Currently, we are facing a significant increase in the new cases of the end-stage renal disease in developing countries. Hence, it seems vital to work on strategies aimed at reducing its development and progression. Determining the related risk factors can provide an insight into achieving these policymaking goals. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Iranian adult population.
This cross-sectional study was performed in Shiraz, Southern Iran, through a cluster random sampling technique that involved 819 subjects, including 340 male and 479 female adult participants. Factors such as the body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and biochemical profile were determined. We evaluated the prevalence of CKD according to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as well as possible risk factors associated with it. GFR was calculated on the basis of the “Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration” creatinine equation.
The cluster comprised 58.5% females and 41.5% males. The mean age of our participants was 43.0 ± 14.0 years. Our results showed that 16.6% of adult urban inhabitants in Iran had CKD (stages 3 to 5, eGFR ≤60), that is, GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The proportion of participants having hypertension, obesity, high waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, and history of cardiovascular disease was 17.3%, 19.3%, 35%, 9.4%, and 5.3%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis indicated an independent correlation between age, sex, dyslipidemia, and hypertension with CKD.
This study indicates that CKD is a substantial health burden in Iranian adult population. Additionally, the results of this study addressed the importance of integrated strategies that aimed to identify, prevent, and treat noncommunicable diseases fueling the development of CKD.