فهرست مطالب

Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases - Volume:7 Issue: 3, 2015
  • Volume:7 Issue: 3, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/05/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • Sadaf Ghajarieh Sepanlou, Fatemeh Malekzadeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar, Saeid Shahraz, Maziar Moradi, Lakeh, Reza Malekzadeh, Hossein Poustchi Pages 121-136
    Background
    The general pattern of epidemiologic transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases is also observed for gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILD), which constitute a heterogeneous array of causes of death and disability. We aimed to describe the trend of GILD in Iran based on the global burden of disease (GBD2010) study from 1990 to 2010.
    Methods
    The trend of number of deaths, disability, adjusted life years (DALYs) and their age-standardized rates caused by 5 major GILD have been reported. The change in the rankings of major causes of death and DALY has been described as well.
    Results
    The age standardized rates of death and DALYs in both sexes have decreased from 1990 to 2010 for most GILD. The most prominent decreases in death rates are observed for diarrheal diseases, gastritis and duodenitis, and peptic ulcer disease. Positive trends are observed for liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and gall bladder cancer. Diarrheal diseases have retained their 1st rank among children under 5. Among adults, decreased ranks are observed for diarrheal diseases, appendicitis, gastritis and duodenitis, gall bladder diseases, pancreatitis, and all types of cirrhosis. The trends in age standardized rates of DALYs, deaths, and YLLs are negative for almost all GILD, and especially for diarrheal diseases. However, there is no upward or downward trend in rates of years lost due to disability (YLDs) for most diseases. Total numbers of DALYs and deaths due to acute hepatitis C, stomach cancer, and liver cancers are rising. The total DALYs due to overall digestive diseases except cirrhosis and DALYs due to cirrhosis are both somehow stable. No data has been reported for GILD that are mainly diagnosed in outpatient settings, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
    Conclusion
    The results of GBD 2010 demonstrate that the rates of most GILD are decreasing in Iran but total DALYs are somehow stable. However, as diseases detected in outpatient settings have not been captured, the burden of GILD seems to be underestimated. Population-based studies at national level are required for accurate reports.
    Keywords: Mortality, Disability, Burden, Gastrointestinal Diseases
  • Fatemeh Malekzadeh, Ghajarieh Sepanlou Sadaf, Hossein Poustchi, Mohsen Naghavi, Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar, Saeid Shahraz, Maziar Moradi, Lakeh, Reza Malekzadeh Pages 138-154
    Background
    Gastrointestinal and liver diseases (GILD) constitute a noteworthy portion of causes of death and disability in Iran. However, data on their prevalence and burden is sparse in Iran. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study in 2010 has provided invaluable comprehensive data on the burden of GILD in Iran
    Methods
    Estimations of death, years of life lost due to premature death (YLL), years of life lost due to disability (YLD), disability-adjusted life years (DALY), life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy have been reported for 291 diseases, 67 risk factors, 1160 sequelae, for both sexes and 19 age groups, form 1990 to 2010 for 187 countries. In the current paper, 5 major categories of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases have been investigated as follows: GI infectious diseases, GI and liver cancers, liver infections, chronic end stage liver disease, and other digestive diseases.
    Results
    Among women, 7.6% of all deaths and 3.9% of all DALYs were due to digestive and liver diseases in 2010. The respective figures in men were 7.8% of deaths and 4.6% of DALYs. The most important cause of death among children under 5 is diarrhea. Among adults between 15 to 49 years old, the main causes of death are GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis, while diarrhea still remains a major cause of DALY. Among adults 50 years and above, GI and liver cancers and cirrhosis are the main causes of both deaths and DALYs. Gastritis and duodenitis, diarrheal diseases, gall bladder and bile duct diseases, acute hepatitis A, peptic ulcer disease, appendicitis, and acute hepatitis A mainly cause disability rather than death.
    Conclusion
    GBD study provides invaluable source of data on burden of GILD in Iran. However, there exist limitations, namely overestimation of burden of liver cancer and underestimation of the burden of GI diseases that are usually diagnosed in outpatient settings. The collaboration of scientists across the world and specifically those from developing countries is necessary for improving the accuracy of future updates of GBD in these countries.
