فهرست مطالب

Fertiliy and Sterility - Volume:13 Issue: 2, 2019
  • Volume:13 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Fabio Barra, Antonio Simone Laganà *, Jvan Casarin, Fabio Ghezzi, Lorenzo Ferro Desideri, Carolina Scala, Simone Ferrero Pages 89-92
  • Robabeh Taheripanah, Maryam Talayeh, Marzieh Zamaniyan *, Donya Khosravi, Anahita Taheripanah Pages 93-96
    Background
    In some previous studies, it was shown that first trimester screening tests produce equivocal results in in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to compare free beta-human chorionic gonadotro- pin (β-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPPA) levels between single normal and IVF pregnancies during 11 to 13 week (+ 6 day) of gestational age.
    Materials and Methods
    In this observational cohort study, 300 consecutive single IVF pregnancies and 700 single normal pregnancies were enrolled at about 11-13 week + 6 day gestational age and levels of free β-hCG and PAPPA were compared between the groups.
    Results
    The results demonstrated that PAPPA (P=0.026) was significantly lower and β-hCG (P=0.030) was signifi- cantly higher in IVF pregnancies. The other factors including nuchal translucency (NT) and crown-rump length (CRL) and demographic characteristics did not significantly differ between the groups (P>0.05).
    Conclusion
    This study showed that PAPPA levels are lower but free β-hCG levels are higher in single IVF versus normal pregnancies. This finding could be related to different placentation in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technique because of alterations in oocyte cytoplasm. Therefore, these markers may need to be adjusted in assisted re- productive technology (ART) conceptions. Further research should be done to obtain optimal cut-off for these markers in first trimester screening for detection of Down syndrome in ART pregnancies.
    Keywords: Chorionic Gonadotropin, Down Syndrome, In Vitro Fertilization, Pregnancy, Pregnancy-AssociatedPlasma Protein-A
  • Riddhi Thaker, Hina Oza, Idrish Shaikh, Sunil Kumar * Pages 97-101
    Background
    Humans require minute amounts of trace metals to maintain body’s normal growth and physiological functions; such elements may also play a vital role in pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. The present study was conducted to assess the role of two trace metals, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in women with history of spontaneous abortion (SAb cases) in comparison to women without such history (controls).
    Materials and Methods
    In this retrospective study, a total of 277 subjects were enrolled from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, India. Personal demographic information, medical history, reproductive history especially details of number of SAb, duration of last SAb, number of children, etc. were recorded using predesigned and pre-tested proforma. Serum Zn and Cu levels were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
    Results
    The data indicated that the serum level of Cu (P<0.01) and Zn was lower in SAb cases as compared to controls. Correlation between the number of SAbs and trace metals levels showed a significant negative correlation between Cu and Cu/Zn and the number of SAbs. Cu/Zn was higher in controls and women having at least one child as compared cases and women without child, respectively. Pregnant women had higher levels of trace elements as compared to non-pregnant women at the time of enrollment.
    Conclusion
    The data revealed that trace metals such as Zn and Cu have a positive role in pregnancy outcome and optimum levels of Zn and Cu might be able to decline the chances of SAb occurrence in addition to other factors. The ratio of Cu/Zn has a positive role in reproductive outcomes.
    Keywords: Copper, Pregnancy Outcome, Spontaneous Abortion, Trace Elements, Zinc
  • Saeede Dashti, Abbas Aflatoonian *, Nasim Tabibnejad Pages 102-107
    Background
    The goal of this study was to investigate oocyte maturation, fertilization and pregnancy rates among infertile women, by concomitant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) administration at the time of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger, compared to hCG trigger alone.
    Materials and Methods
    In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 109 infertile women between the ages of 20 and 40 years, received gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist and fresh embryo transfer. Following the procedure, the subjects were randomly divided into two groups on the oocyte-triggering day. In the experimental group, final oocyte maturation was achieved by 5000 IU hCG plus 450 IU FSH. In the control group, however, oocyte triggering was performed by 5000 IU hCG, only. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy and the secondary outcomes included oocyte recovery rate, oocyte maturity rate, fertilization proportion rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate and chemical pregnancy rate.
