- Volume:5 Issue:2, 2016
- تاریخ انتشار: 1395/05/16
- تعداد عناوین: 6
Page 41Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is the commonly used antimalarial medicationfor the treatment of autoimmune diseases. It can produce irreversible retinal changes in vision. The aim of this study was evaluate the frequency of toxicity of HCQ and associated risk factors in Iranian patients.
A cross-sectional clinicalstudy was doneon 59 patients treated with HCQ during 2014-2015. Characteristics of Patient collected using questionnaire in two Part. Part one included basic characteristics of subjects (e.g. age, sex, family history, past medical history and demographic information) and ophthalmologic history included past ophthalmic history, cumulative dose and duration of using of HQ. For each patient, ophthalmology examinations include visual acuity (VA) with a Snellen chart at 6 meters in both eyes and abiomicroscopic examinationof the fundus under dilation, color vision exam, visual field testing within automated perimetry during 10 central degrees by sita-standard strategy was performed. Statistical significance differences was considered at the level of P
Schwann Cells Preserve Vision in Retinal Degenerative Disease by Reducing Oxidative Stress: a Possible MechanismPage 47After central nervous system (CNS) injuries, the regeneration process does not work out well except for remyelination process. This remyelination capacity in CNS can be mentioned as a worthy example of stem/precursor cell-mediated renewal process. Remyelination in CNS is mediated by Schwann cells which act mainly as remyelinating agents in peripheral nervous system (PNS) but several studies have shown their potential role in CNS too. Schwann cells have the capacity of supporting and saving retinal cells by secreting growth factors like: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in subretinal space. Retinal degenerative diseases are one of the most important debilitating concerns in modern countries which has encountered the problem of ageing population. One of the best examples of retinal degenerative disease which is a leading cause of permanent visual loss in Western world is age related macular degeneration (AMD). In United States it is believed that nearly 1.75 million, older than 40 years have end stages of this debilitating disease, and it is estimated that this number will progress to approximately 3 million people by year 2020. One of the most common pathways which is involved in initiation and development of retinal disease is called Oxidative stress. Schwann cells are capable of secreting high amounts of antioxidant enzymes which protect PNS in front of oxidative stress which is result of glucose fluctuation in diabetic patients. The antioxidant role of Schwann cells in PNS may be the possible mechanism which can make Schwann cells potent reconstructing agents in CNS and especially in retinal injuries and retinal degenerative disease.
Page 53The aim of this study was to determine astigmatism of the patients in pre and post customized ablation PRK status. In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, 92 otherwise healthy subjects with preoperative regular and irregular astigmatism ≥ 1.25 D who planned for customized ablation PRK with Technolas 217z100 excimer laser were enrolled. Six month postoperative refractive assessment was conducted and compare with preoperative values. The surgical success rate in astigmatic correction with this procedure was evaluated in 6 month postoperatively. Results showed patients aged 20 to 59 years (mean age, 39.09± 7.72 years), the mean preoperative astigmatism in automated refraction was 1.45 ± 2.51D which postoperatively became -0.87 ± 0.94 D with -1.67 ± 1.03 D change (p
Page 58To evaluate long term safety and efficacy of the Photo Refractive Keratectomy (PRK) in myopic eyes with thin cornea, this study has been designed.
In this retrospective case series study, we included 74 eyes of 38 myopic patients with preoperative central corneal thickness (CCT) less than 550 micrometer who underwent for PRK surgery prior to 2010 and had 4 years of mean follow up postoperatively. Factors that were evaluated include pre and post operative refraction, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), postoperative Orbscan results, CCT, safety and efficacy indices.
Thirty eight patients aged 20 to 46 years (mean age, 28.18± 6.82 years) with mean (SD) preoperative and postoperative CCT of 485.92 ± 9.27 µm and 434.84 ± 2.48 µm respectively who had mean preoperative myopia and astigmatism of -2.77 D and -0.82 were evaluated. The mean postoperative myopia, astigmatism, ablation depth, preoperative BCVA, postoperative BCVA, postoperative UBCVA safety and efficacy indices were -0.24 ± 0.39 D, -0.37 ± 0.37D, 54.34 ± 16.28 µm, 0.011 ± 0.03 LogMAR, 0.003 ± 0.01 LogMAR and 0.054 ± 0.09 LogMAR, 0.02 ± 0.12 and 0.11 ± 0.50 respectively. On examination for corneal clarity, 72 eyes (97.3%) had clear cornea (grade 0) and 2 eyes of one patient (2.70%) had trace haze (grade 1). On Orbscan images no evidence of corneal ectasia noted in all subjects.
In four years postoperative follow up of myopic patients with thin cornea (
Page 63This study was intended to investigate the visual field status and its association with other visual parameters in adolescent boys and to compare these outcomes to hearing ones.
In a cross-sectional study, Visual fields (VF) of 64 adolescent boys with hearing impairments and 68 age-matched boys with normal hearing were evaluated among high school students of Tehran, Iran in 2013. They all had intelligence quotient (IQ) more than 70. Status of hearing loss was classified based on the severity and time of onset. Participants underwent a complete eye examination. Their visual fields were investigated to determine Foveal Threshold (FT), Mean Deviation (MD) and status of Glaucoma Hemifield Test (GHT) by using Humphrey Field Analyzer Automated Perimetry.
There was no significant difference in age (P= 0.49) or IQ (P= 0.13) between groups. There was no significant difference in the mean (±SD) of corrected distance visual acuity between two groups (P= 0.183). Most of hearing loss boys (50%) had a deep impairment. Frequency of abnormal VF based on the GHT, MD and FT in hearing loss versus hearing group were 31.2% vs. 8.8%, 59.4% vs. 19.1% and 40.6%vs. 22.1% respectively. The mean±SD of MD and FT in hearing and hearing loss groups were -0.79±2.04 vs. -4.61±6.52 and 38.97±1.66 vs. 35.30±1.43, correspondingly. There were significant differences for MD (P