فهرست مطالب

Pediatric Nephrology - Volume:7 Issue:3, 2019
  • Volume:7 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/08/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Hongwei Wang*, Fernando G. Quintana, Francisco J. Cervantes, Margarita Faz Page 1
    Background

    The aim of this study was to know the spectrum of histopathology in children who underwent a renal biopsy for difficult NS in a tertiary care pediatric nephrology center.

    Method

    This prospective observational study took place in Pediatric Nephrology department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka Bangladesh, from January 2011 to July 2018. Patients presented with difficult pattern of nephrotic syndrome and underwent renal biopsy were enrolled in this study.

    Results

    Total 140 patients were recruited in this study. Patients with SRNS & nephrotic syndrome with atypical presentation had renal biopsy ; a good number of atypical NS were SDNS. They were grouped into Group A: SRNS, Group B: SDNS, Group C:Nephrotic Syndrome with atypical presentation. Comparison among 3 groups were done. Regarding lab parameters, serum creatinine was raised in 40.6% patients in  nephrotic syndrome with atypical presentation and 16.2%in SRNS. In patients with SDNS, MCD (51.3%) was the most common histological pattern followed by MesPGN (33.3%); whereas MesPGN was the commonest histological pattern in SRNS (56.8%) and atypical presentation (54.7%) followed by MCD and FSGS.Most of the patients response to immunosuppressive therapy. In SRNS partial response achieved in 18.9% and CKD  developed in 16.2% cases. In comparison, nephrotic syndrome atypical presentation 10.9% patients achieved partial response and 7.8% developed CKD but these are not statistically significant. 5.4% patients of SRNS died.

    Conclusion

    Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis was the most common histopathological diagnosis in patients with SRNS & nephrotic syndrome atypical presentation  in our population. MCD is predominant among SDNS.

    Keywords: Minimal Change Disease, Mesangial Proliferative Glomerulonephritis, Membreno Proliferative Glomerulonephritis, Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, Nephrotic Syndrome. Chronic kidney disease
  • Ali Babaei Jandaghi, Hamidreza Badeli, Afagh Hassanzadeh Rad, Ramin Pourghorban Page 2

    A 14-year-old boy with end-stage renal disease secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis complicated with heavy proteinuria received a non- related living kidney transplantation. Postoperatively he continued to excrete higher level of proteinuria. Allograft biopsy showed mild mesangial expansion and hypercellularity. Urine sample was collected from allograft renal pelvis under local anesthesia and ultrasound guidance.Based on the importance of heavy proteinuria and lack of definite method of differentiating its source during the early weeks after kidney transplantation, it seems that percutaneous renal pelvis urine sampling may be noted as a preferred method of detecting the source of proteinuria.

    Keywords: Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, Kidney Transplantation, Ultrasonography, Proteinuria, Allografts
  • Md Abdul Qade*, Lutfunnahar Begum, Zeena Salwa Page 3

    Meningitis retention syndrome (MRS) is an underreported clinical syndrome in children that presents with meningitis and acute retention of urine. It is usually associated with aseptic meningitis, but there are case reports of MRS associated with viral and other kind of meningitis. There is no imaging abnormalities in the brain and spine associated with acute urinary retention. Here we report a case of an 11-year-old boy who presented with signs of meningism and acute urinary retention. Further evaluation revealed features of meningitis in cerebrospinal fluid analysis and normal imaging of the brain and spine. He completely recovered from urinary retention after meningitis treatment.

    Keywords: Meningitis, Acute urinary retention, Meningitis retention syndrome
  • Mohsen Akhavan Sepahi* Page 4

    Proteinuria is defined as an increased abnormal urinary excretion of proteins. In normal conditions, few proteins are lost through the urine. Proteinuria is a problem and dilemma in pediatric practice.

    Non- nephrotic proteinuria is described and its follow-up is discussed in the following.

    Keywords: Proteinuria, Non-nephrotic proteinuria, Nephrotic Syndrome, Child
  • Mehrnoush Hassa Yeganeh* Page 5
  • Ranjit Ranjan Roy*, Jahanara Arju, Jakia Sultana, Farhana Rahman, Mohammad Imrul Hasan, Abdullah, Al Mamun, Tahmina Jesmin, Afroza Begum, Sayed Saimul Haque, Golam Muin Uddin, Md. Habibur Rahman Page 6
    Background and Aim

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is characterized by a rapid decline in the renal function and urinary abnormalities. There is limited information on epidemiological factors and clinical and histopathological patterns of RPGN from developing countries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the etiology, clinical features, histopathological patterns, and treatment outcomes of patients with clinically suspected RPGN.

    Methods

    This retrospective study was conducted in the Pediatric Nephrology Department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from January 2014 to January 2019. Patients with clinically suspected RPGN that underwent renal biopsy were enrolled in this study.

    Results

    Thirty-five patients were recruited in this study. Macroscopic hematuria, edema, hypertension, uremia, and oliguria were common clinical presentations. Diffuse proliferative GN (28.5%) and crescentic GN (22.8%) were the most common histological diagnoses in this study. Immune mediated GN (62%) followed by idiopathic GN (25%) were found to be the most frequent cause of crescentic GN. Renal replacement therapy was required in 45% of the cases and 11.4% of the patients developed end-stage renal disease.

    Conclusion

    Renal histology is an integral part of the investigation of patients with suspected RPGN for both diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Diffuse proliferative GN was the most common histopathological diagnosis in patients with clinical RPGN in our population. Preservation of renal function depends on early intervention and detection of RPGN in pediatric patients.