    Keywords: Gastrointestinal disease, liver disease, Mortality, Disability, Burden, Iran
  • Shirin Moossavi, Hamideh Salimzadeh, Aezam Katoonizadeh, Asal Mojarrad, Dorsa Merat, Reza Ansari, Homayoon Vahedi, Shahin Merat, Reza Malekzadeh Pages 155-160
    Background
    Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is employed to replace the ‘unhealthy’ microbiota of the patient with the ‘healthy’ microbiota of a pre-screened healthy donor. Given the growing importance of gut microbiota dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of intestinal or extraintestinal diseases; it is conceivable that FMT becomes integrated in the routine clinical practice. Our objective was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the Iranian physicians towards FMT.
    Methods
    We surveyed the participants of Iranian gastroenterology and hepatology 2014 conference.
    Result
    Overall, 146 (68.5%) were familiar with FMT; of whom 132 (94.28%) were willing to accept FMT if scientifically and ethically approved and 115 (88.46%) were willing to refer their patients for FMT if indicated. In total, 42 (30.7%) had identified stool preparation as the most unappealing aspect of FMT, while 17 (11.6%) reported the therapeutic use of fecal material as the most unappealing and 39 (28.5%) indicated that both are equally unappealing. The doctors who had an overall positive opinion toward FMT reported less negative feelings towards FMT.
    Conclusion
    Iranian physicians are willing to accept FMT as a therapeutic option if it is scientifically justified and ethically approved. Nevertheless, physicians prefer to skip the stool preparation phase; as they are more in favour of synthetic microbiota as opposed to fecal microbiota.
    Keywords: Attitude, Awareness, Fecal microbiota transplant, FMT, Gut microbiota, Physician
  • Masoumeh Salari, Mitra Ahady, Seyed Mousalreza Hoseini, Elham Mokhtari, Kamran Gafarzadehgan, Hamid Reza Hashemian, Benyamin Esmaeili, Hassan Vossoughinia Pages 161-165
    Background
    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. They are usually C-kit positive and seen slightly more common in men. These tumors are seen in the GI tract from the esophagus to the anus with occasional invasion or metastasis.
    Method
    In this retrospective study, we evaluated the prevalence of c-kit positive stromal tumors of the GI tract based on age, site of involvement, size of tumor, local invasion, and Immunohistochemical markers. The study was conducted in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in Iran during 2003-2012.
    Results
    Of the total 46 patients, 18 (39.1%) were men and 28(60.9%) were women with a mean age of 58.07 years (range: 18-93). Common sites of tumor were stomach, small intestine, esophagus and rectum, respectively. The number of mitoses per 50 HPF varied between zero and 160 mitoses. Overall, 23 cases had 5 mitoses 50/HPF (50%) and 23 tumors expressed <5 mitoses/50 HPF (50%). Local invasion and metastasis were observed in seven cases with extension to liver, pancreas, pregastric tissue, omentum, mesentery and appendix. Positive reaction for CD34, S100, actin and desmin was seen in 47.8%, 13%, 21.7%, and 4.3% of the patients, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Most patients were women. The prevalence of tumors in the esophagus was higher than the rectum. Invasion and metastasis did not correlate with mitotic rate, site and size of tumor. We suggest evaluation of genetic, racial and geographical or other unknown risk factors.
    Keywords: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors, GIST, Iran
  • Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Zahra Ehsaei, Naser Honar, Hazhir Javaherizadeh Pages 166-169
    Background
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune mediated small intestine inflammation which is occurred due to hypersensitivity reaction to gluten and related proteins in diet in genetically predisposing individuals. Prevalence of celiac among the population is about 0.5 – 1 % in most countries. Frequency of celiac disease in children is a subject of few research. In this study, we aim to determine the frequency of celiac disease in patients presenting with functional constipation.
    Method
    This cross-sectional one which was conducted on children referring to Imam Reza Clinic, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during one year starting from 2011, March 20. One hundred and one children 2-18 years of age which all had constipation for more than 2 months according to ROME III criteria. The entire participants underwent serologic studies of Total IgA and IgA TTG. Serum IgG TTG was measured in cases with reported values of Total IgA below the lowest normal limits. Moreover, endoscopic biopsy of the small intestine was also performed for patients with positive serology.
