فهرست مطالب

Medical Sciences - Volume:40 Issue: 5, 2015
  • Volume:40 Issue: 5, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/06/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
|
  • Sadegh Izadi, Ali Reza Nikseresht, Maryam Poursadeghfard, Afshin Borhanihaghighi, Seyyed Taghi Heydari Pages 390-395
    Background
    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which is accompanied by significant disabilities. Although there are some published data regarding the epidemiological features of MS in other parts of Iran, scarce data are available about the prevalence and demographic characteristics of MS in Fars province. The current study aimed to address the prevalence and incidence rate of MS as well as the temporal trend of the disease in Fars province, southern Iran.
    Methods
    This historical retrospective cohort study was carried out in Fars Multiple Sclerosis Society affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. All the consecutive patients who fulfilled 2010 McDonald criteria for definite MS were included in the study. The patients’ gender, age at time of diagnosis, education, and clinical course were recorded. The prevalence and incidence rates were also calculated.
    Results
    This study was conducted on 3,354 patients. Among the patients, 2,689 (80.2%) were female and 665 (19.8%) were male. The female/male ratio was 4.04. The point prevalence rate of the disease was 72.1/100,000 persons in October 2013. This index was 116.5 per 100,000 persons in females (95% CI: 113.4-119.6) and 28.3 per 100,000 persons in males (95% CI: 26.8-29.9). The mean annual incidence rate was 5.2/100,000 from 2002 until 2012.
    Conclusion
    Considering Kurtzke classification, Fars is a high-risk area for MS and women are affected more compared with men. Moreover, the incidence rate sharply increased in the last decade.
  • Robabeh Soleimani, Mohammad Jafar Modabbernia, Sharareh Habibi, Maryam Habibi Roudsary, Masoumeh Elahi Pages 396-403
    Background
    Sleep disturbance is a common complaint of patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). There are limited studies about the effect of different treatments on insomnia due to MMT. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBTI) on sleep disorders in patients undergoing MMT.
    Methods
    Twenty-two patients with insomnia due to MMT (aged 18-60 years) participated in this randomized double-blind clinical trial. The intervention group received CBTI from a clinical psychologist for 8 weeks, whereas the control group received behavioral placebo therapy (BPT). The duration of individual sessions was 45 minutes, which was conducted once a week. The primary outcome was sleep disturbance assessed with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 19.
    Results
    Eleven patients were assigned to each group. Two groups were matched according to demographic characteristics (age, marital status, education, and daily methadone doses). Although PSQI score was significantly reduced during weeks 5 and 8 after both interventions, there was a significant difference in intervention versus time interaction (P<0.02). The effects of CBTI versus placebo were significantly different (P<0.001). The time course was also significant (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    This study showed that CBTI is more effective than BPT in overall sleep quality. We recommend further studies, with a larger sample, on CBTI in patients undergoing MMT.
  • Mohammad H. Ebrahimzadeh, Ali Birjandinejad, Shiva Razi, Mohsen Mardani, Kivi, Amir Reza Kachooei Pages 404-410
    Background
    Oxford shoulder score is a specific 12-item patient-reported tool for evaluation of patients with inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the shoulder. Since its introduction, it has been translated and culturally adapted in some Western and Eastern countries. The aim of this study was to translate the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) in Persian and to test its validity and reliability in Persian speaking population in Iran.
    Methods
    One hundred patients with degenerative or inflammatory shoulder problem participated in the survey in 2012. All patients completed the Persian version of OSS, Persian DASH and the SF-36 for testing validity. Randomly, 37 patients filled out the Persian OSS again three days after the initial visit to assess the reliability of the questionnaire.
    Results
    Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93. In terms of validity, there was a significant correlation between the Persian OSS and DASH and SF-36 scores (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    The Persian version of the OSS proved to be a valid, reliable, and reproducible tool as demonstrated by high Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The Persian transcript of OSS is administrable to Persian speaking patients with shoulder condition and it is understandable by them.
  • Hossein Masoumi Asl, Abdolvahab Alborzi, Bahman Pourabbas, Mehdi Kalani Pages 411-417
    Background
    Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) play the most important role in the control of tuberculosis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of LTBI among healthy tuberculosis unexposed children vaccinated with BCG using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) and comparing the agreement between the two tests.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional study was carried out between October 2009 and March 2010 in 24 schools and 11 daycare centers. A total of 967 children were divided into 15 age groups, with a minimum of 64 children per group.
    Results
    The prevalence rates of LTBI with TST were 3.8%, and 2.2% with QFT-GIT. One case was positive in TST and QFT-GIT, 20 cases were QFT-GIT positive, but TST negative and 36 cases were TST positive, but QFT-GIT negative, and finally, 910 cases were negative in both. There was poor agreement between TST and QFT-GIT (1.8%, 95%, CI: 0%-5.3%, k=0.007). The specificity of QFT-GIT in the BCG vaccinated, children aged 1-15 years old, was 97.8% (97.8%, 95% CI: 96.8%-98.8%). After three months, 2/17 (11.8%) of those initially QFT-GIT negative converted, and 10/15 (66%) of those initially QFT-GIT positive reverted.
