فهرست مطالب

نگره - پیاپی 34 (تابستان 1394)
  • پیاپی 34 (تابستان 1394)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/05/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Fatemeh Asgari Pages 5-21
    Some of the main characteristics of saint Fatemeh are: piety, wisdom, maturity, honesty and hijab. Unfortunately, limited illustrations of herlife have been found, few of which arein Toofanolboka.This book was one of the most important and popular books of the Qajar era among common people,especially the eulogists. The data were collected from library sources and field research. This survey was performed based onthe study of the available lithographic illustrated manuscripts of Toofanolboka between the years 1270 to 1355(AH) in National Archives of Iran, usingcomparative-analytical method to express and evaluate the symbols, compositions and the pictorial qualities of Saint Fatemeh’s life and characteristics including her hijab. Also the question is what are the distinctive features of Saint Fatemeh’s illustration in comparison to the other illustrated characters? How were the atmospheres and the relation to the meanings of the images, and whether a style from a particular era was followed? With regard to the results, this book,contains the most illustrations of Saint Fatemeh of any lithographic manuscripts, which has gradually been forgotten. Despite the previous findings of researchers, the first available lithographic manuscript belongs to the year 1270 (AH).Atmospheres, expressive forms and other elements of these works in many cases follow the court painting in the Qajar era and the mythological expression in the arts of ancient Iran and Renaissance. The artist, used (black and white) sketching style to depict her hijab, luminosity, courteousness and beautythrough an ideal aspect, charactercentered, firm and balanced atmosphere, and the limbs and clothing are drawn in a manner that the attention is usually called to Saint Fatemehthrough the intended elements, though some of these illustrations were not completely successful.
    Keywords: Saint Fatemeh, Lithography, Toofanolboka, QajarPainting, Visual Symbols, Hijab
  • Mehdi Mohammad, Zadeh, Adel Zaher Pages 23-35
    Shah Tahmasebi Shahnameh was transcribed between 930 to 944 AH/1535 AD in the Safavid Royal workshops in Tabriz and it,s one of the most valuable cultural gifts that has been sent to the Ottoman Palace from Iranian Palaces. This Masterpiece was presented to the Ottoman Palace in 974 AH/1566 AD to commemorate the coronation of Sultan Selim II by Safavid Shah Tahmaseb, and it was available to the Ottoman artists for more than three centuries. The aim of this study is to provide the researchers with certain criteria for comparing images in terms of their being Iranian or Ottoman. Reviewing of Shahnameh writing tradition in Ottoman culture suggests that Ottoman painters have used the Imaginative forms of this masterpiece of the Tabriz School during this period of time. In this paper, using historical-comparative method, images of the Tahmasebi Shahnameh have been qualitatively and quantitatively compared with the images of four Ottoman Shahnamehs. The results show that the visual elements and the subjects of images were influenced most, though Ottoman artists have tried to changethe atmosphere of events, particularly the architectural elements of the images, which is the most pronounced difference of the Iranian and Ottoman paintings.
    Keywords: Tabriz School, Tahmasebi Shahnameh, Shahnameh Journalism, Ottoman Miniature, Ottoman Shahnameh Journalism
  • Nastaran Norouzi, Zeynab Saber, Afsaneh Nazeri Pages 37-51
    The Creativity and innovation in the Iranian painting, especially in the continuance of implications and subjects are associated with the name of Kamal-al-Din Behzad, as a prominent painter of the Timurid period during the second half of the 9 th/15 th century. His art works were completely free of textual restrictions and were integrated with the implications of his time. Therefore, they were unprecedentedly novel and rich. He created unique and fresh masterpieces because he was sensitive and talented and he was using the dominant ideas and thoughts of histime. Sa,di and Javan-e-Kashghari is one of his masterworks. In this study, its commitment to the literary source and the influences of Behzad’s contemporary artists on the theme of his painting are discussed. The main aim of this research is to emphasize on the influences of his contemporaries’ ideas and thoughts, especially the poet Nur-al-Din Abd-al-Rahman Jami, on Behzad and the reflections of these influences in his painting. The survey will answer the following questions: -To what degree does the theme of Behzad’s painting conform to its literary source? -How Jami – as one of his contemporaries and the most in fluential cultural figure in the society of Herat – affected the theme of this painting? This research with its fundamental-developmental purpose has used a comparativedescriptive method for collecting historical information and the quantitative and qualitative methods for data analysis. To sum up, it can be said that Behzad was influenced by Jami’s thoughts and beliefs after associating and socializing with such a great person who had a prominent position in Herât at that time. He used Jami’s thoughts in creating the theme of his painting besides its literary source which is a story from Golestan of Sa,di.
