فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Roohollah Shiralipour *, Hooshang Parham, Behrooz Zargar Page 1
    Background
    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are two of the hazardous metals in the environment due to their acute and chronic effects on human health. Zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVINPs) are one of the adsorbents proposed as an efficient adsorbent for Pb and Cd..
    Objectives
    This study evaluated the quantitative removal efficiency of Pb and Cd ions from contaminated water by ZVINPs. In addition, the capability of ZVINPs as a solid phase extractor for preconcentration and determination of Pb and Cd was investigated..
    Materials And Methods
    Four samples, each from different water sources like Well water (Shushtar, Iran), Karoon River (Ahvaz, Iran), Caspian Sea (northern Iran) and Persian Gulf (southern Iran) were collected..
    Results
    The elapsed time for quantitative removal of both Pb and Cd ions was two minutes. This method is applicable in a widespread range of pH and relatively high concentrations of electrolyte (NaCl) for the efficient removal (> 99%) of Pb and Cd ions in water samples. The adsorption of Pb and Cd ions on ZVINPs was well followed by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption amounts of Pb and Cd ions on ZVINPs were 96.5 and 58.3 mg/g, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) of the method for lead and cadmium ions were 0.015 and 0.002 mg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations for ten replicate determinations (Pb2+ 0.3 mg/L, Cd2+ 0.03 mg/L) were below 5%. The enrichment factors were more than 16 and 14 for Pb2+ and Cd2+, respectively..
    Conclusions
    The proposed method is simple, fast, cost-effective and safe for the environment..
    Keywords: Lead, Cadmium, Solid Phase Extraction
  • Hossein Ali Rangkooy *, Arezoo Zangeneh, Amin Lefti Page 2
    Background
    Light is the first that necessary for any effort. This factor, more than any physical variable, affects human labor. Two properties of cognitive and psychological lighting in the workplace can affect human performance..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to assess the illuminance in CO2 Gas unit of Khuzestan Zam Zam Company, and resolve its light deficiency through artificial lighting design..
    Materials And Methods
    This study is a descriptive-analytical based on survey of natural and artificial lighting sources in the workplace. It also included measurement of lighting levels in 3 shifts, calculating the average illuminance and comparing with recommended values, drawing graphs of results measured illuminance and finally designing the lighting of the unit by lumen method with room index (Kr). The study was conducted between March and June 2006 and its data were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)..
    Results
    Mean ± SD level of illuminance in the morning, evening, and night was 211.31 ± 292.07, 182.16 ± 205.16, 67.47 ± 71.10 (lx), respectively. The results showed that there is a significant difference (P < 0.001) between average illuminance of 3 shifts of morning (day light), evening, and night (artificial light) and the standard illuminance value (300 lx), which entails the lighting design’s work area for this unit. According to the design of artificial lighting base on the lumen method calculations in CO2 Gas unit, 400, 250 watt Metal Halides and 10585 watt compact fluorescent lamps were required, which their numbers were 610 and 44, respectively..
    Conclusions
    This paper considered the method based on comprehensive surveys of workplace illuminance levels (natural light and artificial light) and design of lighting system as one of workplace physical factors in order to increase the efficiency of the production unit, decrease in carelessness, fatigue errors, and work accident..
    Keywords: Illuminance Assessment, Lighting, Work Place
  • Massumeh Ahmadizadeh *, Ebrahim Abdolkany, Maryam Afravy Page 3
    Background
    Styrene (ST) is widely used as an organic solvent in many industrial settings. Increasing evidence indicated that ST induced toxicity in human and animals. Occupational exposure to ST can result in multiple-organ toxicity..
    Objectives
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effect of vitamin C (Vit C) on ST- induced toxicity in rat liver and kidney..
    Materials And Methods
    Adult male rats were pretreated with 300 mg/kg Vit C intraperitoneally. Control rats received vehicle only (distilled water, D H2O). Thirty minutes later, animals were given different doses (0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg) of ST. Twenty-four hours later, animals were killed and their blood samples were processed for determination of biochemical parameters. Liver damage was estimated by measuring serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activity. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated by measuring Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine (CR) concentrations. Liver and kidney tissues were removed, fixed and processed for light microscopy..
