فهرست مطالب

Basic Medical Sciences - Volume:18 Issue: 12, 2016
  • Volume:18 Issue: 12, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/10/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Hamid Mollazadeh, Seyyed Ahmad Emami, Hossein Hosseinzadeh* Pages 1153-1166
    Traditional knowledge can be used as a source for development of new medicines. In the present study, we compare the data on saffron in Razi's Al-Hawi book with modern scientific studies. A computerized search of published articles was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus as well as native references. The search terms used were saffron, Crocus sativus, crocetin, crocin, safranal, Razi, and Al-Hawi. A variety of properties of saffron including diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, appetite suppressant, hypnotic, antidepressant, and bronchodilator effects were mentioned in Al-Hawi. Modern studies also confirmed most of these characteristics. This review indicates that the pharmacological data on saffron and its constituents are similar to those found in Razi’s Al-Hawi monograph and it can be concluded that ethnobotanical information and ancient sources have precious data about medicinal plants that lead to finding new compounds for treatment of several diseases.
    Keywords: Al, Hawi, Crocin, Crocus sativus L, Razi, Saffron, Safranal, Traditional medicine
  • Didi Erwandi Mohammad Haron*, Zamri Chik, Mohamed Ibrahm Noordin, Zahurin Mohamed Pages 1167-1175
    Objective (s): Transdermal preparations for testosterone are becoming popular because of their unique advantages such as avoidance of first-pass effect, convenience, improved bioavailability, and reduction of systemic side effects. A novel testosterone transdermal delivery system (TDDS) was developed using a palm oil base called HAMINTM (a commercial product) and tested using in vitro and in vivo skin permeability test methods.
    Materials And Methods
    The physical characteristics of the formulation such as particle size and viscosity were determined by using Franz diffusion cell and Brookfield viscometer, respectively. In vivo skin permeability test was performed on healthy rabbits through the skin. Testosterone in serum was analyzed using the validated Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique.
    Results
    In vitro study showed that the cumulative amount of testosterone diffused was between 40 to 1400 ngcm-² over a period of five hr after application of TDDS through the artificial Strat-M™ membrane. In the in vivo rabbit skin permeability test, the results indicated that testosterone was well absorbed with a mean Cmax and Tmax of 60.94 ngml-1 and 2.29 hr after application of TDDS while no increase was observed in placebo treatment. Particle size analysis ranged from 79.4 nm to 630.0 nm for placebo and 97 to 774.0 nm for TDDS.
    Conclusion
    The formulation was successfully prepared using HAMINTM, which has demonstrated great potential for topical delivery of testosterone.
    Keywords: HAMINTM, Skin permeation, Testosterone, Transdermal delivery, system
  • Mohammad, Reza Esmaili, Nejad, Homayoon Babaei*, Reza Kheirandish Pages 1176-1182
    Objective(s)
    Leptin is a novel and interesting hormone for anyone trying to lose weight, but its effects on male gonad structure in longitudinal study is unknown. The present study was designed to explore morphometrical changes of mouse testicular tissue after long-term administration of leptin.
    Materials And Methods
    Thirty healthy mature male mice were randomly assigned to either control (n=15) or treatment (n=15) groups. Leptin was intraperitoneally injected to the treatment group (0.1 µg/100 µl of physiological saline) once a day for 30 consecutive days, and control animals received normal saline with the same volume and route. Five mice from each experimental group were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed, weighted and then fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosine for morphometrical assays.
    Results
    Except for sertoli cell nucleus diameter, which was affected from 30th day, evaluation of other morphometrical parameters such as Johnsen’s score, meiotic index, spermatogenesis, epithelial height, seminiferous tubules diameter and spermatogonial nucleus diameter revealed significant decrease from 15th day after leptin administration compare to those of the control group (P<0.05). Thus, meiotic index and spermatogonial cell nucleus diameter were two parameters that were further disturbed on 30th day compare to the day 15 (3.09±0.03 vs. 3.23±0.03, P=0.006 and 5.50±0.09 vs. 6.08±0.14, P=0.007, respectively).
    Conclusion
    Our results showed that long-term administration of leptin could disturb testicular tissue structure and delay spermatogenesis process.
    Keywords: Leptin, Meiotic index, Sertoli cell, Spermatogenesis, Spermatogonia cell
  • Elmira Ghasemi, Nima Heidari, Oranjaghi, Hassan Azhdari, Zarmehri*, Mehdi Sadegh Pages 1183-1188
    Objective(s)
    Reduction of pharmacological effectiveness or tolerance appears following repeated administration of many analgesic drugs. We investigated tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of orexin-A, an endogenous potent analgesic peptide using the hot-plate test.
