Complications and Treatment of Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes

Article Type:
Review Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)


Global reports have revealed a dramatic rise in the number of patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) over the past three decades in all age groups, even in children and adolescents. The physiologic phenomenon of insulin resistance during puberty, as well as genetic and epigenetic factors, are implicated in this phenomenon. It seems that patients with early-onset T2DM experience a more aggressive clinical course; however, limited treatments available for these patients pose a challenge. This narrative review intends to scrutinize the micro- and macrovascular complications and treatments of patients with early-onset T2DM.


 The literature search was conducted in the PubMed database to identify all relevant original English articles published from the beginning of 2018 until January 2023.


 Vascular complications, such as albuminuria, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and retinopathy, were seen to be more common in early-onset T2DM compared to type 1 diabetes. The odds ratio of vascular complications was higher in early-onset compared to late-onset T2DM. In children and adolescents with T2DM, the only approved medications included metformin, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists. Treatment of early-onset T2DM with metformin monotherapy cannot yield durable glycemic control, and most patients need early combination therapy.


 During the past years, the frequency of early-onset T2DM has been growing at an alarming rate. Vascular complications in these patients seem more aggressive and more challenging to control. Hence, further clinical trials should be conducted to develop novel therapeutic approaches and evaluate their long-term benefits in terms of glycemic control and preventing future complications.

International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume:21 Issue: 3, Jul 2023
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