فهرست مطالب

Nanomedicine Journal - Volume:1 Issue: 3, Spring 2014
  • Volume:1 Issue: 3, Spring 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/10/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Marziyeh Ziaee Ghahnavieh*, Marziyeh Ajdary, Mahboobeh Ziaee Ghahnavieh, Nooshin Naghsh Pages 121-127
    Objective(s)
    There is a rising use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in goods and in the medical fields but there is concern about the toxicity of them. So in this study spherical AuNPs with 3 different concentrations were applied for investigating their effects in vivo
    Materials And Methods
    40 male albino mice were randomly divided into sham, control, 25 ppm, 50 ppm, 100 ppm groups and were treated by intraperitoneal injection for period of 14 days. Blood was taken for measuring of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGOT and SGPT) enzyme levels and Complete Blood Count (CBC).
    Results
    After the treatment and comparing groups with sham group, in 50 ppm group significant increases on RBC, HCT, HGB, MCHC and in 25 ppm group significant increase on MCHC and significant decrease on MCV and in 100 ppm group significant increase on MCHC were observed. Also in 50 ppm group an increase on SGOT enzyme level was observed. However, it was nonsignificant.
    Conclusion
    By observing the abnormality on the RBC count and SGOT enzyme level in the 50 ppm group, we concluded a slight toxicity effect for AuNPs and the threat potential of their use in human.
    Keywords: gold nanoparticles, male mice, SGOT, SGPT, CBC
  • Mohammadreza Foruzanmehr*, Seid Mohammad Hosainalipour, Shamsoddin Mirdamadi Tehrani, Mahnaz Aghaeipour Pages 128-136
    Objective(s)
    Titanium oxides are known to be appropriate hemocompatible materials which are suggested as coatings for blood-contacting devices. Little is known about the influence of nanometric crystal structure, layer thickness, and semiconducting characteristics of TiO2 on blood hemostasis.
    Materials And Methods
    Having used sol-gel dip coating method in this study, TiO2 thin films were deposited on nano-scale electro-polished stainless steel 316L with 1 to 5 nano-sized layers. Surface morphology and structure of the film were studied with X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Blood compatibility was also determined by measuring the platelet activation (CD62P expression), platelet adhesion (Scanning Electron Microscopy), and the blood clotting time on these samples.
    Results
    The films were compact and smooth and existed mainly in the form of anatase. By increasing the number of TiO2 thin layer, clotting time greatly extended, and the population of activated platelet and P-selectine expression changed according to the surface characteristics of each layer.
    Conclusion
    The findings revealed that stainless steel 316L coated with nano-structured TiO2 layer improved blood compatibility, in terms of both blood platelet activity and coagulation cascade, which can decrease the thrombogenicity of blood contacting devices which were made from stainless steel.
    Keywords: Blood compatibility, Sol, gel, Nano, structured, Titanium oxide, Flowcytometry
  • Esmaeil Mirzaei, Reza Faridi, Majidi*, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Farnoush Asghari Paskiabi Pages 137-146
    Objective(s)
    To improve water stability of electrospun chitosan/ Polyethylene oxide (PEO) nanofibers, genipin, a biocompatible and nontoxic agent, was used to crosslink chitosan based nanofibers.
    Materials And Methods
    Different amounts of genipin were added to the chitosan/PEO solutions, chitosan/PEO weight ratio 90/10 in 80 % acetic acid, and the solutions were then electrospun to form nanofibers. The spun nanofibers were exposed to water vapor to complete crosslinking. The nanofibrous membranes were subjected to detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy, swelling test, MTT cytotoxicity, and cell attachment.
    Results
    SEM images of electrospun mats showed that genipin-crosslinked nanofibers retained their fibrous structure after immerging in PBS (pH=7.4) for 24 hours, while the uncrosslinked samples lost their fibrous structure, indicating the water stability of genipin-crosslinked nanofibers. The genipin-crosslinked mats also showed no significant change in swelling ratio in comparison with uncrosslinked ones. FTIR-ATR spectrum of uncrosslinked and genipin-crosslinked chitosan nanofibers revealed the reaction between genipin and amino groups of chitosan. Cytotoxicity of genipin-crosslinked nanofibers was examined by MTT assay on human fibroblast cells in the presence of nanofibers extraction media. The genipin-crosslinked nanofibers did not show any toxic effects on fibroblast cells at the lowest and moderate amount of genipin. The fibroblast cells also showed a good adhesion on genipin-crosslinked nanofibers.