    Results
    Fifty-four women were appointed to the group with the FSH bolus injection at the time of hCG trigger and 55 women were assigned to the hCG alone group. Women in the FSH group had a significantly higher metaphase II (MII) oocyte (7.17 ± 3.50 vs. 5.87 ± 3.19), 2 pronuclear embryos (2PNs) (5.44 ± 3.20 vs. 3.74 ± 2.30) and total embryos (4.57 ± 2.82 vs. 3.29 ± 2.13) compared to hCG alone group, respectively. Furthermore, fertilization rate (0.75 ± 0.19 vs. 0.68 ± 0.25), implantation rate (14.2 vs. 8.5%) as well as clinical (27.9 vs. 15.9%) and chemical (32.6 vs. 20.5%) pregnancy rates were higher in the FSH group, but no statistically significant difference was found (P>0.05).
    Conclusion
    Combination of FSH and hCG for oocyte triggering improves oocyte maturity and fertilization proportion rates without increasing the chance of implantation, chemical and clinical pregnancy rates (Registration number: IRCT2017082724512N5).
    Keywords: Follicle Stimulating Hormone Co-Trigger, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Trigger, Pregnancy Rate
  • Ana Vegas Carrillo de Albornoz, Irene L?pez Carrasco *, Nerea Montero Pastor, Carmen Mart?n Blanco, Mar?a Mir? Matos, Luis Alonso Pacheco, Enrique Moratalla Bartolomé Pages 108-112
    Background
    Isthmoceles are described as complications associated with caesarean section (CS). Only symptomatic isthmoceles should be treated. The main symptoms are abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in the absence of any other causes, pelvic pain and secondary infertility. There are several techniques described for the correction of isthmoceles. Isthmoplasty can be performed by hysteroscopy, laparoscopy or vaginal surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of hysteroscopic surgical treatment of isthmoceles in women with associated symptoms such as pelvic pain and AUB.
    Materials and Methods
    A prospective case series study was performed; this study included all women with AUB, pelvic pain and ultrasonographic (US) diagnosis of isthmocele, who had undergone hysteroscopic correction between June 2014 and December 2017 in our Hospital.
    Results
    Thirty eight women underwent surgical hysteroscopy for correction of symptomatic isthmoceles. All patients presented AUB, 42.1% experienced pelvic pain and 28.9% had secondary infertility. US evaluation of isthmoceles was performed using 2D ultrasound. The residual myometrial thickness (RMT) above the isthmocele was measured in women who expected future pregnancy; if it was <2.5 mm the patient was not included in the study because the correction was performed laparoscopically. Follow-up was performed one and two months after the surgery. In all cases, pelvic pain was resolved one month after the surgery. AUB disappeared within the first month in 87.5% of patients and in the second month in 96.8% of subjects; however, one patient needed further surgery to alleviate her symptoms. Secondary infertility was assessed one year after surgical isthmoplasty. Seven women completed the first year of follow up, and three of them (42.8%) reported pregnancy after treatment between six and eight months after the surgery.
    Conclusion
    Hysteroscopic correction of symptomatic isthmoceles may constitute a safe and effective technique for patients who present AUB and pelvic pain.
    Keywords: Caesarean Section, Hysteroscopy, Infertility, Metrorrhagia, Pelvic Pain
  • Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi, Fahimeh Ranjbar, Mahdi Shirzad, Zohreh Behjati Ardakani, Koorosh Kamali, Kazem Mohammad * Pages 113-117
    Background
    According to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s clinical, epidemiological and demographic defi- nitions, infertility is an inability to become pregnant within one, two or five years of exposure to pregnancy, respec- tively. Inconsistent infertility-related definitions and various methodological approaches make it difficult to compare quantitative data in this regard and consequently, have negatively influenced estimating the prevalence of infertility. The present study reviewed the results of a large population-based survey on how the clinical, epidemiological and de- mographic definitions of infertility produce different results in terms of infertility prevalence in Iran and subsequently, compared the findings in order to find the right time of treatment-seeking by couples.
