فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue:4, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/10/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Banafshe Hosseini, Kurosh Djafarian Page 123
    Lifestyle factors and nutritional status are regarded as critical determinants of normal reproductive function. Hence, the role of dietary nutrients has attracted the attention of researchers to the extent that some studies have addressed the effects of diet on the risk of male infertility. This study aimed to summarize the literature regarding the association between various dietary factors and male infertility. Literature searching for studies on male infertility and nutrition, published between January 1982 and May 2015, was performed using PubMed and Scopus databases. The bibliographies of included studies were also searched for additional references. About 65 articles were identified and after the elimination of irrelevant studies, 35 related studies available for review were examined. Studies have indicated that in men with idiopathic infertility, omega-3 intervention resulted in significant improvement in total sperm count as well as sperm cell density. Moreover, several studies have shown that higher intake of poultry, cereals, fruit and vegetables may play a beneficial role in male infertility; although, some studies have not attained such results. Taken as a whole, studies demonstrated that food consumption may play a major role in preventing or facilitating male infertility. Further studies are needed to clarify this association.
    Keywords: Nutrition, Spermatogenesis, Nutrient, Sperm Quality, Male Infertility
  • Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman Page 130
  • Samaneh Homayouni Meymandi, Sayed Hamid Seyednezhad, Golkhatmi, Mandana Homayouni Meymandi Page 132
    Background
    Thalassemia is the most common hemoglobinopathy worldwide. Children with β-thalassemia major have several risk factors for cognitive problems. The aim of this study is to evaluate intelligence quotient in children with β-thalassemia major and healthy counterparts using Wechsler Intelligence Scale.
    Materials And Methods
    Within a case-control design and using convenience sampling method, the present study was carried out in Zahedan and Shiraz in 2012. Participants were matched based on their age, gender and city of residence (40 children with β-thalassemia major and 40 healthy children aging 6 to 12 years. Wechsler Intelligence Scale Revised (WISC-R) was used to find the participants’ Verbal Performance and Full intelligence scores. The scores of the two groups were then compared using descriptive analysis and independent t-test.
    Results
    As compared with their healthy counterparts, children with β-thalassemia major had lower scores on both Verbal Scale and Full Scale (P<0.01); however, the difference between the two groups’ scores on Performance Scale fell short of significance.
    Conclusions
    Intelligence decline does not necessarily occur in children with β-thalassemia. They are just slightly lower than their healthy counterarts and they need to receive more attention in education in order to improve.
    Keywords: Thalassemia, β Thalassemia, Intelligence Quotient, Cognitive Function, Children
  • Fariba Karimi, Afshin Borhani Haghighi, Payman Petramfar, Arnoosh Afreidoon Page 139
    Backgrounds
    Increasing age is the most significant risk factor for Alzheimerʾs disease and depletion of sex hormones is an important consequence of normal aging. This study aimed to investigate the serum level of sex hormones and gonadotropins in patients with Alzheimerʾs disease in comparison with the control group.
    Materials And Methods
    This case-control study was conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Shiraz Mottahari Clinic. Fifty-one patients with Alzheimer’s disease and 49 age-matched volunteers without dementia participated in this survey. Both groups were evaluated by two neurologists according to DSM- IV criteria. Blood samples were taken after 12 hours fasting to measure serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, gonadotropins and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG).
    Results
    Eighteen females and 33 males in the patient group, and 23 females and 26 males in the control group participated. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding their gonadotropins, estradiol, free androgen index and body mass index, but the mean level of SHBG in patients was significantly higher than the control group (P=0.03). In addition, male patients had a higher total testosterone mean compared to male subjects in the control group (P=0.02).
    Conclusion
    Our findings regarding testosterone levels in males of two groups were contrary to some of the previous surveys in this area. Moreover, we found higher levels of SHBG in patients compared to the control subjects. Further investigation is needed to define whether and how changes of sex hormones can affect brain health and vulnerability to Alzheimer’s disease.
    Keywords: Alzheimerʾs disease, Sex Hormones, Gonadotropins, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)
  • Ehsan Shahverdi, Fatemeh Vahid Roodsari, Masoomeh Akhavan Saffar Page 146
    Background
    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are known as a treatment for infertility in which oocyte undergoes manipulation outside body. The aim of this study was to study the evaluation of birth defects in infants conceived through assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and compare them with naturally-conceived infants.
    Materials And Methods
    In this retrospective study, four hundred naturally-conceived infants and 400 infants conceived by ARTs between 20 March and 20 November 2012 in Gha’em Hospital and Sheikh Hospital of Mashhad in Iran participated in this study. Infants were evaluated by a pediatrician at the time of birth, 10 days and 40 days after birth. Correlation between the use of IVF and/or ICSI methods and birth defects was evaluated.
    Results
    Of total 800 infants (450 boys and 350 girls), half of the infants were conceived through natural pregnancy, 200(25%) through in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and 200 (25%) intra- cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In Infants conceived by IVF, 5 cases (2.5%) had a kind of birth defect just similar to those conceived by ICSI; while 4 cases had birth defects in natural pregnancy. There was no significant correlation between the use of IVF and/or ICSI methods in terms of birth defects (P=0.280).
    Conclusion
    We found that using IVF or ICSI methods is not associated with increasing birth defects.
