Prevalence of Tuberculosis among People Who Use Drugs in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Article Type:
Review Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Drug use, especially injecting drug use, is associated with a higher risk of tuberculosis (TB). This study aimed to systematically review the prevalence of TB among people who use drugs (PWUD) in Iran.


A systematic search was conducted in international and national databases. All studies that provided data on the prevalence of TB among PWUD based on screening tests and diagnosis from 1990 up to August 2019 were assessed. Metaanalysis was performed on the prevalence of active TB among people who inject drugs (PWID).


Overall, nine studies were included. The studies were carried out from 1994 to 2012 in seven out of the 31 provinces of Iran. Seven studies provided data on the prevalence of TB diagnosis among 1087 PWID. The pooled prevalence of TB diagnosis was 10.1% (95% CI: 4.5, 15.8) in studies carried out in hospitals and 0.54% (95% CI: 0.04, 1.04) in other settings.


The present review suggests an approximately 40 times higher prevalence of TB among PWID compared to the general population. However, most of the included studies were conducted on a subpopulation of drug users, and caution should be exercised when generalizing the findings.

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