    Conclusion
    This electrospun matrix would be used for biomedical applications such as wound dressing and scaffold for tissue engineering without the concern of toxicity.
    Keywords: Chitosan, Electrospinning, Genipin, Structural stability, Cytotoxicity
  • Bahman Khameneh, Mahdi Momen-Nejad, Mohsen Tafaghodi* Pages 147-154
    Objective(s)
    Drug delivery via mucosal routes has been confirmed to be effective in inducing strong immune responses. Liposomes could enhance immune responses and mucoadhesive potentials, make them useful mucosal drug delivery systems. Coating of liposomes by mucoadhesive polymers succeeded in enhancing immune responses. Our studies aim at preparation and characterization of trimethylchitosan-coated nanoliposomes for nasal delivery of a model antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT).
    Materials And Methods
    Anionic liposomes were prepared by dehydration-rehydration method with an average size of 100 nm and were coated with 0.01% (w/v) solution of trimethyulchitosan (TMC) with 50±10% of quaternization. Surface properties and zeta potential were evaluated by DLS. Antigen stability and integrity were studied by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Nasal clearance rate and mucoadhesive properties of liposomes were studied by gamma scintigraphy method using 99mTc-labelled liposomes.
    Results
    The zeta potential of non-coated and TMC-coated liposomes was -40 and +38.8, respectively. Encapsulation rate of tetanus toxoid was 77 ± 5.5%. SDS-PAGE revealed that the antigens remained intact during formulation procedure. Gamma scintigraphy confirmed that both types of liposomes could remain in nasal cavity up to ten folds over the normal residence time for conventional nasal formulations.
    Conclusion
    TMC-coated nanoliposomes have several positive potentials including good mucoadhesive properties, preserved integrity of loaded antigen and presence of TMC as a mucoadhesive polymer with innate immunoadjuvant potential which make them suitable for efficient adjuvant/delivery system.
    Keywords: Nanoliposomes, Tetanus toxoid, Trimethylchitosan, Gamma scintigraphy
  • Katayon Bahrami, Pardis Nazari, Mahshid Nabavi, Marjan Golkar, Ali Almasirad, Ahmad Reza Shahverdi Pages 155-161
    Objective(s)
    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) offer a wide variety of potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences due to the unique advances in nanotechnology research. In this work, bimetal Ag-Au alloy NPs were prepared and their combinations with other antibiotics were tested against Staphylococcus aureus.
    Materials And Methods
    Firstly, Ag-Au alloy NPs with Au/Ag molar ratio of 1:1 was fabricated and was purified by agarose gel electrophoresis system. The morphology and size of the purified NPs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Chemical composition and surface chemistry of these NPs were studied with atomic absorption spectophotometry and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The size of purified Ag-Au alloy NPs was less than 200 nm. Also the presence of organic compounds with a hydroxyl residue was detected on the surface of these purified NPs. In next step the effect of purified Ag-Au alloy NPs on the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics was evaluated at sub-inhibitory content (5 μg/disk) using disk diffusion method against S. aureus. Ag NPs and Au NPs were also tested at same content (5 μg) using mentioned method.
    Results
    The most enhancing effect of Ag-Au alloy NPs was observed for penicillin G and piperacillin. No enhancing effects on the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics were observed at 5 μg/disk for the mono-metal nanoparticles (Ag NPs and Au NPs) against S. aureus.
    Conclusion
    These results signify that the Ag-Au alloy NPs potentiates the antimicrobial action of certain antibiotics suggesting a possible utilization of this nano material in combination therapy against resistant S. aureus.
