فهرست مطالب

قبسات - پیاپی 74 (زمستان 1393)
  • پیاپی 74 (زمستان 1393)
  • بهای روی جلد: 60,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/02/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Ali, Akbar Rashad Page 5
    According to my adopted theory, religious science is epistemologically "realist" and "truthful", logically "dialectic-dynamical", evaluably "testable" and "correctable", and in terms of its references is "pluralist" and "combined structure", and in terms of its value is "moral-centered" and doesn’t create any crisis. In addition although its statements may be sometimes fallible, but is sacred in terms of its "bases", "references", "subject", and "destinations and goals". And finally religious science is considered as a part of "the religious knowledge in its general meaning".
    Keywords: Religious science, The theory of Ibtina', Religious knowledge
  • Alireza Qaeminia, Mohsen Azadi Page 21
    We may explore the relation between science and religion from the perspective of Islamic interpreters in interpreting the cosmological verses of the Holy Quran and their confrontation with experimental sciences. Al-Monar and Al-Mizan, the two main contemporary interpretations, have different approaches to this subject. Mohammad Rashid Reza believes that one of the miraculous aspects of Quran is its scientific aspect. This presupposition has drawn him to declare the conformity between religious propositions and experimental findings and to avoid serious challenge with science. On the other hand Allameh Tabatabai has a more systematic approach to the theories of experimental sciences and has some criteria for it such as the necessity of supporting scientific hypotheses with definite proofs. These criteria have made him not to pay attention to some experimental sciences in some cases and to interpret religious knowledge according to some scientific theories. However none of the approaches of the two interpretations is efficient enough to form a comprehensive model because their epistemological aspects are ambiguous.
    Keywords: Experimental science, Religion, Al, Monar, Al, Mizan, cosmology
  • Masoud Esmaeili Page 45
    Proudfoot and Katz are two important characters in constructivism of mystical experience who believe that mystical experiences are made of mental, religious, cultural, educational, and … presuppositions and also the effect of external factors. Ketz more emphasizes on the essential causality between these presuppositions and the produced mystical experiences. Secondly he believes these factors form the content of experience, which arises from an external factor. Therefore he believes presuppositions are present in the creation of experience. Thus he believes although external factors affect the formation of mystical experiences, but it is greatly influenced by internal backgrounds and therefore cannot indicate reality at all. Disagreeing with Katz's view about the essential causality between presuppositions and mystical experiences, Proudfoot has a similar view and believes presuppositions are not the cause of the formation of experiences but says they influence the content of experiences and their formation. This was included in Katz's view as well. Proudfoot believes these presuppositions greatly influence the stages of expression, interpretation and explanation as well and since mystical experiences cannot be separated from their expression, interpretation and explanation, it is formed by presuppositions in all these stages (expression, interpretation and explanation). Although the two perspectives have some differences, but both lead us to this point that mystical experiences do not have any common essence; and the posed commonalities in this regard are secondary and are so far from the essence of these experiences that it only justifies an abstract conceptual absoluteness, but it doesn’t justify accepting a common essence for all of them. Although this view has some positive points such as paying attention to the differences between mystical experiences around the world and the possibility of interference of presuppositions in experiences and their expression and interpretation, but it is generally unacceptable and has some important problems such as: weakness of its basis, inconsistency of the basis and mystical experience, believing the impossibility of having a connection to reality, incomplete induction, a great ambiguity in the position of the real factor in the formation of experience, and the existence of some experiences which breaches constructivism.
    Keywords: Mystical experience, The essence of mystical knowledge, Essentialists, Constructivists, Katz, Proudfoot
  • Mohammad, Hosein Kazemeini, Mohammad, Amin Honarvari Page 77
    The first step to have a correct and exact imagination of a science is to ask of its essence and quiddity. In order to have a more exact analysis of a science it is necessary to know its position, subject, and goal. Liberal arts, as a collection of special sciences designed for human education, social management, and achieving some purposes and goals and solutions and finding social needs, has an important position in societies. [Mohajeri: Humanities, which is, from one hand, realized by the will and awareness of human in accordance with human's needs and goals, and from the other hand, has direct influence on the social management and human prosperity and bliss, has a unique position and importance in societies as a set of distinct and definite sciences.] Therefore it is necessary to understand and analyze its essence considering its position, subject and goal based on Islam's cognitive basis and foundations. Explaining the position of liberal arts in the classification of sciences and also analyzing its subject and goal, I will present its exact definition in this article with an emphasis on Farabi's perspectives who is an effective philosopher and scholar in this field.