    Materials and Methods
    This community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out by Avicenna Research Insti- tute in the urban and rural parts of Iran between 2010 and 2011. Using cluster sampling, the reproductive history of 17,187 married women aged 20-40 years, was recorded. Totally, 1011 clusters were randomly selected according to post office codes, proportional to the population of the province. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of the data was carried out by SPSS statistical software.
    Results
    The prevalence of primary infertility based on the WHO’s clinical, epidemiological and demographic definitions were 20.2, 12.8 and 9.2%, respectively. In addition, secondary infertility rate was 4.9%.
    Conclusion
    Infertility estimates over a two-year exposure period made a 50% decrease in infertility rate; however, increasing exposure period to five years made no significant difference in infertility rate. The findings showed that most of the couples will get pregnant within two years of unprotected sexual intercourse and thus, need no treatment. Due to practical difficulties in estimating the prevalence of primary infertility, the reference limit for time to pregnancy, should be reconsidered and giving more time to younger women to become pregnant, seems reasonable.
    Keywords: Epidemiology, Infertility, Iran, Prevalence, Reproduction
  • Mansoureh Yazdkhasti, Zahra Haji Naghib Ali Hesari, Razieh lotfi, Behrouz Pouragha, Bita Badehnoosh * Pages 118-126
    Background
    Training needs are multidimensional requirements affected by social and cultural background, level of knowledge and personal and health conditions. This study was conducted to explain the needs for a training software among Iranian infertile couples.
    Materials and Methods
    In this qualitative study, we used content analysis to examine the need among ten infertile participants (four men and six women) and six health care professionals (including two gynecologists, two reproduc- tive health specialists and two midwives). The present research was carried out from January 2017 to July 2018 at Rouyesh and Ibn Sina infertility treatment centers in Karaj, Iran. The participants were selected through purposive sampling with maximum variation. Four focus group discussions with the health care professionals and twelve semi- structured, in-depth interviews with the infertile participants were held for data collection. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis in MAXQDA-10.
    Results
    Data analysis led to the extraction of a central theme of “a multidimensional training application” and its four main categories, including "pre-treatment training", "diagnostic training", "mid- and post-treatment training" and “continuous psychological training". These main categories also had 20 subcategories.
    Conclusion
    Based on the results of this study, infertile women and men have multidimensional training needs before and after treatment and during the process of diagnosis; psychological aspects should also be considered.The inter- viewed health care professionals helped to explain these training needs. A training software thus needs to be designed based on the real needs of the infertile community.
    Keywords: Infertility, Knowledge, Qualitative Research, Training Programs
  • Sepideh Mousazadeh, Azadeh Ghaheri, Maryam Shahhoseini, Reza Aflatoonian, Parvaneh Afsharian * Pages 127-134
    Background
    Gelatinases degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) components to allow for physiological remodeling and contribute to pathological tissue destruction in endometriosis. It is known that the function of gelatinases is resistant to suppression by progesterone in endometriosis. The ability of progesterone to impact gene expression depends on the progesterone receptor-A/-B (PR-A/PR-B) ratio. An imbalanced PR-A/PR-B ratio in endometriotic tissue may be the result of the differential expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, which could be important in the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. Hence, we decided to study the association of PR-A/PR-B ratio and gelatinases expression in endometriosis.
