فهرست مطالب

Veterinary Surgery  - Volume:10 Issue:1, 2015
  • Volume:10 Issue:1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/06/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Azin Tavakoli, Farbod Rajabian Pages 9-14
    Objective
    The objective of the present study was to determine the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and arterial Oxygen saturation (SpO2) by administration of three drug combinations during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Design: Experimental study. Animals: 21 healthy and adults dog were randomly divided into three groups. Procedures- The IV combination of 6.5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.2 mg/kg diazepam was administered in group KD and 6.5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.3 mg/kg midazolam and 6.5 mg/kg ketamine and 0.4 mg/kg medetomidine were used in group KMi and KMed respectively. Respiratory rate/min, heart rate/min and SpO2 were recorded prior to induction of anesthesia and during endoscopy in esophagus, cardiac level, cardia and during exertion. In addition time to induction of anesthesia and duration of anesthesia were recorded in all dogs.
    Results
    Time to induction of anesthesia and duration of anesthesia were significantly shorter in group KMi compared to group KD and KMed (P<0.05). All of the dogs were suffered from hypoxia. However the changes were significant in groups KD and KMi (P<0.05). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: All combinations of the drugs produced hypoxia, however the hypoxia was less when the combination of ketamine and medetomidine was used.Oxygen supplementation is recommended during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in dogs to prevent hypoxia.
    Keywords: Diazepam, Midazolam, Medetomidine, Endoscopy, Dog
  • Nasser Vesal, Mehrzad Foroud Pages 15-22
    Objective
    To evaluate antinociceptive efficacy of pre- versus post-incisional morphine, tramadol and meloxicam using tail-flick test in an incisional model of pain in rats. Design: Prospective, randomized experimental study. Animals: Eighty, adult, male Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g. Procedures- Animals were randomly divided into eight groups to receive pre- or post-incisional (tail skin incision) saline (1 mL/kg, IP), morphine (4 mg/kg, IP), tramadol (12.5 mg/kg, IP), or meloxicam (1 mg/kg, IP). Antinociceptive effect of drugs was assessed using tail-flick latency (TFL) test following exposure to radiant heat.
    Results
    Morphine injection before or after incision prevented hyperalgesia for 120 minutes, while pre- or post-incisional administration of tramadol prevented hyperalgesia for 90 and 120 minutes, respectively. There was no significant difference between pre- or post-incisional administration of morphine or tramadol. Meloxicam, given either before or after skin incision, did not prevent hyperalgesia as compared with saline control group. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: The timing of treatment had no significant effects on post-operative nociception. Both morphine and tramadol were effective in reducing post-operative hyperalgesia and can be used for the control of early postoperative nociception in rats.
    Keywords: Tail flick, Morphine, Tramadol, Meloxicam, Rat
  • Alireza Ghadiri, Reza Avizeh, Golnaz Faramarzi Pages 23-30
    Objective
    To evaluate and compare the radiographic efficacy and safety of a non-ionic dimeric and isotonic iodinated contrast medium, iodixanol (320 mgI/ml) and a non-ionic monomer and hypertonic contrast medium, iohexol (300 mgI/ml) in feline cervical myelography. Design: Experimental study Animals: Five adult healthy cats. Procedures- Iodixanol and iohexol were injected into the cerebellomedullary cistern. Radiographs were obtained immediately, 10, 20, 40 and 60 minutes after injection. The myelograms were scored and analyzed for statistical significance.
    Results
    Diagnostically adequate radiographic examinations were obtained with both agents. Adequate opacity in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was obtained after 10 and 20 minutes post injection for both contrast agents. After 40 minutes contrast agents were had reached the end of lumbar vertebrae column. No significant differences in scoring for image quality were observed between two contrast mediums (p>0.05). Iodixanol and iohexol radiopacified cervical region immediately after injection. Adequate opacity in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was obtained after 10 and 20 minutes post injection for both contrast agents. Evaluation of each of the radiographs showed good to excellent opacification. No clinical and neurological abnormalities were found related to the myelographic procedure during one week after injection. Vital signs, CBC and some serum biochemical examinations remain in normal ranges. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: Iodixanol and iohexol proved to be safe and effective contrast materials for myelographic studies in cats. More mean score of iodixanol suggests that, it is preferable to perform myelography with iodixanol.
    Keywords: Cervical myelography, Cat, Iodixanol, Iohexol
  • Rahmat Allah Fatahian Dehkordi, Amin Bigham Sadegh, Alireza Mohammadzade Pages 31-36
    Objective
    Postoperative pain management in patients that undergone arthroscopy is one of the most important procedures for their rehabilitation. Analgesic injection intra-articularly can facilitate pain control in such patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ketamine on articular cartilage in rat model. Design: Experimental study. Animals: Twenty Wistar Rats Procedures- Rats were included in this study and were randomly divided into 4 groups. Ketamine was injected at doses of 0.1 (Group 1), 0.25 (Group 2), 1.0 (Group 3) and 2.5 (Group 4) mg/ml to their right knee intra-articularly. Isotonic saline (NaCl) was injected into their left knee as the control group. A surface scoring system applied to evaluate the superficial zone of the joint histopathologically. Additionally, morphometric values were considered for the evaluation of the cartilage cellular changes.
