Developing and Validating a Measurement Tool to Self-report pedestrian Safety-related Behavior: The Pedestrian Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ)
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Pedestrians are road users vulnerable to traffic injuries and fatalities. This study aimed to develop and validate a pedestrian behavior questionnaire to be used in Iran.


In this cross-sectional study, the initial questionnaire was designed based on the evaluation of previous studies conducted world-wide or in Iran. The initial pack included 127 items. After the assuring the face validity of the questionnaire, 27 experts’ opinions in the field of traffic was obtained for assessing/improving the content validity. To test the reliability of the questionnaire, the test-retest method and internal consistency assessment were used. To evaluate the structural validity, the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) using the principal component and the Varimax rotation was applied.


After completing the face validity and after summarizing the experts’ suggestions, 12 questions were deleted. By calculating the content validity ratio and coefficient, 20 and 17 were removed. Also, the average content validity coefficient regarding relevancy, clarity and overall average were 0.86, 0.88, and 0.87, respectively. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.84. In the last stage and according to the results of the factor analysis, five factors violations, distraction, positive behaviors (group1), positive behaviors (group2) and Aggressive behaviors) were identified from the 29-items questionnaire, which explained 98% of the total variance.


Considering the necessity of using a verified and validated tool for planning and evaluating effective interventions for pedestrians is inevitable. The tool designed in the study was found to be valid and reliable for use to measure pedestrian’s behavior and planning to modify high-risk behaviors and enhance safe pedestrian behaviors.

Bulletin of Emergency And Trauma, Volume:8 Issue: 4, Oct 2020
229 to 235  
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