    Materials and Methods
    In this prospective case-control study, we enrolled 40 women, 20 in the case group who were diagnosed with stage III/IV endometriosis and 20 normal subjects without endometriosis (controls) who referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran during 2013-2014. We obtained 60 tissue samples [ectopic (n=20), eutopic (n=20), and normal endometrium (n=20)]. RNA was extracted from the tissue samples in order to analyze PR-A, PR-B, MMP-2, and MMP-9 mRNA levels through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
    Results
    There was significantly lower expression of the PR-B isoform in ectopic tissues compared to the control (P=0.002) and eutopic endometrium (P=0.006) tissues. PR-A expression was higher, but not significantly so, in the same ectopic and eutopic endometrium tissues compared to the control tissues (P=0.643). There was significant over- expression of MMP-9 in ectopic samples compared to control (P=0.014) and eutopic endometrium (P=0.012) samples. The PR-A/PR-B ratio was not significantly higher in either eutopic or ectopic samples compared to the control samples (P=0.305).
    Conclusion
    Our findings support an altered PR-B expression in endometriosis, which may be associated with MMP-9 overexpression. This finding can be important for disease pathogenesis.
    Keywords: Endometriosis, Gelatinases, Progesterone, Progesterone Receptor
  • Jafar Fallahi, Vahid Razban, Mozhdeh Momtahan, Mojgan Akbarzadeh, Jahromi, Bahia Namavar, Jahromi, Zahra Anvar, Majid Fardaei * Pages 135-138
    Background
    Hydatidiform mole (HM) is an abnormal human pregnancy with excessive trophoblastic proliferation and abnormal embryonic development, dividing into two complete HM (CHM) and partial HM (PHM) groups. One subcategory of the CHMs is recurrent and familial, which is known as biparental HM (BiHMs) or recurrent HM (RHM). NLRP7, KHDC3L and PADI6 are maternal-effect genes involved in RHMs. NLRP7 is a major gene responsible for RHMs. This study was performed on patients with molar pregnancies and miscarriage. The aim of this study was to genetic screen for mutations in NLRP7 and KHDC3L genes in an affected woman with previous history of 5RHM and the sibling with history of miscarriage.
    Materials and Methods
    In this experimental study, DNA was extracted from blood samples. KHDC3L and NLRP7 were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified. The PCR products were purified and Sanger sequenced.
    Results
    In this study, there is no mutation in KHDC3L gene but a novel mutation was identified in the NACHT do- main of NLRP7 gene. Patient with five recurrent moles had this mutation in the homozygous state while her sister with one miscarriage and one normal child showed this mutation in the heterozygous state.
    Conclusion
    In this study, we identified a new mutation in NLRP7 gene of a patient with recurrent HM. Following egg donation, this patient has a normal boy. The sister of this patient with heterozygous mutation has a spontaneous abortion and one normal child that confirm the impact of a defective allele of NLRP7 on reproductive wastage in a recent finding.
    Keywords: Hydatidiform Mole, KHDC3L, NLRP7
  • Maryam Gholamitabar Tabari, Seyed Gholam Ali Jorsaraei *, Mohammad Ghasemzadeh, Hasankolaei, Ali Asghar Ahmadi, Masoumeh Ghasemi Pages 139-147
    Background
    Genetic and morphologic similarities between mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and primordial germ cells (PGCs) make it difficult to distinguish differentiation of these two cell types in vitro. Using specific GC markers expressed in low level or even not expressed in ESCs- can help recognize differentiated cells in vitro. We attempted to differentiate the mouse ESCs into Gc-like cells spontaneously in monolayer and EB culture method.
    Materials and Methods
    In this experimental study, we attempted to differentiate ESCs, Oct4-GFP OG2, into GC-like cells (GCLCs) spontaneously in two different ways, including: i. Spontaneous differentiation of ESCs in monolayer culture as (SP) and ii. Spontaneous differentiation of ESCs using embryoid body (EB) culture method as (EB+SP). During culture, expression level of four GC specific genes (Fkbp6, Mov10l1, Riken and Tex13) and Mvh, Scp3, Stra8, Oct4 were evaluated.
