فهرست مطالب

Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products - Volume:11 Issue: 1, 2016
  • Volume:11 Issue: 1, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/11/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Mozhgan Akbari, Mojgan Javadnoori*, Amir Siahpoosh, Poorandokht Afshari, Mohammad Hossain Haghighi, Elham Lake Page 1
    Background
    Oxytocin, the most common medicine for labor induction, has maternal and fetal side effects and sometimes is not effective. Herbal medicines are alternatively utilized as safe methods. Dill includes tannin, which is a polyphenol with contractile properties, is potentially supposed to be able to induce uterus contractions.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to test the effects of Anethum graveolens (dill) seeds on induction of labor and compare it with oxytocin in term pregnancy.
    Patients and
    Methods
    A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 100 eligible participants without any delivery signs such as labor pain, rapture of membranes or bloody show. Participants were allocated to either the case or control group and receiving boiled Anethum graveolens seeds or induction with oxytocin, respectively. Therefore, 0.018 g/kg of dill seeds with a spoonful of sugar was solved in 250 mL of boiling water and brewed for about 10 minutes. Then it was filtrated. Subjects in the case group drank this solution only once after admission and they were infused with simple Ringer solution. The control group received standard protocol of labor induction with oxytocin. Participants were followed up to the delivery time.
    Results
    Case group had a significantly better Bishop score following the intervention compared to the control group. The mean duration of active phase, second and third stages of labor were significantly lower in the case group. The control group had shorter latent phase than the case group.
    Conclusions
    Results showed that the boiled Anethum graveolens seeds was effective on labor induction.
    Keywords: Labor, Induced, Uterine Contraction, Clinical Trial, Anethum graveolens
  • Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Mohammad Ehsan Rahiminejad, Amir Nili, Ahmadabadi, Akram Ranjbar* Page 2
    Context: Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many types of neuropathology disorders and underlying mechanism in several neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. The CNS is particularly susceptible to oxidative toxic stress (OTS). Reactive oxygen spices are the basic inflammation and neurotoxicity mediators in ischemia/reperfusion injuries. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of some nanoparticles (NPs) in developing OTS conditions and neurological disorders.
    Evidence Acquisition: Here, a nanotechnology approach is evaluated using NPs in human neuronal protection against OTS. It may be wide therapeutic applications in the case of acute and/or chronic neurodegenerative disorders related to OTS.
    Results
    In the brain of mice treated with nanosize TiO2, a significant association was found between the ability to induce the production of ROS and metabolic stress in intracellular environments and inflammatory responses in mice brai. The large surface area of AgNPs may efficiently facilitate the radicals generation including ROS in various organs. The production of ROS may cause DNA damage, cellular apoptosis, and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways which is responsible for regulating many cellular processes. Prolonged and excessive OTS may contribute to the activation of transcription factors and genes responsible for inflammation responses such as NF-κB and AP-1. Furthermore, OTS may contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. The ability of CuONPs to generate OTS in vitro studies has been demonstrated; however, information on the neurotoxicity of the CuONPs in vivo is low..
    Conclusions
    The NPs-induced OTS may increase the pro-inflammatory responses. On the other hand, administration of antioxidants such as NAC and vitamin C and E prior to exposure to metal NPs significantly decreases OTS conditions.
    Keywords: Nanoparticles, Oxidative Toxic Stress, Neurzological Disorders
  • Nematallah Amini, Sarteshnizi, Hossein Teimori*, Pezhman Beshkar, Roghayeh Amini, Sarteshnizi, Morteza Nikoukar Page 3
    Background
    Propolis is a natural product of bee and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a pharmacologically important product of propolis.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CAPE on apoptosis induction in AGS human gastric cancer cells.
    Materials And Methods
    The cytotoxic effects of CAPE at different concentrations were investigated on AGS cells viability after 24 hours treatment by MTT assay. To measure the effect of CAPE on apoptosis induction, AGS cells were treated with CAPE for 24 hours and investigated by FITC Annexin V/PI staining using flow cytometry.
