- Volume:8 Issue:3, 2019
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/07/09
- تعداد عناوین: 13
Intraocular Lens Calculation after Refractive Surgery: A Long-Term Retrospective Comparison of Eight FormulasPages 121-128
The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of 8 IOL power calculation formulas for eyes post-refractive surgery. In this Retrospective study, a chart review and data analysis of post-corneal refractive surgery patients who subsequently underwent cataract surgery with IOL implantation in Tertiary surgical center, Draper, UT, USA. The surgery was done in a single surgical center in Draper, UT by one surgeon. The study was approved by the organization’s ethics board. The IOL power formulas used were Barrett True K (BTK), Average Pupil Power (APP), Shammas, Haigis, Galilei, Potvin-Hill Pentacam (PVP), OCT and Barrett True K No History (BTKNH). The percent of time each formula was within ±0.5 D and ±0.75 D of refractive prediction error was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed comparing these 8 methodologies at four post-operative follow-up time points and on the summative time points. Mean follow-up time periods were: 4 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. A total of 64 eyes were included in the study. All IOL formulas showed a myopic trend except APP and Shammas, which showed a hyperopic trend. All tests showed a statistically significant mean absolute value difference from zero. OCT, BTKNH, and BTK had consistently high percentages within ±0.5D and ±0.75 D of refractive error. Linear mixed model analysis showed a statistically significant change in predictive value over time for all formulas. Linear mixed model analysis suggests that it is inadequate to evaluate the performance of IOL power formulae in the short term. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine accuracy as several factors can result in refractive changes greater than 3 months postoperatively. Our analysis did not demonstrate any formula that was clearly superior to the other methods for predicting IOL power at any time point.
Visual Prognosis after Explantation of Small-Aperture Corneal Inlays in Presbyopic Eyes: A Case SeriesPages 129-133
The purpose of this study was to report visual prognosis after explantation of a small-aperture corneal inlay used for the treatment of presbyopia. This is a retrospective case series conducted at a single site in Draper, Utah, USA (Hoopes Vision). Medical records of 176 patients who had received a small-aperture corneal inlay (KAMRA™, AcuFocus Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) were reviewed. Patients who had undergone explantation of the device were identified. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) were measured pre-implantation, post-implantation, pre-explantation, and post-explantation of the inlay. Ten eyes from ten patients were included in this study. The explantation rate was 5.7% over 31 months, with blurry vision as the most common complaint. After explantation, six patients achieved pre-implantation UDVA, and six achieved pre-implantation UNVA. Eight of nine patients who underwent final manifest refraction achieved pre-operative CDVA. All patients had residual donut-shaped corneal haze in the stroma at the previous position of the inlay. All patients experienced improvement in haze with 20% experiencing complete resolution. The degree of stromal haze was not related to the duration of implantation. Of the subset of patients who underwent explantation of their small-aperture corneal inlay, there was persistent loss of CDVA in 10%. The majority of patients experienced some level of residual stromal haze, which may contribute to deficits in UNVA and CDVA in few patients. A hyperopic shift induced by the corneal inlay may contribute to the blurry vision these patients experienced; there was a reduction of this shift post-explantation. While this device is removable, patients should expect some post-explantation changes such as residual haze with a small subset experiencing persistent deficits in CDVA.
Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) is a common surgery for the correction of refractive errors. The majority of patients who undergo this procedure often have excellent results. However, uncontrolled autoimmune disorders and dry eye have both been listed as contraindications to this surgery. Lichen planus (LP) is an autoimmune, inflammatory disorder that characteristically affects mucocutaneous membranes. The etiology is unknown, but it most commonly affects middle-aged adults and presents with bilateral, purple papules. Clinical presentation is used to diagnose the condition, and a punch biopsy is confirmatory. LP may present with multiple different symptoms depending on the type, with ocular manifestations being rare. Multiple viruses and autoimmune conditions have been associated with the disorder, and physicians should take care when gathering a full history of the patient. Exacerbation of symptoms may happen if mood disorders such as depression and anxiety are not well controlled. There are several additional factors physicians must carefully consider before recommending LASIK to patients with LP. These include lichenoid reactions, current medications, and past or present ocular lesions. LASIK may be carefully considered in patients with well-controlled LP in the absence of ocular manifestations. Patients with ocular LP are not candidates for LASIK.
