فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:6 Issue:1, 2015
  • Volume:6 Issue:1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/11/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • Parichehr Hayatdavoudi, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad, Ziba Rajaei, Mousa Al Reza Hadjzadeh Pages 1-8
    Objective
    The incidence and prevalence of kidney stone is increasing worldwide. After the first recurrence the risk of subsequent relapses is higher and the time period between relapses is shortened. Urinary stones can be severely painful and make a huge economic burden. The stone disease may increase the vulnerability of patients to other diseases such as renal failure. Medicinal herbs are rich sources of antioxidants which are increasingly consumed globally for their safety, efficacy and low price. Nigella sativa is a spice plant that is widely used for prevention and treatment of many ailments in Muslim countries and worldwide. This review aims at investigation of the effects of Nigella sativa on renal injury and stone formation.
    Materials And Method
    The scientific resources including PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched using key words such as: nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, kidney/renal stone, renal injury, renal failure, urinary retention and black seed, black cumin, Nigella sativa and thymoquinone.
    Results
    N. sativa and its main component, thymoquinone showed positive effects in prevention or curing kidney stones and renal failure through various mechanism such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-eicosanoid and immunomodulatory effects. The putative candidate in many cases has been claimed to be thymoquinone but it seems that at least in part, particularly in kidney stones, the herbal melanin plays a role which requires further investigation to prove.
    Conclusion
    N. sativa and its components are beneficial in prevention and curing of renal diseases including nephrolithiasis and renal damages.
    Keywords: Nigella sativa L, Thymoquinone, Herbal melanin, Nephrolithiasis, Renal failure
  • Farzaneh Shakeri, Zahra Gholamnezhad, Bruno MÉgarbane, Ramin Rezaee, Mohammad Hosein Boskabady Pages 9-20
    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases affect a large number of people all over the world. Uncontrolled acid secretion and occurrence of gastric ulcers are common disorders of GI tract which pose serious problems to human health. Many synthetic drugs have been used to treat GI disorders but a definite cure has not been discovered so far and the available medications cause several side effects. Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Ranunculacea) has several therapeutic effects which are attributed to its constituents like nigellicine, nigellidine, thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol and carvacrol. Several beneficial pharmacological properties of this plant such as anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-histaminic, anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects were reported and different therapeutic properties such as reliving bronchial asthma, jaundice, hydrophobia, paralysis, conjunctivitis, piles, skin diseases, anorexia, headache, dysentery, infections, obesity, back pain, hypertension and gastrointestinal problems, have been described for the seeds of N. sativa and its oil. The present review provides a detailed summery of scientific researches regarding gastrointestinal effect of N. sativa and its main constituent, thymoquinone.
    Keywords: Nigella sativa, Gastrointestinal disease, Thymoquinone
  • Hojjatollah Shokri Pages 21-33
    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) grows in various parts of the world, particularly in Iran. It has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat a number of diseases. The seeds of this plant contain moisture, proteins, carbohydrates, crude fiber, alkaloids, saponins, ash, fixed oils and essential oil. The major components of the essential oil are thymoquinone, p-cymene, trans-anethole, 2-methyl-5(1-methyl ethyl)-Bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-2-en and γ-terpinene. So far, several pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-microbial have been reported for N. sativa or its active compounds. Thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and thymol are the most active constituents which have different beneficial properties. The oil, extracts and some of N. sativa active components possessed moderate in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against pathogenic yeasts, dermatophytes, non-dermatophytic filamentous fungi and aflatoxin-producing fungi. The main morphological changes of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi treated with N. sativa oil were observed in the cell wall, plasma membrane and membranous organelles, particularly in the nuclei and mitochondria. Although this review represents first step in the search for a new anti-fungal drug, the full potential of N. sativa as a fungitoxic agent has not been exploited and necessitates further investigations.
    Keywords: Nigella sativa, Thymoquinone, Antifungal, anti, aflatoxigenic activity, Yeast, Dermatophyte, Aspergillus
  • Vahid Hadi, Sorayya Kheirouri, Mohammad Alizadeh, Alireza Khabbazi, Hossein Hosseini Pages 34-43
    Objectives
    Nigella sativa is a medicinal plant that has long been used in traditional medicine for treating various conditions. Numerous animal studies provided evidences that the seed may elicit a broad anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant activity. The aim of the present clinical trial was to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Nigella sativa oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
    Materials And Methods
    Forty-two patients with RA were assigned into two groups in this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects in intervention group received two capsules, 500 mg each, of Nigella sativa oil, each day for 8 weeks. The other group consumed two capsules as placebo per day for the same period of time. Serum TNF-α, IL-10, and whole blood levels of oxidative stress parameters were measured at baseline and end of the trial.