    Results
    In both groups, Mov10l1 was down-regulated (P=0.3), while Tex13 and Riken were up-regulated (P=0.3 and P=0.04, respectively). Fkbp6 and Stra8 were decreased in EB+SP and they were increased in SP group, while no significant difference was determined between them (P=0.1, P=0.07). Additionally, in SP group, gene expression of Mvh and Scp3 were up-regulated and they had significant differences compared to EB+SP group (P=0.00 and P=0.01, respectively). Oct4 was down-regulated in the both groups. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that mean number of Mvh-positive cells in the SP group was significantly greater compared to ESCs, EB+SP and EB7 groups (P=0.00, P=0.01, and P=0.3, respectively).
    Conclusion
    These findings showed that ESCs were differentiated into GCLCs in both group. But spontaneous dif- ferentiation of ESCs into GCLCs in SP group (monolayer culture) compared to EB+SP (EB culture methods) has more ability to express GCs markers.
    Keywords: Differentiation, Embryoid Body, Embryonic Stem Cells, Monolayer
  • Abbas Bakhteyari, Parvaneh Nikpour, Fatemah sadat Mostafavi, Nahid Eskandari, Mohammad Matinfar, Sara Soleimani Asl, Roshanak Aboutorabi * Pages 148-153
    Background
    The present study was designed to evaluate serum lipid profile and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ɑ) level in diabetic rats at implantation time. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could affect various systems, including innate immune system and it causes chronic low-grade inflammation, increasing level of TNF-ɑ. Furthermore, T2DM is often accompanied by impaired lipid profile. Metformin and pioglitazone are used as the first and second lines of treatment for T2DM.
    Materials and Methods
    In this experimental study, 35 adult virgin female wistar rats, weighting 175-225 g, were randomly categorized into five groups: i. Control, ii. Sham, iii. Nicotinamide (NA)+streptozotocin (STZ) induced T2DM, iv. Diabetic+pioglitazone (20 mg/kg/day for 28 days oral administration), and v. Diabetic+metformin (100 mg/kg/day for 28 days oral administration). At the time of implantation, TNF-ɑ level in serum of rats was measured by ELISA kit. Glucose was measured using photometric method and lipid profiles were calculated by enzymatic methods.
    Results
    Level of TNF-ɑ in the diabetic group was significantly higher than other groups (P<0.001). In metformin treated group, TNF-ɑ serum level was also significantly higher than pioglitazone treated group (P<0.001). Fasting blood sugar (FBS) and lipid profiles were significantly higher in diabetic group.
    Conclusion
    Metformin and pioglitazone have similar effects on glucose, lipid profiles and TNF-ɑ serum levels. Among these drugs, pioglitazone has more efficient influence on TNF-α serum level, in comparison with metformin.
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Embryo Implantation, Metformin, Pioglitazone, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha
  • Fatemeh Rahimi Anbarkeh, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh *, Mehdi Jalali, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Zinat Sargazi Pages 154-160
    Background
    Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate pesticide, and nowadays this pesticide is mostly used in agri- culture. In this study, we analyzed the effects of DZN and vitamin E (Vit E) on apoptosis and the proliferation of germ cells in rat testis.
    Materials and Methods
    In this experimental study, 30 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6 per group) consisting of control, sham (received olive oil), experimental group i (60 mg/kg DZN), experimental group ii (60 mg/kg DZN and 200 mg/kg Vit E), and experimental group iii (200 mg/kg Vit E). After six weeks, left testis of rats was removed for the detection of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase end-labeling (TUNEL).
    Results
    Compared with the control group, DZN in the experimental group i decreased the number of PCNA-positive cells and increased the number of TUNEL-positive cells (P<0.001). Vit E improved detrimental changes by the de- crease in the rate of apoptosis and the increase in the proliferation of testicular germ cells (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Vit E can decrease the number of TUNEL-positive cells and increase the number of PCNA-positive cells by the neutralization of the toxicity caused by DZN in the testicular tissue.
    Keywords: poptosis, Diazinon, Proliferation, Testis, Vitamin E