On Complex Systems and Structure of Emergence in Games- A Survey

Article Type:
Review Article (بدون رتبه معتبر)

Many different complex systems display emergent behavior, and quite a few of these systems have been studied in the past. The science of complexity, popularly known as chaos theory, deals with emergent systems in other fields. Designing emergence is something of a paradoxical task because one of the defining aspects of emergent behavior is that it occurs only after a system is put into motion. In this paper, we begin with the definition of complex systems. Then, we describe the continuum between strictly ordered systems and entirely chaotic ones and show that emergence takes place somewhere between the two. After that, we survey and show how gameplay emerges from the complex system. Our survey points out that three structural features of complex systems contribute to emergence: (a) active and interconnected elements; (b) feedback loops; and (c) interaction at different scales. To show the active and interconnected elements, we explain cellular automata as an example of simple systems that can produce emergence in games. Moreover, we described how a system can be stabilized/destabilized by feedback loops and how different behaviors may emerge in a system at different scales, along with particular games. In this survey, we identified seven classes of emergence that can be considered in games. These classes are Simple, Weak, Multiple, Strong, Cluster, Hub, and Complex Emergence. These classes are produced by different combinations of feedback loops and interactions among the elements of a system at different scales.

Journal of Computer and Robotics, Volume:16 Issue: 2, Summer and Autumn 2023
1 to 17
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