation, efficacy of each extract was independent from type of solvent.
    Conclusion
    According to the potential of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) extracts to inhibit the test bacteria in planktonic and biofilm form, it can be suggested that Thymus vulgaris(T. vulgaris)extracts can be applied as antimicrobial agents against the pathogenic bacteria particularly in biofilm forms.
    Keywords: Biofilm, Thymus vulgaris, Antimicrobial effect, Pathogenic bacteria
  • Mohammad Naser Shafei, Amir Baniasad, Abolfazl Khajavirad, Mahmoud Hosseini, Saeed Aminzadah, Mahmoud Ghavi Pages 319-324
    Objective
    Rosa damascena mill L. (R. damascena) is a well-known plant with fragrant effects. Several therapeutic effects of this plant on respiratory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems have been reported. It is also suggested to have beneficial effect on cardiovascular system especially blood pressure regulation. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute cardiovascular effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena.
    Materials And Methods
    Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n= 8 for each group). After anesthesia, a catheter was inserted into the femoral artery and blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded by a power lab system. Animals received three doses of hydro-alcoholic extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) via peritoneal (i.p). After 30 min, systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR were recorded and maximal changes were compared to control group.
    Results
    Injection of all doses of the extract did not significantly change HR compare to control group. The SBP, dose dependently, was decreased by all doses of the extract and the maximal response was significant compared to saline group (p
    Conclusion
    This study provides evidence of a hypotensive effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena with no significant effect on HR. Therefore, R. damascena is suggested to have beneficial effect to control blood pressure. However, it needs to be more investigated.
    Keywords: Rosa damascena mill, Blood pressure. Heart rate, Rat
  • Mostafa Kazemian Mansur Abad, Mohammad Reza Haeri, Mansoor Ebrahimi, Reza Heidari Pages 325-332
    Objective
    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorders with severe impact on quality of life. Reducing serum glucose levels and normalization of serum lipid is of great clinical importance for treating diabetes. To our knowledge, there are not any evidences about the anti-diabetic action of capparis spinosa root. In the present study the effects of the C. spinosa root extract on diabetic metabolic disorders have been studied in experimental diabetes.
    Materials And Methods
    Rats were divided into six groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), diabetic rats receiving 0.2, 0.4 g/kg of plant extract or 0.6 mg/kg glibenclamide (groups D0.2, D0.4 or DG respectively). A normal group of rats was also designed to receive 0.2 g/kg of plant extract (N0.2). Rats were rendered diabetic (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg, i.p.) and treated with 0.2, 0.4 g/ kg of plant extract or glibenclamide for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn through heart puncture under deep anesthesia. Weight was measured weekly, glucose levels were measured at the first and fourth week and lipid profiles, insulin and liver enzymes at the end of the study.
    Results
    Glucose levels significantly decreased after treating with plant extract (p=0.003). However, insulin levels did not increase in any treating groups. Plant extract could significantly raise HDL and reduce levels of LDL and liver enzymes (ALT and ALP).
    Conclusion
    These results showed that C. spinosa rootextract could improve diabetic related metabolic derangement such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated liver markers in an insulin-independent manner.
    Keywords: capparis spinosa, Diabetes Mellitus, insulin, glibenclamide
  • Abbasali Abbasnezhad, Parichehr Hayatdavoudi, Saeed Niazmand, Maryam Mahmoudabady Pages 333-340
    Objective
    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology of diabetic complications. Diabetes impairs hippocampus neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Nigella sativa seed on oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rat's hippocampus.
    Materials And Methods
    Diabetes induced by 60 mg/kg STZ, i.p, and the rats were divided into five experimental groups (n=8-10 in each group) including control (received 0.5 ml normal saline), untreated STZ-diabetic (received 0.5 ml normal saline), and treated rats received Nigella sativa extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) or metformin (300 mg/kg) by gavage for 42 days. Serum glucose concentration and body weight as well as hippocampus tissue malondialdehyde and thiollevels were determined by calorimetric assay.
    Results
    Serum glucose level in the diabetic rats treated with 200 mg/kg Nigella sativaextract at the days 24 and 45 decreased in comparison to untreated diabetic group (p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively). Weight loss was significantly different between metformin and Nigella sativa extract at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p<0.05).Thiol content of hippocampus increased by 200 mg/kg Nigella sativa extract in comparison to untreated diabetic group (p<0.05). Malondialdehyde content of hippocampus reduced by Nigella sativa extract, 200 mg/kg (p<0.001), 400 mg/kg (p<0.05), and metformin (p<0.05) in comparison to the untreated diabetic group.
    Conclusion
    The results of the present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of the Nigella sativa decreased oxidative stress in hippocampus of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. Nigella sativa at the dose of 200 mg/kg was more effective to reduce oxidative stress in hippocampus of rats.
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Nigella sativa, oxidative stress, Hippocampus, Rat
  • Ebrahim Nasiri, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr, Mohammad Azadbakht, Jafar Akbari, Reza Enayati, Fard, Soheil Azizi Pages 341-354
    Objectives
    Burn injury is one of the most health-threatening problems in the world. Malva sylvestris (M. sylvestris) flowershave a high mucilage content and are used as a remedy for cut wound and dermal infected wounds in Iranian folklore Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of M. sylvestris cream on the second degree burn injury in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Five groups of 10 rats per group were burned with hot metal plate. Animals were administrated divided as control, normal saline, standard silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD), 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris into separate groups. Wound area, percentage of wound contraction, and histological and bacteriological assessments were evaluated.
    Results
    Wound sizes were not significantly different among groups on 1st and 3rd days after burn injury, while they were significantly different among groups after 7th day post-burn injury. The average areas of wounds on the 15th day were 7.5±2.9, 6.7±2, 10.5±1.6, 4.7±2, and 4.5±2 cm2 for base cream, normal saline, SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris, respectively. The results of histology exhibited well-formed horizontally-oriented collagen fibers in MS topical treatment groups. Microorganisms existed in the SSD group were most probably Staphilococcus epidermitis and for NS group were staphylococcus saprophiteccus.
    Conclusion
    M. sylvestris cream improved histological changes of tissue components in the process of healing when compared with SSD cream. Therefore, it can be used as a topical treatment agent for burn wound.
    Keywords: Malva sylvestris, burns, silver sulfadiazine, Rats, Wound healing
  • Arun Kumar, Ranjit Kumar, Mohammad Samuir Rahman, Mohammad Asif Iqubal, Gautam Anand, Pintoo Kumar Niraj, Mohammad Ali Pages 355-364
    Objective
    The main objective of the current study was to observe the ameliorative effect of Withania somnifera on arsenic-induced testicular toxicity by exploring the crucial parameters such as sperm counts, sperm motility, hormonal assay and lipid peroxidation including histopathology.
    Materials And Methods
    In the present study, arsenic in the form of sodium arsenite was administered orally to male Charles Foster rats for 45 days. Thereafter, ethanolic root extract of Withania somnifera was administered for 30 days to observe its ameliorative effect on male reproductive system.
    Results
    The study revealed that after administration of sodium arsenite, there was a decrease in the sperm counts and sperm motility accompanied by an increased incidence of sperm abnormalities and hormonal imbalance leading to infertility. However, after administration of Withania somnifera, there was significant reversal in the parameters denoting that it not only possesses antioxidant and rejuvenating property but also maintains the cellular integrity of testicular cells leading to normal functioning of it.
    Conclusion
    The study concludes that Withania somnifera possesses phytoremedial effect. It is one of the best antidotes against arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.
    Keywords: Sodium arsenite, W.somnifera, Rats, testicular toxicity, Sperm Count, Testosterone