Exclusive Breast Feeding and Its Determinants in Infants Born in Zanjan Hospitals: A Longitudinal Study

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), especially during the first six months of life, is one of the primary health indicators in infants.


The present study intended to describe the frequency of EBF in infants and its determinants until six months after birth.


This longitudinal study was conducted on 673 mother-newborn pairs visiting obstetrics and gynecology departments of two main hospitals in Zanjan. Information on the frequency of EBF up to six months, socio-demographic and reproductive information, and attitudes of mothers towards breastfeeding was gathered using questionnaires. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression in SPSS.


The proportion of neonates who were receiving EBF at discharge was 95.7%. The EBF proportions in the second week, the first, fourth, and sixth months were 95%, 88.1%, 80.7%, and 77.3%, respectively. The multivariate analysis of data indicated that living in urban areas (P = 0.02), lower education of mothers (P = 0.008), having more than three years of birth interval (P = 0.006), no experience of breastfeeding in mothers (P = 0.01), no prior decision for breastfeeding in mothers (P < 0.0001), and use of artificial nipples (P = < 0.0001) were independently associated with non-EBF.


In this study, despite a high proportion of EBF at discharge, we found that the proportion of EBF reduced during six months. The determinants of non-EBF at six months, including urban and less educated mothers, highlight a need to promote awareness regarding EBF and perform interventions for women at a greater risk for early breastfeeding cessation.

Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics, Volume:12 Issue: 3, Aug 2021
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