    Conclusion
    It seems that TST and QFT-GIT are not appropriate tests for the diagnosis of LTBI among healthy tuberculosis unexposed BCG vaccinated children. There was a low reproducibility rate of QFT-GIT. The cause of the the poor agreement requires further studies.
  • Gholam Hossein Shahcheraghi, Seyed Ali Hashemi Pages 418-424
    Background
    Cementless hip prosthesis was designed to provide biologic fixation, without the use of cement. The second generation components have shown more reliable bone ingrowths and survival rates. We are reporting a midterm result of two designs of cementless prosthesis in a unique culture with different social habits and expectations.
    Methods
    52 primary cementless total hip arthroplasty in 42 patients with the mean age of 48.8 years were retrospectively studied. Two groups of prosthesis had been implanted: Harris-Galante II (HGII) in 15 and Versys-Trilogy (V-T) in 37 hips, both from Zimmer company. The patients were assessed clinically, radiographically and with Harris hip score, SF36, WOMAC, and MACTAR questionnaires, with 65 months (26-136) mean follow-up.
    Results
    All the V-T prostheses had survived well. Eight of HG II were revised by the last follow-up in 19-102 months. All had undergone acetabular revision and 2 combined with femoral revision. Broken tines of HGII cups were seen in 4 radiographs. The 65 months overall survival was 96.2% for femoral and 84.6% for acetabular components. 90% had good or excellent Harris hip scores. The functional scores were poorer in the HG II group. Pain relief and improved walking were the two main patients’ expectations fulfilled in 97.6% and 92.8%, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The outcome of cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) is satisfactory and comparable with the literature based on the results of function and survival of this small comparative group. The use of HGII acetabular component should be abandoned.
  • Mohammad Reza Vahdad, Ehsan Rahmanian, Sam Moslemi, Sultan Mohsen Najafi, Hamid Reza Foroutan Pages 425-429
    Background
    The natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has become a commonly considered novel approach in the surgical field. The NOTES provide possibility of operation through the natural orifice and decreases the intentional puncture of the systemic organ and subsequent complications. Totally transanal laparo-endoscopic single-site proctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J) is a novel method in minimally invasive surgery for total colectomy. The main goal of this study is to perform this new method on an animal model, to assess probable complication and to resolve probable issues by using patients that are candidate for total colectomy.
    Method
    Five dogs were prepared in lithotomy position. The TLPC-I procedure consists of endorectal technique with full thickness rectal dissection starting 1 cm orally from the dentate line above the peritoneal reflection and the proximal bowel was replaced into the abdominal cavity. Afterwards, the TriPort system was inserted in the anal canal and mesentrial resection of the total colon, mobilization of a distal ileal segment and intracorporeal suture of an ileal J-loop was accomplished by this system. An incision in the J-loop was conducted transanally. The J-pouch was created with an Endo-GIA® and sutured to the rectal wall.
    Results
    All animals survived and passed stool with clear post operation situation. There was no infection in site of anastomosis.
    Conclusion
    The TLPC-I provides the possibility of surgery without abdominal wall incision and decreases post operation complication such as pain, abdominal wound infection and wound dehiscence. This technique increases the quality of life and surgeons can discharge the patients early.
  • Ali Golestan, Zahra Mojtahedi, Ghasem Ghalamfarsa, Maryam Hamidinia, Mohammad Ali Takhshid Pages 430-439
    Background
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in the world. The expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is down-regulated in CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells.
    Methods
    SW48 cells were transfected with a plasmid overexpressing NDRG2. After stable transfection, the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression on cell migration, invasion and cell motility and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) activities were also investigated using matrigel transwell assay, wound healing assay and gelatin zymography, respectively.
    Results
    MTT assay showed that overexpression of NDRG2 caused attenuation of SW48 cell proliferation. Transwell and wound healing assay revealed that NDRG2 overexpression led to inhibition of migration, invasion, and motility of SW48 cells. The overexpression of NDRG2 also reduced the activity of secreted MMP-9.
    Conclusions
    The results of this study suggest that NDRG2 overexpression inhibits proliferation and invasive potential of SW48 cells, which likely occurs via suppression of MMP-9 activity.
  • Omid Asemani, Mohammad Taghi Iman, Marzieh Moattari, Mohammad Khayyer, Farkhondeh Sharif, Seyed Ziaaddin Tabei Pages 440-447
    Background
    It seems we are now experiencing “responsibility problems” among medical trainees (MTs) and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on “responsibility” especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings.
    Method
    This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998.
    Results
    “Try to find acceptance toward expectations”, “try to be committed to meet the expectations” and “try to cope with unacceptable expectations” were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was “to preserve the integrity of student identity” which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, “responsibility” is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions.
    Conclusion
    “Acceptance” was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs’ responsibility. Therefore, investigating the “process of acceptance” regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs.