    Materials And Methods
    Orexin-A was microinjected ICV (intracerebroventricular) with an interval of 12 hr for 7 continuous days and its anti-nociceptive responses were measured on days 1, 4 and 7 using the hot-plate test following the first day of administration. Orexin-A was used at a dose of 100 pmol to induce analgesic effects.
    Results
    ICV administration of orexin-A produced an effective anti-nociception on the first day of experiment as measured by hot-plate 5, 15, and 30 min after the injection, in comparison with both baselines (hot-plate test one day before the beginning of orexin-A administration and control, saline-administrated group). However, repeated administration of orexin-A on the following days revealed a significant reduction in this analgesic effect during day 4 to day 7. However, to rule out any associative tolerance resulting from learning related to experimental procedures and/or environmental cues, a single injection of orexin-A was administrated to animals of control group (which were receiving saline during 7 days of experiments) and the analgesic effect was observed.
    Conclusion
    These results, for the first time, indicated the appearance of tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of orexin-A, following repeated administrations of this agent.
    Keywords: Anti, nociception, Hot plate, Orexin, A, Tolerance
  • Abdollah Jafarzadeh*, Kayhan Minaee, Ali, Reza Farsinejad, Maryam Nemati, Arezu Khosravimashizi, Hamid Daneshvar, Mohammad Mehdi Mohammadi, Abdolkarim Sheikhi, Abbas Ghaderi Pages 1189-1198
    Objective(s)
    IL-12 as an anti-tumor cytokine and IL-33 a novel identified cytokine with both pro- or anti-tumor activities, play important roles in response against tumor cells. Our aim was to evaluate the IL-12 and IL-33 levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in their genes in patients with breast cancer.
    Materials And Methods
    Blood samples were collected from 100 patients with breast cancer, and 100 healthy women were controls. The serum IL-12 and IL-33 levels were measured by ELISA. The SNP rs3212227 (in IL-12 gene) and rs1929992 (in IL-33 gene) were determined using PCR-RFLP.
    Results
    The IL-12 levels similarly expressed in patients and controls. IL-12 levels in patients at stage I were significantly lower than in the healthy group (P<0.05). IL-33 levels and the IL-33/IL-12 ratio were significantly higher in patients than the control group (P<0.001). The IL-33 levels and IL-33/IL-12 ratio in stage IV patients were significantly higher than other stages and controls (PP<0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes in rs3212227 and rs1929992 between patients and the control group. No significant differences were observed between subjects with various genotypes at rs3212227 and rs1929992 with respect to related cytokine levels.
    Conclusion
    These results indicate that the diminished IL-12 production may contribute to the tumor establishment. The higher IL-33 levels and IL-33/IL-12 ratio in patients also indicate an imbalance in Th1/Th2 responses that may contribute to tumor development. Thus, correcting the imbalance of Th1/Th2 could be an important strategy for cancer immunotherapy.
    Keywords: Breast cancer, Interleukin, 12, Interleukin, 33, Single nucleotide, polymorphism, Tumor stages
  • Yang Liu*, Chi Chen, Xiaoxiang Duan, Wenting Ma, Man Wang, Mengyi Tu, Ying Chen Pages 1199-1208
    Objective(s)
    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of daunorubicin (DNR) and cardiac myosin (CM) and the changes in mice hearts to exhibit DNR-induced cardiotoxicity.
    Materials And Methods
    The interaction between DNR and CM was expressed using fluorescence quenching at pH 4.0-9.0 and 15-37 °C. DNR-induced cardiotoxicity was studied using in vivo experiment. Forty groups mice were used control group in which mice were treated with DNR orally, and three DNR-treated groups in which mice were injected intraperitoneally with DNR at seven bolus doses of 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Heart indices and myocardial enzyme levels were obtained by histopathological and biochemical analysis.
    Results
    The fluorescence quenching mechanism of DNR-CM complex was observed to be a static procedure at 20 °C (pH 7.4), and weakly acidic environment (pH 4.0-6.0) or higher temperature(30-37 °C) promoted the interaction between DNR and CM, causing variations in conformation and normal physiological functions of CM. Thermodynamic studies demonstrated that the binding of DNR to CM was a spontaneous process driven by entropy. It also indicated that hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds may play essential roles in the combination of DNR with CM. In addition, 4.0-6.0 mg/kg DNR-treated mice exhibited obvious histopathological lesion, increase in myocardial enzyme level, and reductions in blood cell count.
    Conclusion
    Our results are valuable for better understanding the particular mode of DNR-CM interaction, and are important to have a deeper insight into the DNR-induced cardiotoxicity.