The purpose of this case series is to report visual outcomes in patients who underwent explantation of the Raindrop® hydrogel corneal inlay. Retrospective chart review comprising four cases of explantation of the Raindrop® corneal shape-changing hydrogel inlay: pre-implantation, pre-explantation, and post-explantation values for uncorrected distance visual acuity, uncorrected near visual acuity, and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were measured; keratometric and tomographic data were collected using the Pentacam system (Oculus, Inc). Three eyes were explanted for progressive haze after implantation that persisted even after removal; one eye was explanted due to poor visual acuity with no haze formation. All patients experienced decreased unaided and corrected distance visual acuity. Persistent increase in corneal thickness and mean keratometry was noted post-explantation. All four patients regained their original near visual acuities, but one patient had persistent one-line loss in CDVA. There are long lasting tomographic corneal changes following Raindrop inlay explantation. In addition, persistent increased corneal thickness could be related to semi-permanent changes in corneal structure and may account for residual haze experienced by patients. After explantation, patients may not return to baseline CDVA.
Infectious keratitis causes significant, financial burden and is only increasing in frequency with contact lens use. Despite this, no retrospective studies, prospective studies, or clinical trials have evaluated the diagnostic validity of clinical guidelines in cases of infectious keratitis. Currently, standard of care recommends that corneal samples be obtained for staining and culturing in select patients showing evidence of corneal ulceration. Ideally, diagnostic information from corneal sampling is thought to help guide therapeutic interventions, prevent disease progression, reduce antibiotic resistance, and decrease overall expenditures for the management and treatment of infectious keratitis. However, current staining and culturing methods are limited by poor sensitivity in non-bacterial cases (i.e. fungal, viral) and lengthy turnaround times, and these methods do not frequently change clinical decision making. Newer fluoroquinolones and broad-spectrum antibiotics resolve the vast majority of cases of infectious keratitis, rendering cultures less essential for management. We studied the clinical utility of obtaining corneal samples for culturing and staining and the need for future research to establish superior diagnostic guidelines for their use in infectious keratitis.
PCR involves a repeating cycle of replication to amplify small segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). A novel application of this technique is microbial identification in infectious keratitis, one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. PCR is more sensitive than biological stains and culture, which are considered the current gold standards for diagnosing infectious keratitis. The diagnosis and treatment of infectious keratitis cost the United States millions of dollars in health expenditure. PCR may help offset that cost by allowing for individualized disease management and screening for multiple antibiotic-resistant genes. While beneficial, PCR demonstrates lower specificity rates compared to culture and stain, indicating its shortcomings; this can be overcome by performing PCR after narrowing the pool of potential microorganisms. This article examines the clinical utility of PCR in cases of infectious keratitis by evaluating its reliability, validity, associated costs, and indications.
Corneal pseudoguttata (PG), also known as pseudoguttae or secondary guttata, is a transient, reversible endothelial edema commonly associated with anterior segment pathology. While considered rare, PG presents on slit-lamp examination more commonly than originally thought. We have clinically observed PG after refractive surgeries, in association with infectious keratitis, and following medication use. PG presents as dark lesions on slit-lamp exam with specular illumination, similar to primary corneal guttata. PG is distinct from guttata because PG resolves over time and does not involve Descemet’s membrane. Other ocular findings that may be confused with guttata include endothelial blebs (EB) and endothelial denudation (ED). EB are possibly a type of PG that present after contact lens use or hypoxia. ED is a distinct entity that is characterized by loss of endothelial cells without involvement of Descemet’s membrane. Confocal microscopy may be useful in differentiating these four endothelial lesions, with differences in border definition and the presence of hyperreflective areas two main distinctions. PG presents as a hyporeflective, elevated shape without clear borders on confocal microscopy. PG, EB, and ED can resolve with time without the need for surgical intervention, unlike corneal guttata. Treatment of the underlying condition will lead to resolution of both PG and EB.