    Keywords: Gold, silver alloy nanoparticles, Antibiotic resistance, Staphylococcus aureus
  • Zahra Varmaghani*, Majjid Monajjemi, Fatemeh Mollaamin Pages 162-170
    Objective(s)
    Vinblastine is antimitotic, anticancer medicine that disturbs normal microtubule formation and favours depolymerisation. Structural study and finding the active site of vinblastine are the targets of this research.
    Materials And Methods
    Vinblastine was optimized in vacuum and then in different solvents by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) shift measurements were made in different solvents by various dielectric constants by Continuous Set of Gauge Transformations (CSGT).
    Results
    The best structure and function of vinblastine was established. The conformational preferences may be attributed to stereoelectronic effects. The results showed that the structure of vinblastine is more stabile in water rather than the other media. The most active atoms of vinblastine were realized by various spectra of vinblastine in different media including vacuum and diverse solvents.
    Conclusion
    Discovery of active site of vinblastine that could bind to tubulin to perform the antimitosis and anticancer effect in process of cell division was accomplished in this investigation. These data can be applicable to study the binding site of vinblastine-tubulin complex.
    Keywords: Vinblastine, Nanosystem, Anticancer, Density functional theory
  • Monir Doudi, Mahbubeh Setorki* Pages 171-179
    Objective(s)
    This study aimed to address the gold nanoparticle(GNP)-dose and exposure duration effect on the kidney function of rats: in vivo.
    Materials And Methods
    A total of 32 healthy male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into groups, three GNP-treated groups and control group. Group 1, 2 and 3 received. /5 cc of solution containing 5, 10,100 ppm Au via IP injection for 7 successive days, respectively. The control group was treated with 0.5% normal saline. Several biochemical parameters such as BUN (blood urea nitrogen), creatine and uric acid were evaluated at various time points (7 and 14 days). After 14 days, the tissue of kidney was collected and investigated.
    Results
    There was no significant difference between the control and the intervention group regarding the amount of creatine-BUN and uric acid. The amount of creatine-BUN and uric acid showed increase in all the groups [except group1 (creatine) and group 2 (uric acid)] in the 7 and 14 days after intervention compared to the control group, but this difference was not significant. Results of histopatological tissue kidney showed: in group 1 and 3, complete destruction of the proximal tubules and distal cortical, in group 2, almost complete destruction of proximal tubules and distal.
    Conclusions
    The induced histological alterations might be an indication of injured renal tubules due to GNPs toxicity that become unable to deal with the accumulated residues resulting from metabolic and structural disturbances caused by these NPs.
    Keywords: gold nanoparticle (GNP), Urea, Rats, Renal function
  • Nahid Nosrati, Majid Hassanpour-Ezzati*, Sayyed Zahra Mousavi, Mohammad Safi Rahmanifar, Shiva Rezagholiyan Pages 180-190
    Objective(s)
    Recently, applications of MnO2 nanoparticles and microparticles in industry, pharmacology, and medicine have considerably expanded. Mn distribution and clearance from brain and spinal cord tissue compared with muscle tissue of rats after single subcutaneous injection of nanoparticles and microparticle of MnO2 . Pain sensory threshold of rat was evaluated as neurologic consequence of the particles on CNS activity of rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Rats divided to control and two experimental groups. Each experimental group received a single subcutaneous injection of MnO2 nano- and microparticles, respectively. Acute pain thresholds of rats were evaluated by tail immersion method and its weight gain was recorded during these weeks. Samples taken from brain, spinal cord and muscle tissues of rats, once every 2 week for 8 weeks. The tissue Mn level was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method.
    Results
    Both particles size passed from blood barriers. Unlike brain tissue, manganese completely cleared from spinal tissue after 8 weeks in both groups. Clearance of Mn from muscle tissue is not complete in both of the groups. Weight gain of rats in both groups was slower than control rats. In microparticle group, rats showed progressive analgesia (p<0.05). In nanoparticle groups, rats showed hyperalgesia for first 4 weeks and analgesia during remaining weeks.
