فهرست مطالب

Jundishapur Journal of Health Sciences - Volume:7 Issue: 4, 2015
  • Volume:7 Issue: 4, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/08/23
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Saied Saeidimehr, Sahar Geravandi, Fakher Rahim, Farid Yosefi, Shokrolah Salmanzadeh, Hossein Foruozandeh, Mohammad Javad Mohammadi *, Zahra Aslani, Danial Hatami, Seyed Mohammad Amin Alavi Page 1
    Background
    Nosocomial infections have increasingly resulted in death and the patients should bear high treatment costs. Members of the medical team could play an important role in prevention and control of nosocomial infections
    Objectives
    The purpose of this research was the evaluation of nosocomial infections in patients admitted to Naft grand hospital in Ahvaz, Iran, during 2013.Patients and
    Methods
    This was a descriptive study, conducted prospectively during 12 months from March 2013 to March 2014 in Naft grand hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. All the patients who were hospitalized with no signs and symptoms of infection before the first 48 hours of hospitalization and presenting signs and symptoms of infection after 48 hours of hospitalization were included in this study. The patients’ age, gender, site of infection, ward of hospitalization and type of nosocomial infection were collected. The results were analyzed by Excel and SPSS 16.0.
    Results
    The results of the present study showed that the incidence of nosocomial infections was low (i.e., < 2%). The incidence rates of nosocomial infections were 36.78% in the intensive care unit (ICU), 46.55% in the internal medicine ward, 14.94% in the surgical medicine ward and 1.72% in the coronary care unit (CCU). Regarding the etiology of infection, Escherichia coli was found in 43.10%, coagulase-positive Staphylococci in 17.24%, coagulase-negative Staphylococci in 14.95% and Klebsiella in 10.34% of the cases. In our hospital, E. coli was the most frequent pathogen.
    Conclusions
    In this study, nosocomial infections had a lower frequency in comparison with the national rates. According to researches, hospitals have been able to reduce nosocomial infections by establishing strategies and getting the risks under control.
    Keywords: Infections, Nosocomial, Infections, Nosocomial, Ahvaz
  • Zahra Khalili, Ali Sadrollahi*, Masoumeh Hosseinian, Negin Masoudi Alavi Page 2
    Background
    The supplements and decreasing the limitations are important for suitable physical activity. These factors are different in various environments.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to evaluate the facilities and barriers for physical activity in elderlies in Kashan, Iran, during 2014.Patients and
    Methods
    This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample included 400 elderly people (aged more than 60 years) living in Kashan, Iran. The subjects were selected by multistage cluster sampling. They were selected randomly from healthcare centers in three regions of Kashan. The sample size was different according to gender and living area. The demographic characteristics were recorded and the exercise benefits/barriers scale (EBBS) was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics, Chi-squared test, Pearson’s correlation, Student t-test, and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The significance level for all the tests was considered P < 0.05.
    Results
    Of the total elderly, 237 (59.2%) were females. The average age was 67.6 ± 6.8 years. The mean of barrier and facility scores were 103.17 ± 21.08 and 70.82 ± 18.27, respectively. The most important facilitating factor in 88 subjects (22%) was related to cardiovascular system health. In addition, the most important barrier was lack of suitable location, mentioned by 113 elderly (28.2%). There was a significant relationship between facility and barrier scores and the physical activity level (chi-squared = 19.91, P = 0.0001), age (P = 0.001 r = 0.01), gender (P = 0.000), marital status (P = 0.000), educational status (P = 0.000), personal independence (P < 0.000), current job (P = 0.030), and living area (P = 0.042).
    Conclusions
    The influences of various facilities and barriers were different in the physical activity of elderly in Kashan. The promotion of active life style should be a part of health care planning in elderly.
    Keywords: Physical Activity, Aging, Barrier, Facility
  • Nadereh Rahbar*, Zahra Ramezani, Zahra Mashhadizadeh Page 3
    Background
    In the recent years, mercury contamination has attracted great deal of attention due to its serious environmental threat.
    Objectives
    The main goal of this study was application of one-step synthesized magnetic (magnetite) chitosan nanoparticles (MCNs) in the removal of mercury ions from petrochemical waste water.
    Materials And Methods
    This study was performed in batch and column modes. Effects of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature and agitation speed for the removal of mercury ions by MCNs investigated in batch mode. Afterwards, optimum conditions were exploited in column mode. Different kinetic models were also studied.