Persistent corneal epithelial defects (PEDs or PCEDs) result from the failure of rapid re-epithelialization and closure within 10-14 days after a corneal injury, even with standard supportive treatment. Disruptions in the protective epithelial and stromal layers of the cornea can render the eye susceptible to infection, stromal ulceration, perforation, scarring, and significant vision loss. Although several therapies exist and an increasing number of novel approaches are emerging, treatment of PEDs can still be quite challenging. It is important to treat the underlying causative condition, which may include an infection, limbal stem cell deficiency, or diabetes, in order to facilitate wound healing. Standard treatments, such as bandage contact lenses (BCLs) and artificial tears (ATs), aim to provide barrier protection to the epithelial layer. Recently-developed medical treatments can target the re-epithelialization process by facilitating access to growth factors and anti-inflammatory agents, and novel surgical techniques can provide re-innervation to the cornea. PEDs should be treated within 7-10 days to avoid secondary complications. These interventions, along with a step-wise approach to management, can be useful in patients with PEDs that are refractory to standard medical treatment. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, current and novel management, and prognosis of persistent epithelial defects.
Pentacam® Corneal Tomography for Screening of Refractive Surgery Candidates: A Review of the Literature, Part IPages 177-203
Corneal tomography and Scheimpflug imaging are frequently used to analyze the corneal surface, especially in the field of cataract and refractive surgery. The Pentacam system is one of the most commonly used commercially available systems for this purpose. Through a rotating Scheimpflug camera, the system is capable of creating a three-dimensional map of the cornea. These advances in tomography have simultaneously enhanced the ability of clinicians to screen surgical candidates and detect subtle corneal changes in diseases such as keratoconus. However, there remains a need to enhance diagnosis in order to recognize mild and early forms of corneal ectasia. As iatrogenic ectasia and keratoconus are dreaded complications of refractive surgery, it is imperative to screen patients appropriately prior to surgery. The Pentacam is one of many systems utilized in the screening process, but the literature has not identified specific protocol nor parameters that are capable of carrying out this process appropriately. Post-operative keratoconus continues to occur despite the advances in technology seen in corneal imaging. Therefore, clear indices for screening are required in order to diagnose early forms of keratoconus and other corneal diseases that may exclude the seemingly asymptomatic patient from undergoing refractive surgery. This article aims to summarize the indices available on the Pentacam system and to identify the most accurate parameters for screening of the refractive surgery candidate.
Galilei Corneal Tomography for Screening of Refractive Surgery Candidates: A Review of the Literature, Part IIPages 204-218
Corneal topography is the most widely used technology for examining the anterior corneal surface. Scheimpflug imaging is a newer technique that allows for measurement of both the anterior and posterior corneal surface, which allows for three-dimensional reconstruction of the cornea. This is of particular interest and value in the field of cataract and refractive surgery. The Galilei camera is a commercially available dual Scheimpflug system that combines curvature data from Placido disc-based corneal topography with elevation data from Scheimpflug technology. The addition of Placido disc topography makes the Galilei unique from its more popular counterpart, the Pentacam, which was discussed in Part I. Compared to the Pentacam, and however, the Galilei analyzer is a newer system that has emerged as a valuable screening tool given its dual Scheimpflug capability. In the first article of this series, the authors summarized the refractive indices available on the Pentacam system with the purpose of identifying the best diagnostic parameters for keratoconus. Similarly, the purpose of this article is to summarize corneal surface indices available on the Galilei system and evaluate their use in screening of the refractive surgery candidate. Since post-operative keratectasia is still prevalent, this paper aims to identify the most clinically relevant indices that may be used in pre-operative evaluation.
