In Latin America, the molar–incisor hypomineralization (MIH) prevalence is between 7% and 40%, making this pathology an oral health problem in this region. MIH affects the development of tooth enamel exclusively of first molars and permanent incisors. The objective of this investigation was to establish the distribution of MIH in Ecuadorian children between 7 and 12 years of age who attend two schools in the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador.
Two hundred forty-nine children from 7 to 12 years of age were clinically evaluated and diagnosed using the criteria of the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry 2003. Data were analyzed statistically by descriptive analysis and Chi-square test.
There were 23 children affected with MIH (9.24%), with greater representation in girls (6.8%), statistically significant difference between genders. There is a greater frequency of MIH in permanent first molars (74.4%) than permanent incisors (P = 0.002). In relation to dental arches, small differences were observed between them. In the group of affected molars, atypical restorations were observed only in the lower arch. About the characteristics of the MIH, the demarcated opacities were the most frequent (P = 0.001). The white–yellow color of the demarcated opacities was the most frequent (52.3%).
The MIH has a considerable presence in the Ecuadorian children evaluated and, therefore, it could have repercussions on the oral health of this population. The need for further studies in the country is evident
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