    Keywords: Cardiac myosin, Cardiotoxicity, Daunorubicin, Fluorescence quenching, Myocardial enzyme
  • Masoud Maleki Zadeh, Najmeh Ranji, Nasrin Motamed* Pages 1209-1214
    Objective(s)
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short RNAs that control the biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis and development. Aberrant expression of miRNAs was determined in the different stages of tumor development and metastasis. To study the effect of silibinin on miRNAs expression, we evaluated quantitative expression of miR-21 and miR-155 as two oncomiRs and several potential targets in silibinin-treated T47D cells.
    Materials And Methods
    The rate of proliferation and apoptosis was measured in silibinin-treated and untreated cells. The expression levels of miR-21 and miR-155 were evaluated in T47D cells treated with silibinin (100 µg/ml). Also, their putative targets were predicted in apoptotic pathways using multiple algorithms; as a confirmation, the transcription level of APAF-1, CASP-9 and BID was evaluated.
    Results
    In silibinin-treated cells, death was occurred in a dose and time-dependent manner. miR-21 and miR-155 was downregulated in cells treated with silibinin (100 µg/ml). It is noticeable that the expression of their potential targets including CASP-9 and APAF-1 was increased in silibinin-treated cells after 48 hr.
    Conclusion
    Our findings showed a correlation between the expression of miR-21 and miR-155 and apoptosis in silibinin treated T47D cells. It seems that miRNAs such as miR-21 and miR-155 were regulated by silibinin. Also, increase in the transcript level of APAF-1 and CASP-9 after downregulation of miR-21 and miR-155 might indicate that these genes were targeted by aforementioned miRNAs in T47D cells.
    Keywords: Apoptosis, miR, 21, miR, 155, Silibinin, T47D cells
  • Soha Namazi, Negar Azarpira, Katayoon Javidnia, Mehrdad Emami, Rahimeh Rahjoo, Razieh Berahmand, Afshin Borhani, Haghighi* Pages 1215-1220
    Objective (s): From a genetic point of view, epilepsy is a polygenic multifactorial syndrome. The SCN1A and B genes belong to a family of genes that provide instructions for making sodium channels. Understanding the relevance of SCN1A and SCN1B gene polymorphisms to plasma concentration of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its active metabolite carbamazepine 10, 11 epoxide (CBZE), may shed more light on inter-individual variations in response to CBZ.
    Materials And Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, genotype distribution and allele frequency of six non-synonymous exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SCN1A and B genes were selected and determined using PCR-RFLP in 70 epileptic patients treated with CBZ for at least 6 months. The patients had no hepatic or renal diseases and received no medications known to have a major interaction with CBZ. Serum concentrations of CBZ and CBZE were measured using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
    Results
    The AA, AG and GG alleles of SCN1A were found in 23, 37 and 10 patients, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean (± standard deviation) of plasma concentrations of CBZ (P=0.8) and CBZE (P=0.1) among these 3 groups. Likewise, there was no statistically significant relationship between SCN1A polymorphisms and CBZ concentration/dose ratio (P=0.7). A significant association was found between CBZ plasma level and CBZ concentration/dose with CBZ daily dose. All patients had the same genotype of SCN1B gene(CC). and no statistical analysis was performed.
    Conclusion
    No significant association between SCN1A gene polymorphisms and plasma levels of CBZ and CBZE were found.
    Keywords: Carbamazepine Carbamazepine 10, 11, epoxide, Epilepsy, SCN1A, SCN1B, SNP
  • Amin Tavassoli, Maryam Moghaddam Matin, Malihe Akbarzade Niaki, Nasser Mahdavi, Shahri*, Fahimeh Shahabipour Pages 1221-1227
    Objective (s): The scarcity of articular cartilage defect to repair due to absence of blood vessels and tissue engineering is one of the promising approaches for cartilage regeneration. The objective of this study was to prepare an extracellular matrix derived decellularized bovine articular cartilage scaffold and investigate its interactions with seeded rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs).
    Materials And Methods
    Bovine articular cartilage that was cut into pieces with 2 mm thickness, were decellularized by combination of physical and chemical methods including snap freeze-thaw and treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The scaffolds were then seeded with 1, 1’-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3’, 3’-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) labeled BM-MSCs and cultured for up to two weeks.
    Results
    Histological studies of decellularized bovine articular cartilage showed that using 5 cycles of snap freeze-thaw in liquid nitrogen and treatment with 2.5% SDS for 4 hr led to the best decellularization, while preserving the articular cartilage structure. Adherence and penetration of seeded BM-MSCs on to the scaffold were displayed by histological and florescence examinations and also confirmed by electron microscopy.