    Results
    Of all the 101 studied participants, only four individuals (3.96 %) had positive test for IgA TTG (potential celiac disease). one of these patients refused to do endoscopy and endoscopic small intestine biopsy underwent for 3 patients. Two of them had normal pathology and one of them(0.99 %) was confirmed for celiac disease.
    Conclusion
    The frequency of celiac disease in children with chronic constipation is slightly higher than general population but without significant difference(0.99% VS 0.6%; p=0.64). So the screening serologic test for celiac disease is not recommended in children with chronic constipation.
    Keywords: Celiac disease, Constipation, IgA anti, tissue transglutaminase
  • Mahsa Jalili, Homayoon Vahedi, Leila Janani, Hossein Poustchi, Reza Malekzadeh, Azita Hekmatdoost Pages 170-176
    Background
    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the common gastrointestinal disorders with unknown etiology. In experimental models, it is proposed that soy isoflavones may suppress the clinical and psychological symptoms of IBS by alteration of gut barrier tight junctions.
    Methods
    We conducted this study to evaluate the effects of soy isoflavones on IBS symptoms and patients’ quality of life.In a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 67 patients with IBS were allocated to consume either soy isoflavones capsules or a placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was a significant reduction in symptoms severity score and the secondary outcome was a significant improvement in quality of life.
    Results
    45 participants completed the study. There was no significant changes in mean differences of symptoms severity score between the two groups; however soy isoflavone supplementation could significantly improve the quality of life scores (P= 0.009).
    Conclusion
    Soy isoflavones supplementation could improve the quality of life in patients with IBS; however it did not suppress the symptoms severity in 6 weeks. Further research with a longer duration is needed to determine the sustained clinical efficacy.
    Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome, randomized clinical trial, quality of life, Soy Isoflavone
  • Shirin Moossavi, Faraz Bishehsari, Reza Ansari, Homayoon Vahedi, Siavosh Nasseri, Moghaddam, Shahin Merat, Iradj Sobhani, Ali Keshavarzian, Reza Malekzadeh Pages 177-180
    Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) research trials are growing in diverse intestinal and extraintestinal conditions that are thought to be either caused or correlated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. Although, the mechanism by which the microbiota results in disease initiation or progression is not fully understood, it is speculated that restoring the symbiosis by FMT could have therapeutic benefits.
    Keywords: Fecal Microbiota, Dysbiosis, Therapeutic benefits
  • Parisa Rashtian, Mehri Najafi, Sani, Rozita Jalilian Pages 181-184
    Abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene (MTTP). ABL is characterized by lack of lipids and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in plasma, fat malabsorption and various clinical manifestations. We describe a 12-month-old infant boy, born from consanguineous parents and presented with diarrhea, steatorrhea, growth retardation, hypothyroidism, intraventricular brain cyst and kidney stones. The patient was diagnosed to have ABL and treated with dietary modification and oral fat-soluble vitamin replacement and followed until he reached 5 years of age.
    Keywords: Abetalipoproteinemia, Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, Failure to thrive
  • Leila Ghahramani, Reza Roshanravan, Shahin Khodaei, Salar Rahimi Kazerooni, Sam Moslemi Pages 185-188
    Colon transit time study with radio opaque markers is a simple method for assessment of colon motility disorder in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation. Appendicitis caused by metallic objects has been reported repeatedly and is very important because of its complications. We report a case of acute appendicitis that was induced by impaction of radio opaque markers after colon transit time study. We think that this case report is first significant complication of colon transit time study until now.
    Keywords: Colon transit time study, Radio opaque marker, Chronic constipation, Acute appendicitis
  • Mehrnaz Asadi Gharabaghi, Seyed Farshad Allameh, Hossein Foroutan, Alireza Abdollahi, Mitra Kazemi Jahromi, Effat Kahe, Siamak Mehdizadeh Seraj Pages 189-190
    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is defined as an ascitic fluid infection without a surgically-treatable intra-abdominal source.