    Results
    The serum level of IL-10 was increased in the Nigella sativa group (p<0.01). Moreover, treatment with Nigella sativa led to significant reduction of serum MDA and NO compared with baseline (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the TNF-α, SOD, catalase, and TAS values between or within the groups, before and after the intervention (p>0.05).
    Conclusions
    This study indicates that Nigella sativa could improve inflammation and reduce oxidative stress in patients with RA. It is suggested that Nigella sativa may be a beneficial adjunct therapy in this population of patients
    Keywords: Nigella sativa, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Oxidative stress, IL, 10, TNF, α
  • Sara Hosseinian, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad, Mousa Al Reza Hadjzadeh, Nema Mohamadian Roshan, Shahrzad Havakhah, Somayeh Shafiee Pages 44-54
    Objective
    The clinical use of cisplatin is highly restricted, because of its nephrotoxicity.In this study the protective effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    In the current study, the effects of the administration of aqueous-ethanolic extract of N. sativa (100 and 200 mg/kg, BW) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg, BW) against blood and urine biochemical alterations and kidney function in rats treated with cisplatin were investigated. Cisplatin was injected at a dose of 6 mg/kg, BW, on the sixth day of the experiment.
    Results
    The results indicated significant changes in serum urea and creatinine concentration, urine glucose concentration, and urine output in cisplatin group compared with control group. Serum urea and creatinine concentration in preventive and preventive+treatment vitamin E and preventive+treatment N. sativa (200 mg/kg, BW) groups and also serum creatinine concentration in preventive+treatment N. sativa (100 mg/kg, BW) group significantly decreased compared with cisplatin group. Urine glucose concentration in preventive and preventive+treatment N. sativa groups and urine output in preventive and preventive+treatment N. sativa (200 mg/kg, BW) groups significantly decreased compared with cisplatin group.Osmolarity excretion rate in preventive and preventive+treatment vitamin E and preventive N. sativa groups was significantly higher than control group.
    Conclusions
    The current study suggests that N. sativa extract and vitamin E in a dose- and time-dependent manner improved the serum and urine biochemical parameters and kidney function in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. However, it needs more investigations to determine the mechanism of N. sativa action on cisplatin-induced kidney toxicity.
    Keywords: Cisplatin, Nigella sativa, Vitamin E Renal failure
  • Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Siavash Parvardeh, Alireza Masoudi, Mahsa Moghimi, Fatemeh Mahboobifard Pages 55-66
    Objectives
    Dependence and tolerance are major restricting factors in the clinical use of opioid analgesics. In the present study, the effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, on morphine dependence and tolerance were investigated in mice.
    Materials And Methods
    Male adult NMRI mice were made tolerant and dependent by repeated injections of morphine (50, 50, and 75 mg/kg, i.p. on 9 a.m., 1 p.m., and 5 p.m., respectively) during a 3-day administration schedule. The hot-plate test was used to assess tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to precipitate withdrawal syndrome in order to assess the morphine dependence. To evaluate the effects of thymoquinone on tolerance and dependence to morphine, different single or repeated doses of thymoquinone were administered in mice. Rotarod was used to assess the motor coordination.
    Results
    Administration of single or repeated doses of thymoquinone (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the number of jumps in morphine dependent animals. Repeated administration of thymoquinone (20 and 40 mg/kg, for 3 days) and also single injection of thymoquinone (40 mg/kg, on the fourth day) attenuated tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. None of the thymoquinone doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) produced any antinociceptive effects on their own. Motor coordination of animals was impaired by the high dose of thymoquinone (40 mg/kg).
    Conclusion
    Based on these results, it can be concluded that thymoquinone prevents the development of tolerance and dependence to morphine.
    Keywords: Thymoquinone, Nigella sativa, Morphine, Dependence, Tolerance, Pain
  • Abbasali Abbasnezhad, Saeed Niazmand, Maryam Mahmoudabady, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi Pages 67-76
    Objective
    Diabetes is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events. The great percent of morbidity in patients with diabetes is due to endothelial dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of hydroalcholic extract of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) on contractile and dilatation response of isolated aorta in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat.
