Determinants of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Iranian Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a prevalent chronic disease among children and adolescents, necessitating effective self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) levels. Understanding the determinants and factors influencing SMBG behavior is crucial for optimizing diabetes management in this population.


This study aimed to investigate the frequency of SMBG and identify the determinants influencing factors in children and adolescents with T1DM.


This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, and included 275 participants selected through simple random sampling from the Gabric Diabetes Education Association. The inclusion criteria comprised children and adolescents aged 3 - 18 years diagnosed with T1DM for at least 6 months who were using analog or neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) and regular insulin subcutaneously. Patients using insulin pumps were excluded. Data collection involved an online questionnaire covering demographic information (e.g., age, gender, educational status, and parental occupations) as well as clinical information (number of hypoglycemic episodes, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) levels, diabetes duration, insulin regimen, diabetes complications, glucose monitoring practices, hospitalizations, and behavioral characteristics). Statistical analyses, including descriptive statistics, correlation tests, and Poisson regressions, were performed using SPSS software (version 21). A significance level of P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


The participants had a mean age of 10.00 ± 3.77 years, with 54.2% being males. Most of the participants (87.3%) were students, and the mean age of diagnosis was 6.56 ± 3.73 years, with a mean duration of 44.72 ± 36.32 months. Anthropometric investigations revealed mean height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) values of 136.69 ± 21.11 cm, 37.45 ± 15.51 kg, and 18.31 ± 3.55 kg/m2, respectively. The majority of participants (93.5%) used insulin pens, and the mean daily insulin dosage was 35.34 ± 22.20 IU. Parents reported consistent glucose level monitoring in 64.7% of cases. The mean HbA1c level was 7.91 ± 1.58%. Factors such as the price and availability of glucometer strips influenced glucose level monitoring. In univariate analysis, only age and HbA1C levels showed a negative correlation; however, parents’ consistent checking showed a positive correlation with the frequency of daily, weekly, or monthly glucose checking.


This study underscores the significance of SMBG in children and adolescents with T1DM. The findings emphasize the critical role of price and availability of glucometers and strips in achieving standard care for T1DM patients.

International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Volume:21 Issue: 4, Oct 2023
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