The effect of grazing and anthropogenic disturbances on floristic and physiognomic characteristics in oriental beech communities, Masal Forest, Iran
This study aimed to investigate floristic and physiognomic characteristics of all plant species in relation to grazing and anthropogenic disturbances. So that, 100 ha beech communities were studied including 50 ha as protected and 50 ha as unprotected area of oriental beech communities in Masal forest, Guilan Province, Iran. The results indicated that the number of all species were higher in the protected area. The main family of the protected area was the Rosaceae, while in the unprotected area the Asteracea had the highest frequency. To identify and classify forest types in both areas, we used the proportion of each tree species larger than 7.5 cm in diameter to determine species dominance according to the classification method of Gorji Bahri. The applied tree classification method indicated that there were three main types and two secondary types in the protected area, whereas six main types were identified in the unprotected area. Physiognomic studies indicated that trees from both areas were in the same height classes, whereas, the total canopy cover percentage was higher in the protected area. Height classes and canopy cover percentage of deciduous broadleaf in shrub layer, were significantly higher in unprotected area than in protected one. In the latter area, the coverpercentage of herbaceous species was different. So that, forbs species had the highest coverpercentage. According to these results, destructive factors have altered the main composition in these communities. So that, avoid of livestock grazing and local people in these areas or livestock exclusion can be recommended as a management.
Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume:16 Issue:4, 2019
319 - 332
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