Theory of Glass Ceilings in Field of Women's Sports: Comparative Comparisons and Provision of a Quantitative Model

The purpose of this research work was to investigate the theory of glass ceilings in the field of women's sports.


The aim of this work was to collect data by a mixed method. Given the research constraints such as the access to people, the statistical society was formed by the managers and sports experts in the field of women, athletes, lawyers, and faculty members, who were selected purposefully for qualitative interviews on the subject of research and selected by the snowball sampling. Selection of the experts was used with maximum oscillation to achieve a theoretical saturation, which eventually led to interviews with the researchers reaching the saturation level. The statistical population in the small section of all female managers was the Ministry of Sports and Youth, sports federations, sports departments and youth, and female experts of the Ministry of Sports and Youth. A total number of 94 questionnaires and 19 subjects were selected by the targeted and accessible method. The women's barriers Questionnaire had 60 items and 8 items, the validity and reliability of which were confirmed. In this work, we used the Fridman test, one sample t-test, independent t-test, and CFA and SPSS and Amos software for analysis.


Prioritizing the managerial barriers for women at senior management levels in Iran's sport showed that the highest priority was related to the "management barriers" and the lowest one was related to the "individual barriers". The social barriers (t = 21.55), social barriers (t = 17.26), organizational barriers (t = 29.98), management barriers (t = 11.72), legal barriers (t = 22.92) , political barriers (t = 17.63), and glass roof sensation (t = 24.19) were significantly different among the female managers in Iran and other countries; with this interpretation, in all cases, the average barriers felt in the female sports managers were higher (p = 0.01) but there was no significant difference between the personal and family barriers.


Based on the research findings, the internal and external barriers are involved in the women's management. Thus women must, by believing in their abilities and showing their sensitivity to their problems, try to pursue their demands in sports organizations through law and logic.

Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Human Resource Management in Sport Journal, Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2019
45 - 59  
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