    Materials And Methods
    Rats were divided into six experimental groups (control, untreated STZ-diabetic, and N. sativa hydroalcholic extract or metformin-treated diabetic rats). Treated rats received N. sativa extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) or metformin (300 mg/kg) by gavage, daily for 6 weeks. Isolated rat thoracic rings were mounted in an organ bath system then contractile and dilatation responses induced by phenylephrine (PE), acetylcholine (ACh), potassium chloride (KCl), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were evaluated in different situations.
    Results
    The lower concentrations of N. sativa seed extract (DE 100 and DE 200) and metformin significantly reduced the contractile responses to higher concentrations of PE (10-6 - 10-5 M) compared to diabetic group (p<0.05 to p<0.01).The relaxation response to Ach 10-8 M, was increased in DE 200 and metformin groups compared to diabetic group (p<0.05). The relaxation responses to Ach 10-7 - 10-5 M were significantly higher in all treated groups compared to diabetic group (p<0.05 to p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Chronic administration of N. sativa seed extract has a significant hypoglycemic effect and improves aortic reactivity to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Nigella sativa, Endothelial dysfunction, Isolated aorta, Rat
  • Maryam Fallahi, Rana Keyhanmanesh, Amir Mahdi Khamaneh, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimi Saadatlou, Saeideh Saadat, Hadi Ebrahimi Pages 77-85
    Objectives
    In previous studies the therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on asthmatic animals. In the present study, the preventive effect of single dose of alpha-hederin, its active constituent, has been evaluated on lung inflammation and some inflammatory mediators in lungs of ovalbumin sensitized rat in order to elicit its mechanism.
    Materials And Methods
    Forty rats were randomly grouped in 4 groups; control (C), sensitized (S), sensitized pretreated groups with thymoquinone (3 mg/kg i.p., S+TQ) and alpha-hederin (0.02 mg/kg i.p., S+AH). Levels of IL-13 mRNA and miRNA-126 in lung tissue and its pathological changes in each group were assessed.
    Results
    Elevated levels of miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA and pathological changes were observed in the sensitized group compared to the control group (p
    Conclusion
    The results suggested that alpha-hederin had preventive effect on sensitized rats like thymoquinone. It may intervene in miRNA-126 expression, which consequently could interfere with IL-13 secretion pathway leading to a reduction in inflammatory responses.
    Keywords: Alpha, hederin, MiRNA, 126, IL, 13 mRNA, Ovalbumin, Thymoquinone, Asthma
  • Reza Mohebbati, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Noema Mohammadian Roshan, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad, Akbar Anaeigoudari, Sara Hosseinian, Sareh Karimi, Farimah Beheshti Pages 86-94
    Objective
    Inflammation and oxidative stress is considered to have a crucial role in induction of nephropathy. Curcuma longa (C. longa) and Nigella sativa (N. sativa) have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of mixed hydro-alcoholic extract of N.sativa and C. longa on the oxidative stress induced by Adriamycin (ADR) in rat kidney.
    Material And Method
    The animals were divided into 6 groups: control (CO), ADR, Adriamycin+ Vitamin C (ADR+VIT C), C. longa extract+ Adriamycin (C.LE+ADR), N. sativa extract+ Adriamycin (N.SE+ADR) and C. longa extract+ N. sativa extract + Adriamycin (N.S+C.L+ADR). ADR (5mg/kg) was injected intravenously, whereas VITC (100mg/kg) and extract of C. longa (1000mg/kg) and N. sativa (200mg/kg) were administrated orally. Finally, the renal tissue, urine and blood samples were collected and submitted to measure of redox markers, osmolarity and renal index.
    Results
    The renal content of total thiol and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increased in Adriamycin group compared to control group. The renal content of total thiol and SOD activity significantly enhanced and MDA concentration reduced in treated-mixed extract of C. longa and N. sativa along with ADR group compared to ADR group. The mixed extract did not restore increased renal index percentage induced by ADR. There also was no significant difference in urine and serum osmolarity between the groups.
    Conclusion
    hydro-alcoholic extracts of N.sativa and C.longa led to an improvement in ADR-induced oxidative stress and mixed administration of the extracts enhanced the aforementioned therapeutic effect.
    Keywords: Adriamycin, Nigella sativa, Curcuma Longa, Oxidative stress
  • Saadat Parhizkar, Latiffah Abdul Latiff, Ali Parsa Pages 95-103
    Objective
    Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models.