    Results
    CAPE prevented growth and proliferation of AGS human gastric cancer cell line in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of approximately 60 µM by a 24-hour treatment. Also CAPE caused increased induction of apoptosis in AGS cells from 1.37 % in control cells to 21.76 % in treated cells with 30 µM CAPE.
    Conclusions
    CAPE prevents growth and proliferation of AGS human gastric cancer cell line through inducing programmed cell death in AGS cells. Therefore, CAPE could be helpful for developing chemotherapeutic agents or as an adjuvant for human gastric cancer treatment.
    Keywords: Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester, Cell Survival, Apoptosis, Cancer
  • Fatemeh Mohammadnejad, Fatemeh Ghaffarifar*, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Zuhair Mohammad Hassan Page 4
    Background
    Hydatidosis caused by Echinococcus granulosusus remains an important parasitic disease, mainly in the Mediterranean region, in human and veterinary medicine. Many protoscolicidal agents have been used to treat it, but most of them are not safe and effective due to their undesirable side effects.
    Objectives
    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of the antihelminths artemether, artemisinine, albendazole, and drug combinations against Echinococcus granulosusus protoscoleces.
    Materials And Methods
    Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces were aseptically removed from liver hydatid cysts in sheep. Drugs were used at the following final concentrations: 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 15 days. The viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by Eosine 0.1%.
    Results
    In this case, the protoscolicidal effect of artemether and its combinations was significantly (P
    Conclusions
    The obtained outcome demonstrated the desirable effect of artemether against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces. With regard to artemisinine’s astonishing results, it seems that artemisinine can be a striking drug for tissue and metacestode forms of hydatidosis in human and animal models. However, further investigations into the in vivo experiments are proposed.
    Keywords: Artemether, Artemisinine, Albendazole, Echinococcus granulosus
  • Kamran Mousavi Hosseini*, Mohammad Ali Jalili Page 5
    Background
    Antioxidant compounds have been shown to slow down the development of chemically induced tumors. It has been estimated that most of human cancer cases are due to environmental factors and would be preventable if the main risks could be identified. The potential of vitamin E as a cancer preventive agent has been studied and individuals whose intake of vitamin E was above average showed a low risk of lung cancer. Vitamin E is a mixture of four lipid soluble phenols including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol.
    Objectives
    In our study, to investigate the antioxidant activity of α-tocopherol-derived radicals in comparison with other phenoxyl radicals, a number of substituted phenols were synthesized, most of which contained t-butyl groups in the 2- and 6-positions.
    Materials And Methods
    All the synthesized compounds were recrystallized and the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were run on Bruker GRYOSPES WM 360 machine; the IR spectra were also run on a Perkin Elmer 1430 ratio recording infrared spectrophotometer. Microanalyses were carried out on a Perkin Elmer 4000 CHN analyzer; all the melting points were measured by an electrothermal melting point apparatus, which were uncorrected.
    Results
    Five synthesized vitamin E analogues, including 2, 6-di-t-butyl-4-nitrophenol, 2, 6-di-t-butyl-4-formylphenol, 2, 6-di-t-butyl-4aldoximephenol, 2, 6-di-t-butyl-4-cyanophenol, and 2, 4, 6-trimethoxyphenol, were analyzed by NMR, infrared (IR), and microanalysis, and their melting point were measured by the electrothermal melting point apparatus.
    Conclusions
    In this study, five vitamin E analogues were synthesized to compare their efficiencies with vitamin E as an antioxidant to be able to interfere in free radical chain reactions and terminate the propagation of free radicals. The efficacies of all five synthesized vitamin E analogues in terms of antioxidant activity and their kinetic study will be investigated in our other study.
    Keywords: Tocopherols, Vitamin E Phenols, Antioxidants, Lipids
  • Fatemeh Moazen, Peyman Eshaghi Djabali, Naemeh Parsapour, Fatemeh Mohamadzadeh, Abbas Jafarian Dehkordi, Hamid Mir Mohammad Sadeghi* Page 6
    Background
    Vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs) located in nephrons mediating water reabsorption in kidneys. Vasopressin acts at these receptors to enhance water reabsorption in the kidneys while by acting on V1 receptors in blood vessels increases blood pressure. To study V2R better, it must be produced in high quantities
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to optimize expression of V2R in Escherichia coli.
