Semantics of Refinement of the Basis of a Ruling, Comparison with Similar Concepts and its Methodology
Refinement of the basis of a ruling (tanqīḥ al-manāṭ) is one of the rules of principles of jurisprudence، which is applied to the process of inference and for achieving the basis of a ruling (manāṭ). In general، it is a type of generalization of the rulings that have been issued for specific events and instances and in this way those features of the specific event or person that are not effective in the ruling are identified; then، these features are put aside and the ruling is permeated to all similar instances and in case it is certain، it is authorized and valid. Tanqīḥ al-manāṭ is among the discourses concerning expressions (alfāẓ) and relying on them is the same as relying on the general or the absolute. Achieving the basis of a ruling is possible through expertise and the intellectual expanse of the jurisprudent، proportion of ordinance and subject، as well as accurate conventional understanding. Tanqīḥ al-manāṭ is seen more in those jurisprudential branches that have social aspects، arrange sound and just relationship among the members of society، and have less precedent in statutes. If in legal law (sharī‘a)، the effective attribute is explicitly stated and there should be no nood for annulment of the attributes and the correlations، it is called realization of manāṭ، which is legally valid. However، if the inference is not based on an effective method and the manāṭ is achieved irrespective of the statute، it is phrased as takhrīj (deduction) of manāṭ، which is not valid from the Imāmī point of view.
Islamic Jurisprudence & Its Principles, No. 90, 2013
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