    Conclusion
    Change in MnO2 particles size affect on Mn distribution and clearance from central nervous system. Effect of particles on whole body metabolism varied with its size too. Finally, comparison of pain response of rats among particle treated groups indicates that neurobiological mechanism affected by particles is varied with their size during times after administration.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles, MnO2, Biodistribution, Clearance, Pain
  • Mohammad Saeed Heydarnejad, Parisa Yarmohammadi-Samani*, Mohsen Mobini Dehkordi, Mohammad Shadkhast, Samira Rahnama Pages 191-197
    Objective(s)
    With the advent of nanotechnology, significant progress has been made in the area of nanoscale materials such as nanosilver (Ag-Nps). These nanoparticles have a wide range of applications and been used for antimicrobial purposes for more than a century. However, little attention has been paid to the toxicity of nanosilver wound dressing. This study was designed to investigate the possible histopathological toxicity of Ag-NPs in liver of mice during wound healing.
    Materials And Methods
    A group of 50 female BALB/c mice of about 8 weeks were randomly divided into two groups: Ag-NPs and control groups (n=25). After creating similar wound on the backs of all animals, the wound bed was treated in Ag-NPs group, with a volume of 50 microliters of the nanosilver solution (10ppm), and in control group, with the same amount of distilled water. The experiment lasted for 14 days. Histopathaological samplings of liver were conducted on days 2, 7 and 14 of the experiment.
    Results
    Histopathological studies demonstrated time-dependent changes in mice liver treated with Ag-NPs compared to control group. Some changes include dilation in central venous, hyperemia, cell swelling, increase of Kupffer and inflammatory cells.
    Conclusion
    This study suggests that use of nanosilver for wound healing may cause a mild toxicity, as indicated by time-dependent toxic responses in liver tissue. However, this issue will have to be considered more extensively in further studies.
    Keywords: Nanosilver (Ag, NPs), Wound healing, Liver, Dermal toxicity
  • Sayedeh Fatemeh Shaffiey, Sayed Reza Shaffiey*, Mohammad Ahmadi, Farshid Azari Pages 198-204
    Objective(s)
    CuO is one of the most important transition metal oxides due to its captivating properties. It is used in various technological applications such as high critical temperature superconductors, gas sensors, in photoconductive applications, and so on. Recently, it has been used as an antimicrobial agent against various bacterial species.
    Materials And Methods
    Here, we synthesized CuO nanoparticles (NPs) and explored the antibacterial activity of CuO NPs preparation.
    Results
    Single crystalline nanoparticles of copper oxide having almost uniform particle size of 5-6 nm has been synthesized by a facile and versatile route. XRD spectra confirmed the formation of single phase CuO NPs. Transmission electron microscopy results corroborate well with XRD results. The technique employed is free from toxic solvents, organics and amines, is based on a simple reaction of copper sulfate and de-ionized water (DI), and their bactericidal effects against of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966T bacteria were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) with liquid culture for all of the Aeromonas hydrophila culture Medias was done.
    Conclusion
    Present study confirms that Copper oxide nanoparticles have great promise as antimicrobial agent against Aeromonas hydrophila
    Keywords: CuO nanoparticle, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bactericidal effects
  • Akram Ranjbar, Zahra Ataie, Farzad Khajavi, Hassan Ghasemi Pages 205-210
    Objective(s)
    Nanotechnology and nanoparticles are increasingly recognized for their potential applications in aerospace engineering, nanoelectronics, and environmental remediation, medicine and consumer products. More importantly is the potential for the application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the treatment of diseases that require maintenance of circulating drug concentration or targeting of specific cells or organs the aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of Ag NP antioxidative biomarkers in rats. Ag NPs are used to investigate the potential risks for the environment and health.
    Materials And Methods
    Rats received Ag NP, 5, 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day IP. After two week of treatment, the activity of enzymatic scavengers such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood samples were measured.
    Results
    Ag NP in 5, 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg reduced activities of CAT, SOD and increased TAC in plasma.
    Conclusion
    In this study, Ag NP with 500mg/kg induced activities of CAT, SOD and decreased TAC. It is concluded that antioxidative properties of Ag NP is dose dependent.
    Keywords: Silver nanoparticle (Ag NP), Oxidative stress, Enzyme antioxidant