    Materials And Methods
    In this investigation, V2R gene was cloned in E. coli. The recombinant plasmid pEt15b/V2R (rpET-BL21) was transformed into competent E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) cells. Overnight culture of the transformed bacteria was induced by the addition of isopropyl-thio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG). The effects of different IPTG concentrations, temperatures and sampling times on the expression of V2R were examined. Samples were analyzed by SDS-PAGE.
    Results
    The maximum amount of protein production was obtained by the addition of 0.75 mM IPTG at 37°C after three hours. The most important factor was harvesting time with P value
    Conclusions
    Full factorial design experimental approach helped to identify the critical culture condition parameters in heterologous expression of V2R. It would allow studying the parameters affecting the function of this protein in future experiments.
    Keywords: Vasopressin Type 2 Receptor, Protein Expression, pET15b, Escherichia coli
  • Mohammad Aberomand, Maliheh Parvank, Ghorban Mohammadzadeh*, Zahra Ramezani Page 7
    Background
    Increased polyol pathway activity and subsequent occurrences, and particular sorbitol accumulation are noticed in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Aldose reductase (ALR2) or aldo-ketoreductase (AKR1B1) as the first and rate limiting enzyme of this pathway is a good target for new drugs for diabetes complications. A good inhibitor should inhibit aldehyde reductase (ALR1), the other member of this family lesser than ALR2. Bee propolis is a known substance in ancient medicine, but its effect on polyol pathway is unknown.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of propolis (HAEP) on partial purified bovine lens ALR2, also the effect of HAEP on sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes in high-glucose condition (ex vivo).
    Materials And Methods
    Total protein was determined by lowery method. Bovine lens ALR2 was partially purified by gel filtration chromatography on sephadexTM G25. Bovine cortex kidney ALR1 was partially purified by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) precipitation. The hydroalcoholic extract was obtained from frozen propolis. The enzyme activity and sorbitol accumulation in erythrocytes were determined spectroflourimetrically.
    Results
    It was found that ethyl acetate (EthAc) fraction (the more potent fraction) of HAEP inhibited ALR2 by IC50 value of 1.12 mg/mL up to 50% and this fraction can inhibit ALR2 8.25-fold greater than ALR1. In addition, it was found that this fraction could decrease sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high-glucose condition.
    Conclusions
    The obtained results indicated that propolis may be a good candidate for more studies to find new drugs for the treatment of secondary complications of diabetes.
    Keywords: Aldose Reductase, Aldehyde Reductase, Sorbitol, Propolis, Diabetes Complications
  • Leila Mohammad Taghizadeh Kashani, Alireza Hatami, Alireza Safaei, Meysam Shirzad, Mohammad Mahdi Ahmadian, Attari* Page 8
    Background
    Strychnos nux-vomica is a well-known poisonous plant, which is detoxified by different methods in traditional medicines. Most of traditional medical schools introduce general detoxification methods that can be substituted with each other. The main goal of these methods is to reduce the total alkaloids. In contrast, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) has suggested three non-general, non-substitutable methods, which have specific medical indications: 1, boiling the seeds in water until all the water evaporates (prescribed for diarrhea treatment); 2, soaking the seeds in cow’s milk for seven days, followed by peeling the seeds (for addiction treatment); 3, soaking the seeds in cow’s milk for seven days, peeling the seeds, and boiling them in milk (for arthralgia and paralysis).
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to clarify the therapeutic rationale for each method.
    Materials And Methods
    Nux-vomica seeds were divided into four groups: three groups were detoxified via ITM methods, and one group was kept intact as a control. All samples were powdered, and their alkaloids and total phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC and spectrophotometery, respectively.
    Results
    The first ITM method reduced the strychnine level from 1.083 to 0.577 and brucine from 0.739 to 0.361. For the second and third ITM methods, the levels of strychnine reached 0.838 and 0.812, and the levels of brucine reached 0.522 and 0.568, respectively.