    Conclusion
    ECM-derived decellularized articular cartilage scaffold provides a suitable environment to support adhesion and maintenance of cultured BM-MSCs and could be applied to investigate cellular behaviors in this system and may also be useful for studies of cartilage tissue engineering.
    Keywords: Articular cartilage, Decellularization Extracellular matrix, Tissue engineering
  • Gang Wang, Ping Xu*, Wei Feng, Xianyan Jiang, Tao Zhang, Jian Li Pages 1228-1232
    Objective(s)
    To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARG) with essential hypertension (EH) and additional role of gene– high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) interaction.
    Materials And Methods
    A total of 1640 patients with EH (806 males, 834 females), with a mean age of 52.5±12.6 years, were selected, including 816 EH patients and 824 controls, who were enrolled from the community. Three SNPs were selected for genotyping in the case–control study: rs10865710, rs709158, rs1805192. Logistic regression model was used to examine the interaction between SNP and HDL on EH, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were also calculated.
    Results
    All genotypes were distributed according to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in controls. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between genotypes of variants in rs1805192 and decreased EH risk, EH risk was significantly lower in carriers of Ala allele of the rs1805192 polymorphism than those with Pro/Pro (Pro/Ala+ Ala/Ala versus Pro/Pro, adjusted OR (95% CI) =0.65 (0.53–0.83), after covariate adjustment. In addition, the Ala allele of the rs1805192 polymorphism was also associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP), but not systolic blood pressure (SBP), we also found, by interaction analysis, combined effect of rs1805192 and HDL on EH risk after covariate adjustment.
    Conclusion
    Our results support an important association between rs1805192 minor allele (Ala allele) of PPARG and lower EH risk, the interaction analysis showed a combined effect of Ala- HDL on lower EH risk.
    Keywords: Essential hypertension, HDL, Interaction, PPAR, γ Single nucleotide poly, morphisms
  • Gaisheng Yang*, Xiaodong Xue, Yanying Chen, Zhihong Song, Zhen Jiang, Kejian Hu Pages 1233-1239
    Objective(s)
    To study the effect of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB) and cytokine expression and pulmonary function in dogs.
    Materials And Methods
    Twelve male mongrel dogs were divided into a methylprednisolone group (group M) and a control group (group C). All animals underwent aortic and right atrial catheterization under general anesthesia. Changes in pulmonary function and hemodynamics were monitored and the injured site was histologically evaluated.
    Results
    The activity of NF-кB and myeloperoxidase (MPO), levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, and the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio were significantly higher after CPB than before CPB in both groups (P<0.01), with the lower values in group M than in group C, at different time points (P<0.01). Histological evaluation revealed neutrophilic infiltration and thickening of the alveolar interstitium in both groups; however, the degree of pathological changes was significantly lower in group M than in group C. The alveolar–arterial O2 tension difference (PA-aDO2) was significantly higher after CPB than before CBP (P<0.01), and lower in group M than in group C (P<0.01). The pulmonary compliance after removal of the aortic clamp obviously decreased in group C (P<0.05), with no significant change in group M.
    Conclusion
    CPB can significantly enhance the activation of NF-кB in lung tissues and increase the expression of inflammatory cytokines, thus inducing lung injury. Methylprednisolone can inhibit the NF-кB activation, thus inhibiting the release of cytokines and protecting the lung function.
    Keywords: Acute lung injury, Cardiopulmonary bypass Cytokines, Methyl, prednisolone, NF, кB
  • Rezvan Yazdian, Robati, Atena Pourtaji, Marzieh Rashedinia, Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Maryam Ghorbani, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous* Pages 1240-1244
    Objective(s)
    Small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) are a family of ubiquitin-related, proteins that are involved in a wide variety of signaling pathways. SUMOylation, as a vital post translational modification, regulate protein function in manycellular processes. Diazinon (DZN), an organophosphate insecticide, causses oxidative stress and subsequently programmed cell death in different tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role and pattern of SUMO modificationas a defense mechanism against stress oxidative, in the heart tissuesof the DZN treated rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Diazinon (15 mg/kg/day), corn oil (control) were administered via gavageto male Wistar rats for four weeks. SUMO1 antibody was covalently crosslinked to protein A/G agarose. heart tissue lysate were added to agarosebeads,After isolation of target proteins(SUMO1- protein)SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis was performed. Protein bands were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF and MASCOT). Fold change of (DZN/Ctrl) separated proteins was evaluated using UVband software (UVITEC, UK).
