Seasonal analysis of particulate matter and its exposure on urban bikers in Nashik city, India

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM) can cause ill health effects such as coughing, allergies, decreased lung function, chest discomfort and pain. The current study aims to monitor particulate matter concentrations on the highways in Nashik, India and to estimate its exposure to the bikers in the form of Respiratory Deposition Doses (RDDs) with its seasonal variation.

Materials and methods

Low-cost air quality monitor was mounted on the bike to measure Particulate Matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations at breathing level. Extensive mobile monitoring was performed on seven highway stretches passing through city limits at morning and evening peak hours for all the weekdays for three seasons.


The PM concentrations differed on each route seasonally as well as at peak hours in morning and evening. The maximum PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations monitored were 119.84 μg/m3 , 218.85 μg/m3 and 239.25 μg/m3 respectively on Route R3 in Winter morning. The maximum RDDHD exposure on R5 and R3 in Winter mornings was due to PM10. While maximum RDDTB and RDDAL exposure on R5 in Winter morning and evening was due to PM2.5. Also, the seasonal and particle size effect on RDD has been studied which exhibits higher rise in exposure in Winter mornings due to PM2.5.


This study reveals that maximum exposure was observed during Winter mornings. The results recommend that seasons have a substantial effect on PM concentrations and their exposure. The minimum exposure was observed in monsoon, followed by summer and the maximum exposure was seen in winters.

Journal of Air Pollution and Health, Volume:9 Issue: 1, Winter 2024
59 to 74  
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