    Results
    Styrene induced a dose-dependent elevation in the AST, ALT, ALP, BUN and CR levels when compared to those of the control animals. The liver and kidney tissues were intact in control rats. Moreover, ST provoked a dose-dependent injury in the liver and kidney tissues. Vitamin C significantly decreased all biochemical parameters and protected liver and kidney cells against ST-induced toxicity..
    Conclusions
    The results of this study showed that Vit C has potential to protect rat liver and kidney tissues against styrene toxicity..
    Keywords: Styrene, Vitamin C, Liver, Kidney, Rats
  • Leila Ibrahimi Ghavam Abadi, Behzad Fouladi Dehaghi *, Mathaerh Boazar Page 4
    Background
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of main air pollutants which are produced by motor vehicles and are known as carcinogens..
    Objectives
    This study was conducted to investigate the environmental exposure of children to PAHs using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) measurement..Patients and
    Methods
    A total of 260 participants enrolled in the study, aged between 6 - 12 years. Environmental exposure due to urban traffic and tobacco smoke was investigated. Morning and evening urine samples were collected and 1-OHP concentrations were measured. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector, used for sample analysis, and 1-OHP concentrations in urine samples, corrected by urinary creatinine, were determined for PAHs exposure assessment. Information on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at home and air pollution of the residential area as a measure of heavy traffic and living close to busy highways were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire..
    Results
    In general, the results showed that males had higher 1-OHP levels than females (P < 0.05). The total morning levels were 0.47 ± 0.12 µmol/mol crea vs. 0.63 ± 0.15 µmol/mol crea for evening. In the presence of ETS, higher 1-OHP concentrations were observed in morning samples. In addition, living in a polluted area is strongly associated with higher levels of 1-OHP..
    Conclusions
    Taking into account that Iran is a developing country with a young population and numerous PAHs sources, environmental exposure to PAHs at these levels can be dangerous for children’s health. Furthermore, PAHs can be declared as national concerning environmental pollutants..
    Keywords: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Children, 1, Hydroxypyrene, Environmental Exposure, Biomonitoring
  • Mansooreh Dehghani *, Ebrahim Haidari, Samaneh Shahsavani, Narges Shamsedini Page 5
    Background
    In recent years, the nitrate concentration in surface water and especially in groundwater was increased significantly in many parts of Iran..
    Objectives
    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH) to remove nitrate from aqueous phase as well as to determine the removal efficiency at the optimal condition..
    Materials And Methods
    The present study was conducted on a bench scale experiment. The spectrophotometer DR5000 (wavelength 520 nm) was used to determine the nitrate concentration. The effect of influencing parameters including pH at 5 levels (3.8 - 7.8), initial nitrate concentration at 4 levels (50 - 150 mg/L) the amount of adsorbent dose (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 g/50mL), the effects of interfering ions, such as sulfate ions at 4 levels (200 - 800 mg/L) and chloride ions at 4 levels (200 - 800 mg/L), and contact time at 3 levels (30 - 90 minutes) were studied..
    Results
    Based on our data, pH of 4.8, adsorbent dose of 3.75 g and contact time of 90 minutes is optimal for nitrate removal. Furthermore, the nitrate reduction rate was increased rapidly by the addition of the adsorbent and decreased by nitrate addition. The nitrate reduction rate was increased by increasing the contact time. The percent of nitrate reduction was significantly enhanced by decreasing the pH (from 7.8 to 8.4) and then reached a plateau with a relative slow equilibration. Moreover, adsorption efficiency was significantly decreased in the presence of interfering ions, such as sulfate and chloride ions..
    Conclusions
    In conclusion, GFH can be used as a reliable and appropriate method with high efficiency for the reduction of nitrate in many polluted water resources..
    Keywords: Nitrates, Ferric Hydroxide, Groundwater
  • Hamid Behroozi *, Masoumeh Alboghbeish, Ali Khalafi, Ahmad Azizi, Marzieh Tahmasebi, Shahriar Aghasi Page 6
    Background
    The number of casualties and critically ill patients referred to radiology departments increased during the past decade, which caused the risk of cardiac arrest in radiology departments to increase considerably..
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of radiology technologists regarding Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)..Patients and
    Methods
    After approval a cross sectional study was designed. Ninety five radiology technologists (male and female) were selected in four tertiary referral hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran. Accordingly, 87 radiologic technologists of which agreed to participate in the study. The researchers developed a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three distinct sections including demographic data, attitude, and technical knowledge questions. Reliability of the technical knowledge questions were evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha (76%). Data collection was performed using interview method..