  • Mohammad Motamedifar, Mohammad Taheri, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mina Gholami, Mahmood Amini Lari, Hossein Faramarzi, Jamal Sarvari Pages 448-453
    Evidence has shown that liver disease caused by hepatitis viruses can be more aggressive and severe in HIV infected subjects. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HDV infection among HIV/HBV co-infected clients in Shiraz, southwest Iran. In this study, 178 patients co-infected with HBV and HIV individuals were enrolled. The diagnosis of HIV infection was documented based on serological assays. The demographic and complementary data were collected by a questionnaire. HBsAg and HDV Ab were detected by commercial quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also measured. The mean age of the participants was 37.4±7.4 years (range 22-63). 175 (98.4 %) patients were male and 3 (1.6 %) were female. Among 178 patients co-infected with HIV/HBV, 35 cases (19.7%, 95% CI: 14%-25%) were anti-HDV positive and 143 (80.3%) were negative for anti-HDV. HDV exposure in HIV/HBV co-infected patients was associated with blood transfusion (P=0.002, OR: 14.3) and prison history (P=0.01, OR: 2.31) but not with age, marital status, unsafe sex contact, and injection drug abuse. Our data showed a relatively high prevalence of HDV infection in HIV infected population in Shiraz, Iran. The high frequency of HDV Ab in patients with blood transfusion and prison history reveals that HDV transmission occurs more frequently in the parental route than sexual contacts; therefore, blood screening for HDV diagnosis in the high-risk group is recommended.
  • Navid Omidifar, Bita Geramizadeh, Mitra Mirzai Pages 454-460
    There are very few studies about K-ras mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) from developing countries such as Iran. It is therefore essential to conduct studies to learn about the molecular signature of such tumors, allowing the determination of an appropriate management plan. In the present study, we aimed to determine the frequency and types of K-ras mutations among patients with CRC in Iran.Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of 100 cases of CRC were collected from hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (June 2011 to June 2013). All of the H&E slides were examined and proper slide with a minimum of necrosis and maximum of well-preserved tumor cells (at least 70% tumor in each slide) were selected. Recurrent, metastatic, and post chemotherapy cases were excluded from the study. Mutation of codons 12 and 13 of K-ras gene by PCR was performed, followed by direct sequencing by Sanger method.From 100 eligible cases (55 male and 45 females with mean age of 59 years), 32% had mutant K-ras gene; the most common substitution was 12G>C followed by 12G>A and 13G>A, respectively.It is found that K-ras mutation rate, among the selected population of the southern province of Iran, was as high as 32% (codon 12: 71.8% and in codon 13: 25% and one in both codons: 3.1%).
  • Samin Alavi, Nahid Arabi, Mohammad Kaji Yazdi, Mohammad Taghi Arzanian, Farahnaz Zohrehbandian Pages 461-464
    Human parvovirus (HPV) B19 induced aplastic crisis in a family leading to the diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a very rare condition being barely reported in the literature. We herein report a 4-year-old girl, her brother, and their mother who all presented with progressive pallor and jaundice after a febrile illness. The HPV B19 was diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and positive serology for specific anti-HPV B19 IgM. They were further diagnosed with having HS. The clinical importance of this report is that in the case of an abrupt onset of unexplained severe anemia and jaundice, one should consider underlying hemolytic anemias mostly hereditary spherocytosis complicated by HPV B19 aplastic crisis. Herein, we report the occurrence of this condition, simultaneously in three members of a family. The distinguished feature of this report is that all affected family members developed some degrees of transient pancytopenia, not only anemia, all simultaneously in the course of their disease.
  • Ramin Niknam, Mohammad Hassan Kazemi, Laleh Mahmoudi Pages 465-468
    Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) as a foodborne trematode can occasionally cause hepatobiliary diseases. We report a 67-year-old woman who was referred to our center because of the diagnosis of cholangitis. She was a resident of mountainous area with the history of unsafe water and contaminated vegetables. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality for her. Three living F. hepatica was removed from biliary tract with a basket via ERCP. Clinical and laboratory condition of the patient improved after therapy of antibiotics and triclabendazole.
  • Afsaneh Rajabiani, Alireza Abdollahi, Zahra Farahani Pages 469-472
    Castleman’s disease, giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a kind of benign lymphoproliferative disease with gentle behavior. Its etiology and prevalence are unclear. This rare disease is usually found in mediastinal area asymptomatically and incidentally. It is also rare to see this tumor in the retroperitoneum. In this study, we have introduced a 34-year-old woman who referred just with occasional abdominal pain caused by compressive symptoms. Laboratory findings only reported microcytic anemia (MCH: 18.5, MCV: 63, Hemoglobin 10.2 g/dl). Chest and abdominal X-ray imaging showed no remarkable point. In abdominal ultrasonography, a solid and firm tumor with 12.2×5.3×6.6 cm was reported in patient’s retroperitoneum. Patient’s surgery was done and the tumor (covered by a fibrous thick capsule, with no bizarre appearance and bleeding) was completely removed. Pathologic examination indicated a Castleman’s tumor, type of unicentric and hyaline-vascular. This item had been one of the rare reported items of Castleman’s disease in the retroperitoneal space.