فهرست مطالب

Medical Signals and Sensors - Volume:5 Issue:3, 2015
  • Volume:5 Issue:3, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/05/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Soudabeh Taghian Dinani, Maryam Zekri, Marzieh Kamali Pages 131-140
    Diabetes is considered as a global affecting disease with an increasing contribution to both mortality rate and cost damage in the society. Therefore, tight control of blood glucose levels has gained significant attention over the decades. This paper proposes a method for blood glucose level regulation in type 1 diabetics. The control strategy is based on combining the fuzzy logic theory and single order sliding mode control (SOSMC) to improve the properties of sliding mode control method and to alleviate its drawbacks. The aim of the proposed controller that is called SOSMC combined with fuzzy on‑line tunable gain is to tune the gain of the controller adaptively. This merit causes a less amount of control effort, which is the rate of insulin delivered to the patient body. As a result, this method can decline the risk of hypoglycemia, a lethal phenomenon in regulating blood glucose level in diabetics caused by a low blood glucose level. Moreover, it attenuates the chattering observed in SOSMC significantly. It is worth noting that in this approach, a mathematical model called minimal model is applied instead of the intravenously infused insulin–blood glucose dynamics. The simulation results demonstrate a good performance of the proposed controller in meal disturbance rejection and robustness against parameter changes. In addition, this method is compared to fuzzy high‑order sliding mode control (FHOSMC) and the superiority of the new method compared to FHOSMC is shown in the results.
  • Asieh Soltanipour, Saeed Sadri, Hossein Rabbani, Mohammad Reza Akhlaghi Pages 141-155
    This paper presents a new procedure for automatic extraction of the blood vessels and optic disk (OD) in fundus fluorescein angiogram (FFA). In order to extract blood vessel centerlines, the algorithm of vessel extraction starts with the analysis of directional images resulting from sub‑bands of fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT) in the similar directions and different scales. For this purpose, each directional image is processed by using information of the first order derivative and eigenvalues obtained from the Hessian matrix. The final vessel segmentation is obtained using a simple region growing algorithm iteratively, which merges centerline images with the contents of images resulting from modified top‑hat transform followed by bit plane slicing. After extracting blood vessels from FFA image, candidates regions for OD are enhanced by removing blood vessels from the FFA image, using multi‑structure elements morphology, and modification of FDCT coefficients. Then, canny edge detector and Hough transform are applied to the reconstructed image to extract the boundary of candidate regions. At the next step, the information of the main arc of the retinal vessels surrounding the OD region is used to extract the actual location of the OD. Finally, the OD boundary is detected by applying distance regularized level set evolution. The proposed method was tested on the FFA images from angiography unit of Isfahan Feiz Hospital, containing 70 FFA images from different diabetic retinopathy stages. The experimental results show the accuracy more than 93% for vessel segmentation and more than 98% for OD boundary extraction.
  • Fatemeh Jamaloo, Mohammad Mikaeili Pages 156-161
    Common spatial pattern (CSP) is a method commonly used to enhance the effects of event‑related desynchronization and event‑related synchronization present in multichannel electroencephalogram‑based brain‑computer interface (BCI) systems. In the present study, a novel CSP sub‑band feature selection has been proposed based on the discriminative information of the features. Besides, a distinction sensitive learning vector quantization based weighting of the selected features has been considered. Finally, after the classification of the weighted features using a support vector machine classifier, the performance of the suggested method has been compared with the existing methods based on frequency band selection, on the same BCI competitions datasets. The results show that the proposed method yields superior results on “ay” subject dataset compared against existing approaches such as sub‑band CSP, filter bank CSP (FBCSP), discriminative FBCSP, and sliding window discriminative CSP.
  • Alireza Shirazi Nodeh, Hossein Ahmadi Noubari, Hossein Rabbani, Alireza Mehri Dehnavi Page 162
    Recent studies on wavelet transform and fractal modeling applied on mammograms for the detection of cancerous tissues indicate that microcalcifications and masses can be utilized for the study of the morphology and diagnosis of cancerous cases. It is shown that the use of fractal modeling, as applied to a given image, can clearly discern cancerous zones from noncancerous areas. In this paper, for fractal modeling, the original image is first segmented into appropriate fractal boxes followed by identifying the fractal dimension of each windowed section using a computationally efficient two‑dimensional box‑counting algorithm. Furthermore, using appropriate wavelet sub‑bands and image Reconstruction based on modified wavelet coefficients, it is shown that it is possible to arrive at enhanced features for detection of cancerous zones. In this paper, we have attempted to benefit from the advantages of both fractals and wavelets by introducing a new algorithm. By using a new algorithm named F1W2, the original image is first segmented into appropriate fractal boxes, and the fractal dimension of each windowed section is extracted. Following from that, by applying a maximum level threshold on fractal dimensions matrix, the best‑segmented boxes are selected. In the next step, the segmented Cancerous zones which are candidates are then decomposed by utilizing standard orthogonal wavelet transform and db2 wavelet in three different resolution levels, and after nullifying wavelet coefficients of the image at the first scale and low frequency band of the third scale, the modified reconstructed image is successfully utilized for detection of breast cancer regions by applying an appropriate threshold. For detection of cancerous zones, our simulations indicate the accuracy of 90.9% for masses and 88.99% for microcalcifications detection results using the F1W2 method. For classification of detected mictocalcification into benign and malignant cases, eight features are identified and utilized in radial basis function neural network. Our simulation results indicate the accuracy of 92% classification using F1W2 method.