    Results
    Of the total 87 questionnaires, one was incomplete. None of the participants had attended a training program since employment. The average scores of attitude towards CPR and technical knowledge were 80 ± 8.9 and 8.8 ± 2.3, respectively. A correlation was observed between age and work experience (r = 0.866, P ≤ 0.0001), age and technical knowledge (r = 0.380, P ≤ 0.0001), work experience and technical knowledge (r = 0.317, P = 0.003), and attitude and technical knowledge (r = 0.397, P ≤ 0.0001). Also a correlation was observed between work experience and attitude (r = 0.385, P ≤ 0.0001). No significant difference was observed between male and female subjects’ technical knowledge (P ≥ 0.05) and attitude (P ≥ 0.05)..
    Conclusions
    It can be concluded that, although the attitude of participants towards CPR was positive in general, their technical knowledge was poor. This finding should urge decision-makers to consider delivering in-service training courses to radiology technologists considering the increasing number of casualties and critically ill patients referred to radiology departments..
    Keywords: Electric Countershock, Heart Arrest, Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
  • Mansooreh Dehghani, Mohammad Mehdi Taghizadeh, Talat Gholami, Mahshid Ghadami, Laila Keshtgar, Zahra Elhameyan, Mohammad Reza Javaheri, Narges Shamsedini *, Fatemeh Jamshidi, Samaneh Shahsavani, Masoud Ghanbarian Page 7
    Background
    Reactive dyes, anionic compounds with high water solubility, are widely used in textile industries..
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to assess the feasibility of the photo-Fenton process in removing Reactive Red 198 dye from aqueous solutions and determine the optimal conditions for maximum removal..
    Materials And Methods
    This study was performed on a laboratory scale using a 4-liter photochemical reactor. The spectrophotometer DR5000 (wavelength 520 nm) was used to determine the dye concentration. The effect of the influencing parameters, including pH (3–9), Fe (II) concentration (10–200 mg/L), H2O2 concentration (25 - 150 mg/L), initial dye concentration (50–200 mg/L), and reaction time (15 - 120 minutes) were studied..
    Results
    According to the results, the photo-Fenton (UV/ H2O2/Fe (II)) process significantly removed dye from the aqueous solution. The Reactive Red 198 dye removal efficiency from aqueous solutions was more than 99% at optimal conditions (pH = 3, Fe (II) = 10 mg/L, H2O2 = 75 mg/L, initial dye concentration = 50 mg/L, and reaction time = 120 minutes)..
    Conclusions
    The present study demonstrated that the UV/ H2O2/Fe (II) process could be used as an efficient, reliable method for removing Reactive Red 198 dye from textile wastewater..
    Keywords: Reactive Red 198, Wastewater, Decolorization, Dye Removal
  • Mohammad Hossein Khosrotaj, Mansour Zahiri *, Sheyda Javadipoor, Seyyd Mahmood Latifi Page 8
    Background
    Evaluation and determination of different achievements of interventions in health care is one of the important responsibilities of the health system..
    Objectives
    The aim of present study was to evaluate the integration of mental health program in the Primary Health Care (PHC) system in rural areas of Dezful district in view of participants and health workers..Patients and
    Methods
    In this descriptive-cross sectional research, which was done in rural areas of Dezful during year 2014, the main indexes of mentioned integration such as knowledge, attitude and performance of physicians, health workers and participants were measured. The data collection instrument was valid and reliable questionnaires, which are often used by the mental health department of the health ministry. Validity and reliability of questionnaires have frequently been confirmed by researchers in different studies. The study population included all 19 rural physicians, 89 health workers and a random sample of 15 - 60 year-old participants in the health network of Dezful. Frequency of distribution and computation of central and distribution indexes were used for data analysis..
    Results
    The amount of physicians’ knowledge was about 50%, while the rate of health workers’ knowledge was 62%. The rate of health workers’ attitude was 92%, while the rate of participants’ knowledge was 50% and the rate of participants’ attitude was 19%. Consequently, the integration of mental health in primary health care system of rural areas of Dezful district has been relatively successful..
    Conclusions
    The integration of mental health into Primary Health Care is an important priority in the Iranian health system. Monitoring and evaluation of this strategic project to remove its weaknesses is essential..
    Keywords: Evaluation, Mental Health, Primary Health Care