    Keywords: Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), Birth Defects, Congenital Anomalies
  • Hooman Angoorani, Mohamadsadegh Haghi Page 151
    Background
    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death in athletes during sport. Electrocardiography (ECG) is a useful tool to detect underlying cardiovascular conditions that may increase the risk for SCD. The aim of the present study is to evaluate common ECG changes among professional football players.
    Materials And Methods
    All football players of Iranian Premier League in season 2013-2014 participated in this descriptive study (258 football players). The standard 12-lead ECGs were evaluated and ECG analysis was performed according to previously described criteria.
    Results
    Electrocardiogram evaluation showed that the percent of ECG changes was as follows; Inverted T (7.7%), Depression ST (2.3%), Bradycardia (0.3%), St Elevation (2.7%), Left ventricular hypertrophy (1.5%), Left bundle branch block (0.3%), Incomplete right bundle branch (0.3%), Incomplete left anterior bundle (0.8%), branch Incomplete left posterior bundle branch (1.1%), Wolf Parkinson white (0.3%), Left axis deviation (1.5), Right axis deviation (2.3%), ECG finding in favor of HCM (3.1%) and finally ECG finding in favor of IHD(10%).
    Conclusion
    Most electrocardiographic variables in Iranian professional football players were lower than the worldwide football players that may be related to the lower level of physical fitness among Iranian football players.
    Keywords: Professional Football Players, Echocardiography, ECG Findings, Sudden Cardiac Death
  • Mina Etminan, Bakhsh, Roksana Darabi, Sima Tadi, Mitra Mohit Page 159
    Background
    During pregnancy, asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with different complications such as pyelonephritis and preterm birth. Pregnancy changes pave the way for the growth and multiplication of pathogenic factors. This study was aimed at exploring the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women who attended Boo–Ali Hospital, a teaching center of Islamic Azad University in Tehran.
    Materials And Methods
    This cross-sectional study was performed on 123 pregnant women without urinary symptoms who attended Boo–Ali Hospital from March 2013 to September 2014. Demographic information of the patients including age, gestational age at the time of experiment and parity were recorded. An amount of middle part of urine (20cc) was collected in an appropriate sterile container. Urine samples were examined for WBC, RBC and bacteria. Other parts of the samples were cultivated for urine culture (U/C).
    Results
    Two (1.6%) women had significant bacteriuria (≥105/ml). Pyuria, bacteriuria and hematuria were seen in 49(39.8), 7 (5.6%) and 8 (6.5%) women, respectively. There was a significant association between positive U/C and pyuria (P=0.003). However, positive U/C showed no significance association between bacteriuria and hematuria (P>0.05).
    Conclusion
    Regarding the low frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria (less than 2%) in the investigated population, the administration of U/C does not seem logical for all pregnant women. Hence, U/C is recommended for those with significant pyuria in their urinalyses.
    Keywords: Asymptomatic Bacteriuria, Pregnancy, Frequency, Pyuria, Screening
  • Bita Najafian, Ehsan Shahverdi, Mohammad Amin Konjedi, Mohammad Tohidi Page 164
    Background
    Maple syrup urine disease is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder. Infants with MSUD appear normal at birth. In Iran, no data concerning the incidence of MSUD has ever been reported. The aims of this study were (a) to estimate the incidence of MSUD in Iran (b) to establish a preliminary comparative analysis of clinical presentation and diagnosis.
    Materials And Methods
    This retrospective analytical study was conducted between 20 March 2008 and 20 February 2015. We evaluated babies born in Najmiyyeh Hospital and referring to Niloo, Masoud and Saeid laboratories in Tehran, Iran. Blood leucine level was measured. Normal leucine levels in blood samples from healthy infants were less than 4.27 mg/dl. In patients whose blood leucine levels were higher, the experiment was repeated once again. If the result was positive again for the final confirmation of the disease in infants, quantitative measurement of amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine and valine was performed by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography). The prevalence of MSUD was determined in newborns.
    Results
    Of 200,000 cases, 11 had MSUD. The prevalence was 1:18,180. The mean age of symptom onset was 6±2.8 days. Special diets for MSUD, diet and liver transplantation, diet and blood transfusion and peritoneal dialysis were performed on 9, 1, 1, 1, respectively.
    Conclusion
    We should consider the diagnosis of MSUD in infants with poor feeding, lethargy, smell of burnt sugar in the urine and nneurological involvement.
    Keywords: Neonatal, Branched Amino Acids, Maple Syrup Urine Disease, Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine
  • Elham Behrangi, Nasrin Shayanfar, Hadi Mohagheghian Yaghoubi, Saman Aghabekloo, Zahra Azizian Page 169
    Introduction
    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder that has skin presentations like vasculitis and paniculitis. There has not been shown any association between systemic sclerosis and FMF in studies. Hence, we report a case of FMF with diffuse skin tightness.
    Case Presentation
    An 18-year-old girl known as a case of FMF for 3 years presents to our department with tight skin since childhood. The stiffness of skin appeared when she was about 7 years old. In physical examination, tight skin with general induration in all surfaces of skin, sclerodactyly and beaked nose microstomia are noticed. The findings of all hematological, biochemical and pathological studies were normal.
    Conclusion
    Finally, it may be concluded that FMF should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients attending with skin tightness and the possible etiology is cytokines.
    Keywords: Familial Mediterranean Fever, Skin Tightness, Sclerodactyly, Scleroderma