    Results
    Results showed that in articular cartilage, there was a surface intact till discontinuity in most cases, when compared groups 1 to 4 with the control group. In addition, in the group 4, one of the cases showed a focal fissure on the articular cartilage surface. Morphometric results showed that in all groups injected with ketamine, measured parameters was variable than to the control group. But there was no significant difference between all experimental groups compared with the control group (P>0.05). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: Although in this study a teeny change was observed in one of the cases, but it seems that ketamine can be applied as an anesthetic representative with very few complications.
    Keywords: Rat, Ketamine, Histopathology, Knee joint, Scoring
  • Abdolvahed Moarabi, Bahman Mosallanejad, Ali Reza Ghadiri, Reza Avizeh Pages 37-42
    Objective
    The aim of the present survey was to evaluate whether the results of cardiac measurements using the VHS are a useful indicator of the origin of normal rabbits. Design: Experimental study. Animals- Forty seven adult healthy New Zealand White rabbits (25 male, 22 female) with age 10-18 months and weight 1.5-2.5 Kg. Procedures- To assess the influence of breed on the vertebral heart scale of rabbits, the VHS was measured and compared on left to right and right to left lateral views. Lengths of the long and short axis were determined with a ruler in millimeters. The dimensions were scaled against the length of the vertebrae beginning with the fourth thoracic vertebra.
    Results
    Mean ± SD long axis dimensions were 4.3 ± 0.30 vertebrae and mean ± SD short axis dimensions 3.1 ± 0.32 vertebrae. The VHS was 7.6±0.32 vertebrae (mean ± SD) on right-to-left lateral and 7.3± 0.31 vertebrae on left-to-right lateral radiographs. The obtained VHS on right to left lateral views were larger than left to right lateral radiographs, nevertheless no significant differences were observed in RL-long axis and RL-vertebral heart size (P>0.05). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: The vertebral heart scale method is easy to use and objective for clinical practice. The obtained data showed that the long axis and short axis of the heart had not significantly different in male and female rabbits together. Also, no significant changes were observed according to age. These values are useful as new diagnostic indices for cardiac disease in rabbits.
    Keywords: New Zealand White, Rabbit, Vertebral heart scale (VHS)
  • Jafar Taifebagerlu, Rahim Mohammadi Pages 43-52
    Objective
    The objective was to assess local effect of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on functional recovery of peripheral nerve in rat sciatic nerve transection model. Design: Experimental study. Animals: Sixty male healthy white Wistar rats Procedures- The animalswere randomized into four experimental groups of 15 animals each: In sham-operated group (SHAM), sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In transected group (TC), left sciatic nerve was transected and nerve cut ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In silicone graft group (SIL) a 10-mm defect was made and bridged using a silicone tube. The graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In treatment group the silicone tube (SIL/BDNF) was filled with 10 microliter BDNF (100ng/kg BW). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibers were studied at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post operation.
    Results
    Behavioral testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in SIL/BDNF than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical study showed clearly more positive location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/BDNF than in SIL group. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: When loaded in a silicone graft, BDNF improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. This finding supports the role of BDNFafter peripheral nerve repair and may have clinicalimplications for the surgical management of patientsafter nerve transection.
    Keywords: Nerve repair, Sciatic, BDNF, Local
  • Seyedhosein Jarolmasjed, Amir-Ali Shahbazfar, Hemn Mohammadpour Pages 53-58
    Objective
    This research was conducted to study the effect of flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen on the healing of excisional wounding in the tendon of rats. Design: Experimental study. Animals: Twenty rats were equally divided into four groups of control, placebo (excised tendon receiving saline solution), flunixin and ketoprofen. Procedures- Right Achill complex of all groups underwent full thickness tenotomy. All the rats, except control group, received normal saline, flunixin meglumine or ketoprofen, respectively after operation for 7 days. After euthanasia of all animals on the day 15, the Achill complex was dissected free and prepared for histopathologic study. Neovascularization, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrin layer formation as well as fibroblast and fibrocyte counts were considered for the evaluation of healing process. Neovascularization, edema and inflammatory cell infiltration were scored from 0 to 3.
    Results
    Results showed no significant change in number of fibroblasts between the groups. Reduced angiogenesis in both treatment groups of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was observed. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: Our findings showed that anti inflammatory effects of ketoprofen is slightly more potent than flunixin meglumine, although differences were not statistically significant.
    Keywords: Tendon, Rat, Ketoprofen, Flunixin Meglumine, Healing
  • Samaneh Ghasemi, Kamran Sardari, Ahmadreza Mohamadnia, Faezeh Alipour, Ali Mirshahi, Masoud Rajabioun Pages 59-63
    Case Description: Two foals were referred for lameness evaluation. Case 1 was an 8-month-old male KWPN foal and the second one was a 2-day-old female Arabian foal.Clinical
    Findings
    The KWPN foal was presented with severe lameness at walk and the second foal was unable to stand. In both patients luxation of the patella was confirmed on physical and radiological examinations.Treatment and Outcome- Patellar luxation was corrected by combination of releasing and imbrication methods in both cases. Follow up revealed that lameness gradually improved during postoperative period.Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: Diagnosis and surgical repair of lateral patellar luxation were reported in two foals as the first report in Iran. It was concluded that patella luxation as a congenital cause of lameness in foals can be corrected by surgical techniques successfully.
    Keywords: Foal, Lateral patellar luxation, Surgical repair