Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is considered one of the most important human vector-borne diseases in Iran. The current study aimed to determine some epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mazandaran, Northern Iran.
This descriptive study was conducted using the epidemiological data, including demographic and clinical features collected from 379 patients diagnosed with leishmaniasis in health centers affiliated to the Deputy for Health Center of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences within 2009-2017. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical information and direct microscopic examination of the samples. Data were analyzed in SPSS software using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests.
A total number of 379 individuals were diagnosed with CL during a 9-year period. Considering the population in Mazandaran, the incidence rate was reported as 1.27 per 100,000 population. It was also revealed that most of the cases of CL (n=279; 73.6%) were males and the majority of patients (n=137; 36.1%) were in the 20-29 age group. In addition, the majority of the ulcers were observed in hand (n=152; 26.7%) and foot (n=129; 22.6%), respectively. Moreover, just one ulcer was spotted in most of the patients (n=143; 37.7%). As the final note, the incidence was at the highest level during autumn in November (n=61; 16.1%).
As evidenced by the obtained results, cutaneous leishmaniasis poses a daunting challenge to the public health in Mazandaran. This disease can be attributed to several factors, including agricultural activities, animal husbandry, and frequent national and international holidaymakers' visits to the province. With this background in mind, the results of the currents study could contribute greatly to the effective control of this disease.