    Materials And Methods
    A series of experiments wasconducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment)and some of its ingredients (third experiment) on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty different OVX rats were equally divided into 5 groups and administered with one of the following treatments for 21 days: conjugated equine estrogen (positive control), distilled water or olive oil (negative control), treatment groups (N. sativa300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg in the first experiment), (300mg/kg methanol, hexane and SFE extracts of N. sativa in the second experiment) and (linoleic acid 50 mg/kg, gamma linolenic acid 10mg/kg, and thymoquinone 15mg/kg in the third experiment).
    Results
    The results demonstrated that N.sativa exert estrogenic effect were exhibited through uterotrophic assay and vaginal cell cornification as well as blood estrogen level. Furthermore, low dose N. sativa, methanol extract and linoleic acid had prominent estrogenic like effects which were significantly different from those of control group (p<0.05) in different experiments.
    Conclusion
    The finding indicated the probable beneficial role for N. sativa in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and possibility of using N. sativa as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post menopause in human.
    Keywords: Menopause, Nigella sativa, Ovariectomized rats
  • Fatemeh Norouzi, Azam Abareshi, Akbar Anaeigoudari, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Zahra Gholamnezhad, Mohsen Saeedjalali, Reza Mohebati, Mahmoud Hosseini Pages 104-116
    Objective
    Neuroimmune factors contribute on the pathogenesis of sickness behaviors. Nigella sativa (NS) has anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety and anti-depressive effects. In the present study, the effect of NS hydro-alcoholic extract on sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated.
    Materials And Methods
    The rats were divided into five groups (n=10 in each): (1) control (saline), (2) LPS (1 mg/kg, administered two hours before behavioral tests), (3-5) LPS-Nigella sativa 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (LPS-NS 100, LPS-NS 200 and LPS-NS 400, respectively). Open- field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) were performed.
    Results
    In OF, LPS reduced the peripheral crossing, peripheral distance, total crossing and total distance compared to control (p
    Conclusion
    The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of NS reduced the LPS-induced sickness behaviors in rats. Further investigations are required for better understanding the responsible compound (s) and the underlying mechanism(s).
    Keywords: Rat, Lipopolysaccharide, Nigella sativa, Sickness behavior
  • Reza Salarinia, Hassan Rakhshandeh, Davood Oliaee, Sima Gul Sima Gul Ghasemi, Ahmad Ghorbani Pages 117-123
    Objective
    The possible toxicity of drugs in pregnancy should be tested before their use in pregnant patients. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the safety of phytovagex, a pessary formulation of Nigella sativa (N. sativa), which is already in clinical use for vaginal fungal infection.
    Materials And Methods
    The pregnant rats were treated intravaginal with physiological saline (vehicle) or phytovagex pessary in the first half of their pregnancy (days 1 to 10 of gestation). Duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns were recorded after parturition. Also, cytotoxicity of N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract was tested against ovary Cho cells.
    Results
    The phytovagex had no significant effect on the duration of pregnancy, number of newborns, weight of neonates, and percent of stillbirth. No deformity or general behavioral abnormality was observed in neonates monitored for 30 days after birth. N. sativa extract had no significant effect on the viability of ovary cells at the concentrations of 12.5-200 µg/mL.
    Conclusion
    Results of this animal study showed that phytovagex has no overall effect on the duration of pregnancy and health parameters of the newborns. Also, its active agent, N. sativa, does not induce any cytotoxic effect on ovary cells.
    Keywords: Nigella sativa, Pregnancy, Rat, Stillbirth
  • Farimah Beheshti, Mahmoud Hosseini, Majid Khazaei Pages 124-141
    Nigella sativa (NS) (Ranunculaceae family) is generally utilized as a therapeutic plant all over the world. The seeds of the plant have a long history of use in different frameworks of medicines and food. In Islamic literature, it is considered as one of the greatest forms of therapeutics. It has been widely used to treat nervous system diseases such as memory impairment, epilepsy, neurotoxicity, pain, etc. Additionally, this is uncovered that the majority of therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone (TQ) which is a major bioactive component of the essential oil. Pharmacological studies have been done to evaluate the effects of NS on the central nervous system (CNS). The present review is an effort to provide a detailed scientific literature survey about pharmacological activities of the plant on nervous system. Our literature review showed that NS and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.
    Keywords: Nigella sativa, Thymoquinone, Central nervous system, Neuropharmacological effects