    Conclusions
    Clinically, these results are logical because the required dose of alkaloids for treatment of diarrhea is lesser than the needed doses to treat addiction, arthralgia, and paralysis.
    Keywords: Iranian Traditional Medicine, Detoxification, Strychnine, Brucine, Strychnos Nux, Vomica
  • Azar Hosseini, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Hassan Rakhshandeh* Page 9
    Background
    Insomnia or sleeplessness is a disorder characterized by a personal incapability to falling or staying asleep for a desirable period of time, therefore disturb in quality of life.
    Objectives
    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Nepeta glomerulosa and its fractions on sleep-prolonging.
    Materials And Methods
    The extract and its fractions including ethyl acetat, n-butanol and water were injected to mice and sleep duration as well as sleep latency were recorded. Also, toxicity of the extract was determined in both in vivo and in vitro experiments.
    Results
    The extract increased sleep duration at 50 - 200 mg/Kg. This hypnotic effect was comparable to that of induced by diazepam. N-butanol fraction could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by the extract and n-butanol, but not by other fractions. LD50 value for Nepeta glomerulosa was found to be 2.4 g/Kg. It had no toxicity effect on viability of neuronal cells.
    Conclusions
    Nepeta glomerulosa potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The components responsible for this effect are most likely non-polar agents which found in n-butanol fraction.
    Keywords: Pentobarbital, Sleep, Diazepam
  • Naghmeh Moori Bakhtiari*, Javad Jamshidian, Elham Khalafi Page 10
    Background
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is considered a major cause of nosocomial and community infections. Its prevalence varies from country to country, even between hospitals of a country. These bacteria often have multi-resistance and can be difficult to treat.
    Objectives
    The current study evaluated the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of the stem bark of Juglans regia Li. on several isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
    Materials And Methods
    A total of 50 S. aureus strains were isolated from various clinical specimens and antibiotic susceptibility and presence of methicillin-resistant gene (mecA) were evaluated using disc diffusion and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract on MRSA was evaluated by E-test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined.
    Results
    All of 50 MRSA strains were multi-drug resistant. All MRSA strains were found resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and methicillin. A low resistance was observed toward erythromycin (48%) and then ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and clindamycin (34%). All strains except one were sensitive to vancomycin. All strains except one were mecA carrier in PCR and hydroalcoholic extract had significant antibacterial effect on MRSA compared to positive control. Minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were 7.81 mg/mL and 3.9 mg/mL, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The hydroalcoholic extract of Juglans regia Li. proved to have a good effect against MRSA. In this respect, this extract can be used as a commercial disinfectant in the form of spray or solution in hospitals and public places.
    Keywords: Hydroalcoholic Extract, Juglans regia Li., Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • Elahe Rangriz, Zahra Mousavi *, Parvaneh Najafizadeh, Jinous Asgarpanah Page 12
    Background
    Glaucium vitellinum is an endemic species and is extensively exploited as an anti-inflammatory agent in Iranian traditional medicine.
    Objectives
    This study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive activities of G. vitellinum methanol extract in male mice.
    Materials And Methods
    The formalin and hot-plate methods were used for pain evaluation in mice. Glaucium vitellinum extract (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight IP), saline and morphine (2 mg/kg, IP) were administered 15 minutes prior to the formalin test. The nociceptive responses were divided to two phases; phase І (0 - 15 minutes) and phase ІІ (15 - 60 minutes) were compared to the control and morphine. In the hot-plate test, G. vitellinum extract (80, 160, 200 and 250 mg/kg IP), saline and morphine (5 mg/kg, IP) were administered and, behavioral responses were immediately tested, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the injection. Comparisons between the groups were carried out using the analysis of variance (ANOVA), and post hoc Tukey’s test.
    Results
    All doses of G. vitellinum extract induced anti-nociception activity during the first and second phases of the formalin test. The extract showed a significant (P
    Conclusions
    This study revealed that G. vitellinum extract possessed a significant anti-nociceptive activity in formalin pain models and hot-plate test in mice and might have a potent role against pain.
    Keywords: Antinociceptive, Analgesics, Glaucium vitellinum