    Keywords: Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, crescentic glomerulonephritis, diffuse proliferative GN, end stage renal disease
  • Hongwei Wang, Fernando G Quintana, Francisco J Cervantes, Margarita Faz Page 7
    Background and Aim

    Obesity causes a decrease kidney function and an increase in kidney volume. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship among kidney volume, obesity and blood pressure in Mexican-American children in South Texas.

    Methods

    To study those effects, data was collected from 454 ultrasound done on 289 girls and 762 ultrasound done on 382 boys visiting a pediatric clinic in South Texas from 2003 to 2018. The relationship between kidney volume and obesity was analyzed. IBM SPSS is used for data analysis.

    Results

    Children with fatty livers have a higher kidney volume when compared to children with non-fatty livers. When comparing children classified as BMI percentile (0, 50%), BMI percentile [50%, 85%), BMI percentile [85%, 95%), and BMI percentile above 95%, the kidney volume is increasing as BMI percentile increases. We also found that there is a positive relationship between the kidney volume and systolic blood pressure. Children with high systolic blood pressure (above 119 mmHg) have a larger volume when compared to children with low blood pressure (above 110 but less than or equal 119 mmHg), 110 and below mmHg. 

    Conclusion

    Obesity causes inflammation, and lipid accumulation. These effects can cause an increase in kidney volume. Kidney volume increases can be caused by hypertension. This is even severe for Mexican-American children in south Texas.

    Keywords: Obesity, Kidney volume, Hypertension, Child
  • The effect of different heparin volume upon blood gas analysis.
    Narges Gholami* Page 8
    Objective

    Blood gas analysis is an important laboratory test for diagnosis and treatment of a variety of medical conditions in Emergency rooms. Inaccurate sample collection is one of the reasons which leads to error in blood gas analysis. In this study we aimed to evaluate the different volume of heparin in syringes and effect of sample dilution on blood gas analysis of samples as one of the main agents which effects on result of blood gas analysis.

    Materials and Methods

    One hundred children (4-month to 12year-old )who referred to Loghman Hakim Hospital ,Tehran, Iran were enrolled in this study. Two samples were taken for each patient .The first sample syringes were filled with heparin sodium and then emptied completely to be slightly coated with anticoagulant. The second sample syringes contained 0.1 mL of liquid heparin sodium 5000 U/mL (5%). The blood gases parameters including pH, PO2, PCO2, HCO3 and BE (base excess) were measured. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18.

    Results

    All parameter except P O2 in second samples (0.1 ml  heparin 5%)had lower level comparing the first samples(P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    This study  found that the small amount of heparin in the syringe changed the result of blood gas analysis.

    Keywords: Blood Gas Analysis, Heparin, PH, PCO2, HCO3
  • The association of Matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 and endothelial dysfunction with cardiovascular disease in children with end stage renal disease.
    Amin Abedini*, Alaleh Gheissari, Rokhsareh Meamar, Mehrbod Vakhshoori, Mohammad shafiei, Yahya Madihi, Esfandiar Najafi Tavana Page 9
    Introduction

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in children with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and endothelial dysfunction could contribute in the development of CVD in children with ESRD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of MMP-2, 9, and endothelial dysfunction markers (sE-selectin and brachial flow mediated dilatation (FMD)) with carotid intima media thickness (c-IMT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) as two indicators of CVD in pediatric patients with ESRD.

    Methods

    31 children with ESRD and 18 healthy age- and sex-adjusted subjects as controls were recruited in the study. Serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, sE-selectin, and other biochemical parameters were measured in two groups. Brachial FMD, c-IMT and LVMI were evaluated in both groups.

    Results

    C-IMT was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, MMP-2, MMP-9, low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride, phosphorus, PTH, calcium × phosphorus (Ca × P) product and was negatively correlated with FMD, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and calcium. LVMI was correlated with systolic blood pressure, MMP-2, cholesterol, triglyceride, phosphorus, PTH, Ca × P product positively and was negatively correlated with FMD and HDL. The area under the curve (AUC) in ROC curve analysis in predicting abnormal c-IMT and LVH for MMP-2 were 0.76 and 0.71, respectively (P<0.05).

    Conclusion

    C-IMT and LVMI, as two markers of CVD in children with ESRD were associated with MMP-2, MMP-9 and endothelial dysfunction markers. Our study suggested that MMP-2 may predict abnormal c-IMT and LVH in children with ESRD.

  • A Child Presenting with Persistent Asymptomatic Microscopic Hematuria: a Case Report
    Rama Naghshizadian* Page 10

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious and important infectious disease worldwide. Children commonly develop renal tuberculosis (TB) as a complication of primary pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis characterized by hilar lymphadenopathy often with lung opacity. Renal TB accounts for up to 27% of extra-pulmonary cases. The disease is more prevalent in children with immunodeficiency syndromes and the recipients of organ transplantations. The signs and symptoms of renal TB are non-specific and challenging. Most patients present with persistent non-glomerular microscopic hematuria without abdominal or flank pain. Some may have signs and symptoms of the lower urinary tract such as voiding dysfunction. A diagnosis of renal TB is suspected upon detecting pyuria in the absence of common bacterial infections and is confirmed by isolation of acid-fast lactobacillus in the urine or tissue biopsy. Anti-tuberculosis drugs most frequently used in the pediatric age group are a combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol.

    Keywords: Non-glomerular hematuria, Renal tuberculosis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Child, Mycobacterium tuberculosis