    Results
    An effective Hg (II) removal (99.8%) was obtained at pH 6, with 50 mg of MCNs for an initial concentration of this ion in petrochemical waste water (5.63 mg L-1) and 10 minutes agitation of the solution. The adsorption kinetic data was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order model.
    Conclusions
    Experimental results showed that MCNs is an excellent sorbent for removal of mercury ions from petrochemical waste water. In addition, highly complex matrix of this waste does not affect the adsorption capability of MCNs.
    Keywords: Magnetics, Chitosan, Mercury, Removal, Petrochemical Waste Water, Magnetite
  • Maryam Pazoki, Reza Maleki Delarestaghi, Mohammad Reza Rezvanian, Reza Ghasemzade, Peyman Dalaei Page 4
    Background
    Landfilling is the most common way of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in Iran. Many countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings as well as the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. Landfill gas (LFG) consists of 50% - 60 vol% methane and 30% - 40 vol% carbon dioxide as well as trace amounts of numerous chemical compounds such as aromatics, chlorinated organic compounds and sulfur compounds. Landfill methane outreach program (LMOP) is a voluntary assistance program which helps reduce methane emissions from landfills by encouraging the recovery and the beneficial use of LFG as an energy resource.
    Objectives
    In this study, the volume of LFG of Tehran by landfill methane outreach program (LMOP) software was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the time of gas collection system operation and the volume of LFG production was evaluated.
    Materials And Methods
    The LMOP software was used. The available information and some presumptions were used to operate the software. The composition of the solid waste collected from the landfill of Tehran had specific details. A large amount of it was organic materials, which was about 67.8%. These materials have a good potential to produce gas. In addition, LMOP Colombia model uses the first-order equations in all the analytical equations. Furthermore, it is assumed that the landfill operation time is 30 years and the process is considered in two conditions; first, the gas was recovered in 2000, and second, the process started in 2015..
    Results
    The modeling results showed that for the gas recovery starting in 2000 and 2015, the power generation would be 2,354 and 830 MW, respectively. In fact, the 15-year difference in gas extraction made a 200% difference. Based on the results, from 2000 to 2100, 558 m3/hour of methane would be extracted, which would be equivalent to 2,354 MW energy. Subsequently, the emission of 93,721,837 tons of CO2 would be prohibited.
    Conclusions
    It was observed that 2.8 times more energy was generated when the collecting system was initially installed. Moreover, if so, the equivalent CO2 was reduced by 60,695,377 ton. In fact, this process has economic and environmental benefits and the money will be saved and the emission will be controlled.
    Keywords: Biofuels, Methane, Energy
  • Shima Abdollahi, Fahime Zeinali, Kamal Azam, Omid Toupchian, Kurosh Djafarian Page 5
    Background
    Previous studies on diet have primarily focused on individual nutrients or foods. Recently, the analysis of dietary patterns has emerged as a possible approach for examining food consumption. A literature review revealed no studies of dietary patterns in elderly Iranians.
    Objectives
    Our objective was to identify the major dietary intake patterns among the elderly in the health homes located in Zone 5 of Tehran city, Iran.Patients and
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study (descriptive), 368 elderly people (≥ 60 years old) were randomly selected. Their usual dietary intake during the past year was assessed using a 168-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Major food patterns were derived using factor analysis after the classification of food items into 26 groups.
    Results
    Four major dietary patterns were identified in the studied population: 1) healthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of vegetables, tomato and tomato sauce, vegetable oil, olive, and fruits; 2) unhealthy pattern, characterized by a higher intake of red meat, fast food, snacks, sugar, honey and jam, soft drinks, and high-fat dairy products; 3). traditional pattern characterized by intake of whole grains, hydrogenated oil and animal fat, beans, salt, and pickles; and 4) protein-rich pattern, characterized by intake of chicken and poultry, fish, grains, and organ meats. These four major dietary patterns explained 16.3%, 7.5%, 6.7%, and 5.7% of the total variance, respectively.
    Conclusions
    Four major dietary patterns were identified in the present studied population that can be used to provide tangible dietary advice for the elderly.
    Keywords: Factor Analysis, Food Pattern, Elderly, Food Frequency Questionnaire
  • Nazanin Izadi, Farzaneh Chavoshi, Mahdi Sadeghi* Page 6
    Background
    The prevalence and incidence of needlesticks and sharps injuries (NSSIs) have not been well documented in Iran. In most previous studies, the data were obtained through anonymous, self-reporting questionnaires, which are subjected to bias.
