An Introduction to the Economy of Theater in Iran
This paper takes an overall look at the economy of arts and studies the relation between economy and the production of theater by considering the economic and cultural principles and approaches governing today’s society of Iran. The main objective of this study is to study the adverse conditions of Iranian theater and the inferior status of this cultural product in Iran. In scientific terms، economy is the budget or capital، which is converted to products for consumption purposes. Product is something that both meets the needs of people، and can be exchanged with other products. Therefore، any product has two properties: 1- It meets the needs of people. 2-It is produced and distributed for exchange purposes. If theater is considered as a cultural product that has different mechanisms from its production to performance and can be consumed like any other product to meet a part of human’s needs، we must pay enough attention to create a balance between its costs and incomes just like any other product، since theater is subject to three economic elements of production، distribution، and consumption. Theater is considered a valuable product in development terms. The government is interested that people consume such a product more than what is consumed in practice. Despite such an interest، there are barriers that reduce the share of theater in cultural budgets in such a way that the status of theater in the finance system and cultural budgets of Iran has lowered to its minimum، and the support and facilities provided to theater is less than the half of those granted to other arts. These barriers can be classified as follows: - Unquantifiable nature of art has made it difficult in general to use quantitative criteria and measuring tools for its recognition. Such a problem makes it also difficult to provide the statistic data and indices that are required for the economic evaluation of an artistic work. - The theater artists and experts have no strong will and interest to generate such indices. As the economics of art as a branch of economics that evaluates and analyzes the tangible results of artistic policies، plans، and activities has not a broad background، the studies conducted in this field are limited and speak in general terms. Moreover، they fail to provide a clear perspective on practical and theoretical solutions. This research shows that theater in Iran has a small share in the households’ consumption baskets and plays an insignificant role in the national economic and development plans. Therefore، it can be concluded that theater has an inferior status in Iran، and such a status in artistic production and culture is undermining quantitatively and qualitatively. If theater is considered and employed as a profitable and entrepreneur institute in the cultural society and its economic aspects are studied for taking more upturn، the methods of promoting investments and directing proper financial resources are revealed and the most important obstacles to the upturn of theater are removed.
Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba: Honar-Ha-Ye Mosighi Va Namayeshi, No. 48, 2013
13 - 20
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