Advances in Biomechanical Parameters for Screening of Refractive Surgery Candidates: A Review of the Literature, Part IIIPages 219-240
Corneal biomechanical properties have garnered significant interest in their relation to the development of ectatic corneal disease. Alongside the advent of corneal tomography and Scheimpflug imaging such as Pentacam and Galilei, there have been advances in assessing the cornea based on its biomechanical characteristics. Though the aforementioned imaging systems are highly capable of identifying morphologic abnormalities, they cannot assess mechanical stability of the cornea. This article, in contrast to Parts I and II of this article series, will focus on in vivo corneal biomechanical imaging systems. The two most readily available commercial systems include the Corvis ST and the Ocular Response Analyzer. Both of these systems aimed to characterize corneal biomechanics via distinct measurements. While in Parts I and II of this article series the authors focused on elevation, pachymetric, and keratometric data, the purpose of this article was to summarize biomechanical parameters and their clinical use in screening refractive surgery candidates. Moreover, this article explores biomechanical decompensation and its role in the development of corneal ectasia and keratoconus. There is a focus on the diagnostic accuracy of biomechanical indices in the identification of diseases such as keratoconus that may preclude a patient from undergoing refractive surgery.
Comparative Analysis of LASIK Flap Diameter and its Centration Using Two Different Femtosecond LasersPages 241-249
The aim of this study was to compare the diameter, accuracy, variability, and centration with respect to the limbus of corneal flaps created by two femtosecond lasers, the VisuMax, and Wavelight FS200, for laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and how these flaps affect visual outcomes. This is a retrospective chart review of flap morphology created during LASIK Surgery. Overall, 168 eyes underwent flap creation using the WaveLight FS200 laser, and on 189 eyes, the VisuMax laser was used. Of these total number, flap morphology was analyzed in a random sample of 158 eyes; 80 with the Visumax laser and 78 with the WaveLight FS200 laser. Intraoperative photos of the flaps taken by the Wavelight Allegretto EX500 were analyzed. Flap diameters and centration were measured using Adobe Acrobat Pro. All patients had visual acuity measurements including uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), spherical equivalent refraction (SE) and refractive astigmatism recorded three months postoperatively. Greater than 90% of patients in both groups achieved a UDVA of 20/20 postoperatively. The mean difference between targeted and achieved flap diameter was 0.50 +/- 0.15 mm in the VisuMax group and 0.35 +/- 0.15 millimeters (mm) in the FS200 group (P<0.01). The flap diameters of the VisuMax group were more precise with a variance of 0.024 mm compared to a variance of 0.038 mm in the FS200 group (P<0.05). VisuMax flaps were more nasally displaced (log(NA/TA) = -0.21 +/- 0.10 mm) compared to the FS200 flaps (log(NA/TA) = 0.03 +/- 0.10 mm), (P< 0.01). We concluded that both the VisuMax and FS200 created flaps larger than the preoperative targeted diameter. VisuMax created corneal flaps that had a greater degree of deviation from the targeted diameter when compared to flaps from the FS200. However, there was less variance in the VisuMax flap diameter. In addition, VisuMax flaps were more nasally displaced. There were no statistically significant differences in visual outcomes when comparing the two femtosecond lasers.
Delayed-Onset Transient Light Sensitivity Syndrome after Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking: A Case SeriesPages 250-256
In this case series, we report a potentially novel association of corneal collagen crosslinking (CCL) with the development of photophobia symptoms in a series of patients at a tertiary ophthalmology clinic and describe their clinical course. Photosensitivity is a rare and seemingly unpredictable complication of refractive surgery but can present as a disabling, bilateral ocular pain that requires immediate treatment. This complication, termed transient light-sensitivity syndrome (TLSS), can have a substantially delayed presentation after ocular procedures and is associated with inflammation of structures in the anterior chamber that can be imperceptible on slit-lamp examination. Traditionally, exposure to high-energy femtosecond lasers is hypothesized to create stromal gas bubbles powering postoperative inflammatory reactions. TLSS-like symptoms after CCL may be due to a secondary inflammatory response involving activated keratocytes and cytokine release. However, free radical damage from the interaction of riboflavin and ultraviolet in CCL may also drive this inflammatory process.