    Results
    Our result showed that subacute exposure to DZN increased SUMOylationoffour key proteins involved in the metabolic process including; Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase, in the heart tissue of animals. A probability value of less than 0.05 was considered significant (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    It seems that protein SUMOylation provides a safeguard mechanism against DZN Toxicity.
    Keywords: Diazinon, MALDI, TOF, TOF, SUMOlation, SUMO1
  • Rui Zhao*, Wenli Hao, Baoling Ma, Zhibao Chen Pages 1245-1252
    Objective(s)
    Sub-health has been described as a chronic condition of unexplained deteriorated physiological function, which falls between health and illness. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), a polysaccharide fraction purified from Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum) on the sub-health mice.
    Materials And Methods
    The sub-health model mice were built through compound factors. The mice were given intragastric administration of LBP at low dose (50 mg•kg-1) and high dose (100 mg•kg-1), respectively. After LBP treatment for 4 weeks, the antioxidant ability, enhancing immune function and anti-fatigue activity were detected.
    Results
    The results showed that LBP could enhance antioxidant ability in sub-health mice. LBP could effectively improve immunity of sub-health mice and protect the immune organs, such as thymus. In addition, LBP showed anti-fatigue ability in sub-health mice.
    Conclusion
    LBP could improve sub-health state caused from composite factor through three aspects, such as increasing antioxidant ability, promoting T lymphocyte proliferation, inhibiting thymus lymphocyte apoptosis, and alleviating fatigue.
    Keywords: Anti, fatigue, Antioxidant, Immunity, Lycium bararum, Polysaccharide, Sub, health
  • Mohammad Reza Haeri*, Kenneth White, Mohammad Qharebeglou, Malek Moein Ansar Pages 1253-1256
    Objective(s)
    Isoprenoid biosynthesis is a key metabolic pathway to produce a wide variety of biomolecules such as cholesterol and carotenoids, which target cell membranes. On the other hand, it has been reported that statins known as inhibitors of isoprenoid biosynthesis and cholesterol lowering agents, may have a direct antimicrobial effect on the some bacteria. The exact action of statins in microbial metabolism is not clearly understood. It is possible that statins inhibit synthesis or utilization of some sterol precursor necessary for bacterial membrane integrity. Accordingly, this study was designed in order to examine if statins inhibit the production of a compound, which can be used in the membrane, and whether cholesterol would replace it and rescue bacteria from toxic effects of statins.
    Materials And Methods
    To examine the possibility we assessed antibacterial effect of statins with different classes; lovastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin, alone and in combination with cholesterol on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) and two Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) bacteria using gel diffusion assay.
    Results
    Our results showed that all of the statins except for lovastatin had significant antibacterial property in S. aureus, E. coli, and Enter. faecalis. Surprisingly, cholesterol nullified the antimicrobial action of effective statins in statin-sensitive bacteria.
    Conclusion
    It is concluded that statins may deprive bacteria from a metabolite responsible for membrane stability, which is effectively substituted by cholesterol.
    Keywords: Bacteria, Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A, Statin, Sterol
  • Elmira Zolali, Parina Asgharian, Hamed Hamishehkar, Maryam Kouhsoltani, Hajhir Khodaii, Hadi Hamishehkar* Pages 1257-1263
    Objective (s): There is corroborating evidence to substantiate redox imbalance and oxidative stress in sepsis that finally leads to organ damage or even death. Gamma oryzanol (GO) is one of the major bioactive components in rice bran has been considered to function as an antioxidant. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of gamma oryzanol in vitro and its efficacy in sepsis.
    Materials And Methods
    To induce sepsis, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method was performed on the rats. A study group of forty male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sham group; CLP group; 50 mg/kg GO- treated CLP group and 100 mg/kg GO- treated CLP group. GO was administered with an oral gavage 2 hr prior to inducing sepsis. Tissue and blood samples were collected 12 hr after CLP to prepare tissue sections for histopathological study and assay the oxidative stress biomarkers including: SOD (Superoxide Dismutase), TAC (total antioxidant capacity), MDA (Malondialdehyde), MPO (Myeloperoxidase) and PAI-1 (Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1). Data are given as mean ± SD. The ANOVA with Tukey post hoc test was used to determine the differences between groups and P
    Results
    TAC level increased in GO- treated CLP groups (P<0.05). Inflammation score of lung tissue and MPO activity were significantly lower in GO treated CLP group (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    It seems that GO has a protective effect on lung inflammation and improves the body redox capacity during sepsis.
    Keywords: CLP, Gamma oryzanol, Oxidative stress, sepsis
  • Contributors (Peer Reviewers)
    Pages 1264-1265