  • Shokufeh Pirdamooie, Ahmad Shanei, Masoud Molsehi Pages 171-170
    The aim of this study was the investigation of absorbed dose to the kidneys, spleen, and liver during technetium-99 m ethylene dicysteine and technetium-99 m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTPA) kidney scan. Patients who had been prepared for the kidney scan, were divided into two groups (Groups 1 and 2). The first group (Group 1) and the second group (Group 2) received intravenous injection of 99mTc-EC and 99mTc-DTP, respectively. A certain amount of radiopharmaceuticals was injected into each patient and was immediately imaged with dual-head gamma camera to calculate the activity through the conjugated view method. Then, the doses of kidney, liver, and spleen were measured using medical internal radiation dosimetry method. Finally, absorbed dose of these organs was compared. Based on these different results (P < 0.05), organs absorbed dose was significantly less with radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-EC as compared with 99mTc-DTPA
  • Mohamed Bagher Tavakoli, Ali Kiani, Mahnaz Roayaei Page 176
    Many cellular damages either in normal or cancerous tissues are the outcome of molecular events affected by ionizing radiation. T‑cells are the most important among immune system agents and are used for biological radiation dose measurement in recommended standard methods. The herbs with immune modulating properties may be useful to reduce the risk of the damages and subsequently the diseases. The T‑cells as the most important immune cells being targeted for biological dosimetry of radiation. This study proposes a flowcytometric‑method based on fluorescein isothiocyanate‑ and propidium iodide (PI)‑labeled annexin‑V to assess apoptosis in blood T‑cells after irradiation in both presence and absence of fenugreek extract. T‑cells peripheral blood lymphocyte isolated from blood samples of healthy individuals with no irradiated job background. The media of cultured cells was irradiated 1‑h after the fenugreek extract was added. The number of apoptotic cells was assessed by annexin‑V protocol and multicolor flowcytometry. An obvious variation in apoptotic cells number was observed in presence of fenugreek extract (>80%). The results suggest that fenugreek extract can potentiate the radiation induced apoptosis or radiation toxicity in blood T‑cells (P < 0.05).
  • Sheyda Bahrami, Hamidreza Saberkari, Mousa Shamsi, Habib Badri Ghavifekr, Mohammad Hossein Sedaaghi Page 182
    DNA microarray is a powerful approach to study simultaneously, the expression of 1000 of genes in a single experiment. The average value of the fluorescent intensity could be calculated in a microarray experiment. The calculated intensity values are very close in amount to the levels of expression of a particular gene. However, determining the appropriate position of every spot in microarray images is a main challenge, which leads to the accurate classification of normal and abnormal (cancer) cells. In this paper, first a preprocessing approach is performed to eliminate the noise and artifacts available in microarray cells using the nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering method. Then, the coordinate center of each spot is positioned utilizing the mathematical morphology operations. Finally, the position of each spot is exactly determined through applying a novel hybrid model based on the principle component analysis and the spatial fuzzy c‑means clustering (SFCM) algorithm. Using a Gaussian kernel in SFCM algorithm will lead to improving the quality in complementary DNA microarray segmentation. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the real microarray images, which is available in Stanford Microarray Databases. Results illustrate that the accuracy of microarray cells segmentation in the proposed algorithm reaches to 100% and 98% for noiseless/noisy cells, respectively.
  • Malihe Hassani Pages 192-200
    The Volterra model is widely used for nonlinearity identification in practical applications. In this paper, we employed Volterra model to find the nonlinearity relation between electroencephalogram (EEG) signal and the noise that is a novel approach to estimate noise in EEG signal. We show that by employing this method. We can considerably improve the signal to noise ratio by the ratio of at least 1.54. An important issue in implementing Volterra model is its computation complexity, especially when the degree of nonlinearity is increased. Hence, in many applications it is urgent to reduce the complexity of computation. In this paper, we use the property of EEG signal and propose a new and good approximation of delayed input signal to its adjacent samples in order to reduce the computation of finding Volterra series coefficients. The computation complexity is reduced by the ratio of at least 1/3 when the filter memory is 3.