Hydatidosis is a disease, caused by the larval phase of Echinococcus granulosus. It is considered a serious condition, as cyst rupture can release protoscolices into the host body, leading to the formation of secondary cysts. Surgery is the main approach for the treatment of this disease. Some natural compounds, which are safe options with few side effects, have been assessed for their scolicidal activities.
Allium noeanum is a native herb of Markazi Province, Iran, which has been used for the traditional treatment of certain diseases. However, its anti-parasitic property has not been investigated so far. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-parasitic property of this plant by evaluating the scolicidal and apoptotic effects of two types of this herbal extract (crude and flavonoid) on hydatid cysts.
The hydatid cysts were obtained from abattoirs, and protoscolices were drained under sterile conditions. The protoscolices suspension and cyst walls were used for scolicidal and immunohistochemical evaluations. In addition, A. noeanum was collected from Shazand Mountains. The crude and flavonoid extracts of this plant were prepared by maceration and chromatography methods, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was conducted for the detection of caspase-3 activity using a commercial kit. Data were analyzed in Excel and SPSS, and statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.
The 100% concentration (0.49 gr/mL) of the crude A. noeanum extract caused the death of 100% of protoscolices. On the other hand, all concentrations of the flavonoid extract led to the death of 100% of parasites. According to the statistical analyses, each type of the extract showed different dose- and time-dependent rates of scolicidal activity (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry showed lower caspase-3 activity in cyst walls exposed to flavonoids, compared to those exposed to the crude extract.
In the present study, the scolicidal activity of the flavonoid extract of A. noeanum against protoscolices was confirmed. It was also found that the apoptotic effect of the crude extract of this herb was more than its flavonoid extract.
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