    Keywords: Science, Liberal arts, The subject of science, The goal of science, Farabi
  • Ain, Ollah Khademi, Mohammad Allahnia Samakoosh, Seyyed Ali Sadat Fakhr Page 99
    Along with the formation of Ashairah, Abu-Mansoor Matridi Samarqandi (-333 AH) established the theological school of Matridieh. He presented different theological theories which were close to the theological school of Ashairah. One of these theories is about episteme (marifah) of God. One of the outstanding commentators of Matridi's theories is Abu-Moeen Nasafi. One of his activities is to criticize the definitions of knowledge (ilm) and episteme (marifah) presented by theologians. His main point is to find out the conceptual difference between the two expressions of knowledge and episteme and also the ways of achieving them. Nasafi tries to present a different view and also tries to create a strong and rational relation between faith and knowledge. Although some of his theories are considerable, but finally he has not been able to present a steady system and a substitute theory for knowledge and episteme of God different from the perspectives of the great Asharite and Motazilite theoreticians. He accepts their theories with little changes. Although he has some defendable views, the most important problems of Abu-Moeen's views are: not having a consistent and logical use of the definition of knowledge and episteme, the circular definitions of knowledge and episteme, incorrect reliance on "the argumentative created knowledge" and "the necessary created knowledge", great opposition with intuition as a way for achieving knowledge, not having enough reason for rejecting intuition, ambiguity of the definition of faith and not being bound to the definition of episteme while believing the existence of meta-rational episteme.
    Keywords: Knowledge, Episteme, Episteme of God, Argumentative knowledge, Faith, intuition, Abu, Moeen Isfahani
  • Mohammad Sobhani, Nia Page 123
    One of the most precise aspects of the infallibility of the Prophets is being infallible of any mistake and fault. Although a special kind of mistake has been much discussed among Faqihs (jurisprudents) and theologians, but some other aspects such as the infallibility of the prophets in their customary, social and governmental issues are less noticed and only some general views are presented on this topic. This article will try to report and analyze Allamah Tabatabai's view in this regard using a descriptive-analytic method and library and field research. This article will show that Allameh Tabatabai's view regarding the infallibility of prophets from any mistake in the issues which are not included in the religious law is different from the generally accepted view among Shiite theologians. He believes the reasons which prove the infallibility of the prophets do not prove their infallibility from any kind of mistake and forgetfullness and cl
    Aims
    the reason which proves the infallibility of prophets does not prove it to this extent and thus has not presented any proof for it as well. He says not only it is {rationally} possible for prophets – except the prophet of Islam - to have some mistakes but have actually had some mistakes. Rational reasons, traditional texts, and historical evidences show the incorrectness of Allameh's view.
    Keywords: Infallibility, Range, Mistake, Sin, Knowledge, Life, Revelation
  • Mohammad, Ali Asadi, Nasab Page 147
    One of the famous beliefs of the followers of Divine religions is the belief of ' Khulud ' (the eternal presence of some sinners in the Hell) which has always been investigated by scholars. The main problem is that the literal meaning of these revelational teachings, i.e. ' Khulud ' (eternal presence) in the Hell, disagrees with reason's understanding. This has created a challenge among scholars leading some to deny the meaning of ' Khulud ' to be eternal and some others to present a rational reading of them. On the other hand it contradicts with some attributes of God such as mercy, justice and wisdom repeatedly mentioned in Quran's verses. This challenge has drawn some mystics who look forward to the infinite mercy of God to find a solution for this problem. The main purpose of this article is to make some foundations to deny the eternity of a sinner's torment, and to criticize the main reason presented by some philosophers based on the essential change of the sinner due to his/her sin, the essence which has caused his eternity in torment.
    Keywords: Khulud (eternity), Torment, Hell, Essence, Sin, Punishment, Unbeliever, Monotheism, Innate disposition, Free will, Reason, Mercy, Justice, Wisdom, The purpose of creation
  • Mohammad, Hosein Mahmoudabadi Dehqani, Mohammad, Reza Balanian Page 175
    Muslim and non-Muslim interpreters and theologians have many different opinions about the possibility and occurrence of God's threat of punishment with respect to those punishments which are described to be abiding and immortal. Reviewing the views of both sides in this subject and studying their reasons, this article will try to present a different interpretation from the punishments of the Hell based on some bases of the 'transcendental wisdom' of Mulla Sadra. This interpretation goes through a new definition of human's nature and human deeds and a different account of the issue of 'embodiment of deeds'.
    Keywords: Abiding in hell, Punishment, Human deed, Human nature, The embodiment of deeds