    Keywords: Persian Painting, Behzad, Sadi, Javan – e – Kashghari, Jami, Naqshbandi
  • Qobad Kiyanmehr, Mohammad Taghi Ashouri, Shabanali Ghorbani Pages 53-76
    One of the most important basic courses for students of art disciplines is drawing. According to the authors, experiment and knowledge, and also the results obtained from the field research (including interview and questionnaire),the criticism goes to the education of basic drawing during the education period thatprofessionally and artistically, doesn’t provide the students and graduates of handicrafts discipline in bachelor’s degree with required and sufficient skills to suitably present and realize their ideas and thoughts. The main questions that this research is to answer are: 1. what are the reasons of handicraft students’ weakness in drawing? 2. What are the solutions to improve the status of the education of basic drawing? Hence to study this problem,quantitative and qualitative methods were used along with the documentary/ library research tools and field research tools (interview and questionnaire). Finally, this result was obtained that with regard to the insufficiency of the current program and syllabus, the necessity of providing changes in accordance with the nature of the discipline to improve the status of the education of basic drawing was proved and suggestions like increasing the specialized drawing courses, proposing the drawing courses in accordance with the goals of the discipline, and continuation of drawing courses during the whole education period, were offered based on the research findings.
    Keywords: Higher Education, Art Education, Basic Drawing, Bachelor of Handicrafts
  • Qobad Kiyanmehr, Bahareh Taghavinejad, Sediqeh Mirsalehian Pages 78-91
    The art of cutting curved pieces of wood, Qavarebori, is an old subdivision of carpentry industry regarding decorative arts. This art is outstanding in the Qajar era buildings with its magnificent and splendid manner. This is one of the most significant architectural decorative items of this period, worked mainly on windows and doors in a variety of designs and natural wood colors. In this article, the researcher,through a visual aesthetic approach, tries to investigate certain artistic features of the semi-circular upper portions of doors decorated by Qavarebori in the royal buildings of the Qajar period in Tehran: the Golestan Palace, the Niavaran Palace, the Ferdows Garden and the Masoudieh Mansion Complex. This research follows the descriptive-analytical method. The data here are collected from library sources and field research, including gathering the images of Qavarebori samples in the mentioned buildings and analyzing them in a linear manner. Most of the sun-like structures consist of semi-circular portions with radial segments and geometric shapes, vegetal or integrated designs. Certain designs in the semi-circular parts include oval structures with parallel reproduction axis, detailed or simple vegetal designs. Studying these features would contribute to the aesthetics of Qavarebori in the Qajar era which leads to a closer description of the sun-like style of windows and doors in that era.
    Keywords: The Royal buildings of Qajar, Qavarebori, Doors, Semi, circular Parts, Designs
  • Samaneh Kakavand, Ashraf Mousavilar Pages 93-110
    Gardencarpet is one of the noteworthy designs in the history of Iranian art. In the «Zand» era (12thcentury AH / 18thcentury AD) a framework of various motifs was provided for this type of carpet. These motifs are composed in such a way that while maintaining traditional patterns, new outcomes are achieved. This research uses descriptive-analytical method to case study of an example of a Zand era garden carpet. The data were collected from library sources and field research by means of documentary sources, note taking and observation of the available carpets in the Carpet Museum of Iran and overseas museums such as the Metropolitan, Islamic Art in Berlin, Victoria and Albert, Brooklyn and Hermitage. The analysis of designs shows that the symbolic motifs imply the mythical concepts and conceptually relate to one another. Motifs of the of «Zand» erain the garden carpet are inspired by the formal and thematic elements of the past patterns. These elements, in addition to repeating the traditional motifs, were creative in composition of designs.
    Keywords: Zand dynasty, carpet garden, symbols, motifs, myths