    Objectives
    The focus of this study was to investigate the frequency and causes of NSSIs among health care workers (HCWs) in collaboration with an occupational health office and to compare these data with related previous studies.Patients and
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, all HCWs exposed to NSSIs in Baharlou Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were included. Among 309 studied cases, 83 HCWs who were directly exposed to NSSIs were enrolled in this study.
    Results
    The case incidence of NSSIs was 26.86% (83.309). Of all the occupational groups, the nurses had the highest rate of NSSI incidence (63.9%, n = 53.83). Moreover, the incidence rate of NSSIs in the HCWs on rotational shift work (90.4%) was higher than that among their counterparts on fixed shift work (9.6%), with the latter chiefly employed on night shift (90.4%, n = 75). NSSIs (83.1%), followed by splash (16.9%), were the most common method of exposure.
    Conclusions
    This study confirmed a relatively high incidence of NSSIs among HCWs. Inadequate occupational health and safety measures such as lack of training on occupational health hazards and safety issues, absence of written protocols for reporting NSSIs, and lack of safety instructions were associated with NSSIs. Effective training programs and raising the awareness of HCWs to reduce unsafe behaviors and implementing organizational strategies to prevent exposure are essential.
    Keywords: Incidence, Needlestick Injuries, Occupational Groups, Hospitals
  • Razieh Bagherzadeh*, Nasrin Zahmatkesan, Hamideh Rashidi, Roghayeh Gashmard, Kamran Mirzaei Page 7
    Background
    HIV has been recognized as an important problem in prisons because of the common practice of needle sharing and unsafe sex. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) apropos HIV/AIDS in prisons is needed to devise educational programs.
    Objectives
    This research was performed to assess KAP regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention among Bushehr Prison inmates.Patients and
    Methods
    This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2010 among 800 inmates in Bushehr Prison. Convenience sampling was utilized, and the inclusion criteria comprised Iranian nationality, ability to speak or read and write in Farsi, and a prison stay for at least 2 months before entering the study. The data collection tool was a self-designed questionnaire, consisting of close-ended questions in 4 sections: demographic information, 36 questions on knowledge (total score ranging from 0 to 36), 20 questions on attitude (total score ranging from 0 to 40), and 7 questions on practice. Content validity was confirmed by using subject matter experts. Reliability was confirmed via a pilot study and Cronbach’s α method. The α coefficients were between 0.75 and 0.95 for the different sections. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
    Results
    The mean score of HIV/AIDS knowledge in the male and female inmates was 23.84 ± 4.70 and 21.35 ± 6.28, respectively (P < 0.001). The mean score of HIV/AIDS attitude among the men and women was 26.6 ± 5.4 and 24.48 ± 7.6, correspondingly (P < 0.001). Additionally, 63.3% of the male and 57.3% of the female inmates had read about HIV/AIDS (P = 0.20), 4% of the men and 11.3% of the women had tattooing in prison, and 28.5% of the men and 32.5% of the women had participated in HIV/AIDS prevention classes (P = 0.29).
    Conclusions
    Comprehensive programs on HIV/AIDS education and counseling are needed to improve KAP apropos HIV risk factors and reduce risk behavior among prison inmates, especially women.
    Keywords: Knowledge, Attitude, Prevention, HIV, Prisons
  • Farhad Forouharmajd, Mitra Shabab* Page 8
    Background
    Steel industry is one of the most important industries of each country and noise pollution is one of the very annoying factors in this industry that causes various diseases; above all, the damage to the auditory system of the work force is high. Therefore, the assessment of noise pollution and the identification of the sources and causes of its creation are inevitable for controlling and teaching the prevention programs and hearing protection.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to draw the noise map of isosonic curves and assess the noise pollution using Surfer modeling software.
    Materials And Methods
    In the present study, first, preliminary maps and stationing were drawn, and then, the measurement of the sound pressure level and the octave band analysis were performed by a noise measurement device called Casella-CEL 445; then, after recording the data in software of Surfer version 8, they were used for drawing the isosonic curves.
    Results
    The results of the peripheral measurements showed that the maximum sound pressure of level 109 dBA was related to the electric arc furnace. A map of the graphic isosonic curves showed most of the noise pollution in the following areas: furnace, casting, tundishes, and the cooling beds.
    Conclusions
    According to the factory noise map, except for the control rooms with 81 dBA noise, other cases of measuring stations were higher than the standard exposure of 85 dBA noise. As a result, the implementation of control strategies, such as inspection and performance of control systems and insulation of the control room to prevent unnecessary exposure noise, are necessary.
    Keywords: Isosonic Curve, Surfer Software, Metal Melting Industry, Noise Pollution